4G Mobile Communications

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1 4G Mobile Communications

2 Welcome to 4G The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems. One of the terms to describe 4G is MAGIC Mobile Multimedia Anytime Anywhere Global Mobility Support Integrated Wireless Solution and Customized Personal Service

3 Before 1G 0G refers to pre-cellular mobile telephony technology. The systems were called Cellular because large coverage areas were split into smaller areas or cells, each cell is served by a low power transmitter and receiver. At the end of 1940 s, the first radio telephone service was introduced, and was designed to users in cars to the public land-line based telephone network. In the sixties, a system launched by Bell Systems, called IMTS, or, Improved Mobile Telephone Service, bought quite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth.

4 1G, or First Generation The 1G or First Generation. 1G was an analog system and was developed in the seventies. 1G had two major improvements, this was the invention of the microprocessor, and the digital transform of control link between the phone and the cell site. AMPS was first launched by USA and is 1G System. It was based on FDMA used to make voice calls in one country.

5 Drawbacks : 1G 1G: Poor Voice Quality. Poor Battery Life. Large Phone Size. No Security. Frequent Call Drops. Limited capacity and poor handoff reliability.

6 2G, or Second Generation 2G phones using global system for mobile communications (GSM) were first used in the early 1990 s in Europe. GSM provides voice and limited data services and uses digital modulation for improved audio quality. Digital AMPS, CDMA2000 were some of the other 2G Systems.

7 2.5 Generation An interim stage that is taken between 2G and 3G that is 2.5G. It is basically an enhancement of major technologies to provide increased capacity and to increase higher bit rates. A very important aspect of 2.5G is the data channel are optimized for packet data which include access to internet through mobile devices.

8 Drawbacks : 2G 2G: The GSM is circuit switched, connection oriented technology, where the end systems are dedicated for the entire call session. This causes inefficiency in the usage of bandwidth and resources. The GSM-enabled systems do not support high data rates. They are unable to handle complex data such as video.

9 3G, or Third Generation The 3G technology adds multimedia facilities to 2G phones by allowing Audio, Video, and Graphics Applications. The idea behind 3G is to have a single network standard instead of the different types adopted in the US, Europe, and Asia. Telecommunications System (UMTS) or IMT- 2000, will sustain higher data rates and open the door to many Internet style applications.

10 Drawbacks : 3G 3G: High Bandwidth requirement. High Spectrum Licensing Fees. Huge Capital.

11 Evolution in terms of Speed 2G 10 kbps 2.5G 384 kbps 3G 2 mbps Broadband (Fast) 24 mbps 4G 100 mbps Speed mbps

12 Comparison of 3G and 4G Technology 3G 4G Data Transfer Rate 3.1MB/Sec 100MB/Sec Internet Services Broadband Ultra Broadband Mobile TV Resolution Low High Bandwidth 5-20 MHz 100+ MHz Frequency GHz 2-8 GHz Network Architecture Wide Area Network Hybrid Network Source: 3GPP ( Wimax Forum, 2009

13 4G or Fourth Generation In telecommunications, 4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to the 3G and 2G families of standards. In 2008, the ITU-R organization specified the IMT- Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G standards, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 Mbit/s for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users)

14 4G or Fourth Generation Some possible standards for 4G system are , WiMAX(802.16), HSDPA, TDD UMTS, UMTS and future versions of UMTS and proprietary networks from ArrayComm Inc., Cisco Systems, Qualcomm, and 4G efforts in China and Japan. The design is that 4G would be based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), which is a key enabler of 4G Technology. Other technical aspects of 4G are adaptive processing and smart antennas, both of which are in 3G networks and enhance rates when used with OFDM.

15 Features of 4G Faster and more reliable 100Mb/s (802.11=54Mb/s, 3G=2Mb/s) Lower Cost than previous generations Multi-Standard Wireless System Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless (802.11x) Ad-Hoc Networking IPv6 Core OFDM used instead of CDMA

16 Different Access Technologies FDMA-Frequency Division Multiple Access. It is a method where the spectrum is cut up into different frequencies and then this chunk given to the users. At one time only one user is assigned to a frequency. Because of this the frequency is closed, until the call is ended, or it is passed on to another frequency. TDMA-Time Division Multiple Access. It makes use of the whole available spectrum, unlike FDMA. Instead of splitting the slots by frequency, it splits them by time, over all of the frequency. Each subscriber is given a time slot, as opposed to a frequency. Therefore many uses can sit on one frequency, and have different time slots, because the time slots are switched so rapidly TDMA is used for 2G networks. CDMA-Code Division Multiple Access. It uses the spread spectrum method, the way it works means its highly encrypted, so its no surprise it was developed and used by the military. Unlike FDMA, CDMA allows the user to sit on all of the available frequencies at the same time, and hop between then. Each call is identified by its unique code, hence the term Code Division.

17 OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Allows to transfer more than other forms of multiplexing (Time, Frequency, Code, etc.) Simplifies the design of the transmitter and the receiver. Allows for almost the entire frequency band. No gaps to prevent interference needed. Currently used in WiMax (802.16) and WiFi (802.11a/g).

18 MIMO It uses signal multiplexing between multiple transmitting antennas (space multiplex) and time or frequency. It is well suited to OFDM, as it is possible to process independent time symbols as soon as the OFDM waveform is correctly designed for the channel. This aspect of OFDM greatly simplifies processing. the signal transmitted by m antennas is received by n antennas. In principle, MIMO is more efficient when many multiple path signals are received.

19 Smart Antennas Beam Radio signals at a user to follow the user as they move. Allow the same frequency to be used for other users without worry for interference. Can t keep up with the transmission speeds while the device is moving fast (i.e. in a car) Only 32Mb/s at 62mph (vs. 100Mb/s) Seamless handoff between towers/access points. One transmit antenna, two receive antennas Allows connection to two access points at once

20 Ad Hoc Networks Spontaneous self organizing of networks or devices. Not necessarily connected to the internet. 4G will create hybrid networks using Ad Hoc Networks. Form of Mesh Networking Very Reliable

21 Mobile IPv6 More addresses than the current version of IP Protocol (IPv4) each device can have its own IP Keep IP address even if you change your access point. Presently translate IP with each change because of the shortage of IP addresses. IP Core-everything can talk to each other if they speak the same language (Protocol).

22 Mobile VoIP Voice Over Internet Protocol Allows only packets (IP) to be transferred, eliminating the complexity of 2 protocols over the same circuit. All voice data will be wrapped up in a packet Lower latency data transmission (Faster Transmission) Samples voice between 8000 to times per second and creates stream of bits which is then compressed and put into a packet. Increases battery life due to greater data transmission.

23 Applications of 4G Virtual Presence: 4G system gives mobile users a "virtual presence" (for example, always-on connections to keep people on event). Video Conferencing Virtual navigation: a remote database contains the graphical representation of streets, buildings, and physical characteristics of a large metropolis. Blocks of this database are transmitted in rapid sequence to a vehicle Tele- geo processing: Queries dependent on location information of several users, in addition to temporal aspects have many applications. e.g.: GIS, GPS. Crisis-management applications.

24 Impact of 4G Affordable communication services. One device can communicate with all vs. many devices communicating with some devices. TV, internet, phone, radio, home environment sensors all reachable through one device, the cell phone. Streaming HD video. Too connected? Increase in social networking, invasion of privacy security concerns. Increase in regulation likely (i.e. no driving and using a cell phone).

25 News about 4G First Step Towards Full Range of WiMax / 4G Applications This successful implementation of the OFDM waveform is the first step in Military Technologies plan to implement the complete IEEE family of wireless data applications. WiFi/WiMax Gels With 4G Sprint 4G offers a faster wireless experience than any other U.S. national wireless carrier, and Sprint is the only national carrier offering wireless 4G service today in 27 markets. Sprint 4G delivers download speeds up to 10 times faster than 3G, giving HTC EVO 4G the fastest data speeds of any U.S. wireless device available today.

26 Conclusion Migration to 4G networks ensures convergence of networks, technologies, applications and services. Low cost high speed data will drive forward the fourth generation (4G) as short-range communication emerges. It is probable that the radio access network will evolve from a centralized architecture to a distributed one. Wireless carriers have an opportunity to shorten Investment return, improve operating efficiency and increase revenues. Innovations in network technology will provide an environment in which virtually anything is available, anywhere, at any time, via any connected device.

27 References Docomo: Towards 4G Technology Frequently Asked Questions on 4G By Zahid Ghadialy 4G, Wikisedia Telenor: Mobility Aspects in 4G Networks -White Paper 4G Mobile Networks Technology Beyond 2.5g And 3g White Paper Visions for 4G: Many Ways to Achieve Integrated Wireless Connectivity White Paper pdf

28 The End Thank You

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