Wireless LANs/data networks

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1 RADIO SYSTEMS - ETIN15 Lecture no: 12 Wireless LANs/data networks Ove Edfors, Department of Electrical and Information Technology Ove Edfors - ETIN15 1

2 Centralized and AdHoc networks Ove Edfors - ETIN15 2

3 Centralized and AdHoc Networks Centralized Centralized Network Network AdHoc AdHoc Network Network Wired network AP AP MS MS MS MS MS MS MS Ove Edfors - ETIN15 3

4 Infrastructure and AdHoc Networks Some issues to consider: Centralized networks Integration with wired LAN Network planning (access points) Interoperability Roaming and handover between access points Security / authentication Power management AdHoc networks Multi-hop and routing Quality of service Interoperability Security / authentication Power management Ove Edfors - ETIN15 4

5 Error control and ARQ Ove Edfors - ETIN15 5

6 Error-correcting and Error-detecting Codes In wireless systems we need error-correcting and errordetecting codes The quality of the wireless channel changes with time and we need to safeguard our data. Data transmitted during a fading dip can (if the coding scheme is properly designed) be recovered by an error-correcting code. To reach very low error rates we need error detection to trap incorrectly decoded data Ove Edfors - ETIN15 6

7 Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) Using error-detection codes we can reduce the error rate by applying an ARQ scheme. ARQ is usually not an option for time critical data over slow channels, such as real-time audio and video. For high efficiency, ARQ schemes for wireless channels need to be more intricate than the ones used on wired channels This is due to the fading nature of wireless channels Ove Edfors - ETIN15 7

8 Digital transmission in WLANs Ove Edfors - ETIN15 8

9 Some WLANs Data rate [Mbit/sec] 100 IEEE a Hiperlan/2 10 IEEE b IEEE Bluetooth Increasing equalization complexity 1000 IEEE ac OFDM IEEE n IEEE g Bluetooth 2.0 Recent Recent WLAN WLAN standards standards and and specifications specifications The The latest latest standards, standards, with with the the highest highest data data rates rates are are based based on on OFDM OFDM (in (in combination combination with with MIMO). MIMO) Year Ove Edfors - ETIN15 9

10 Wireless LAN standards and specifications Ove Edfors - ETIN15 10

11 Wireless LAN Standards and Specifications Some of the available standards and specifications ETSI HIPERLAN/2 (not used, but of historical importance) IEEE a b g n ac etc.. BlueTooth SIG BlueTooth Ove Edfors - ETIN15 11

12 ETSI - HIPERLAN/2 HIPERACCESS HIPERLINK Part Part of of the the ETSI ETSI BRAN BRAN family family HIPERLAN Ove Edfors - ETIN15 12

13 ETSI - HIPERLAN/2 Digital transmission OFDM (multicarrier) with sampling rate 20 MHz GHz & GHz 48 data carriers + 4 pilot carriers Carrier spacing MHz Symbol length 4 us (0.8 us cyclic prefix) Range < 150 m. TDMA/TDD Syncronization Broadcast (base => all). Preamble 16 us. Downlink (base => terminal). Preamble 8 us. Uplink (teminal => base). Short preamble 12 us and long preamble 16 us Ove Edfors - ETIN15 13

14 ETSI - HIPERLAN/2 BURST BURST STRUCTURES STRUCTURES Broadcast Preamble Data Data... Data 16 us 4 us Down link Preamble Data Data... Data 8 us Up link (short preamble) Preamble Data Data... Data 12 us Up link (long preamble) Preamble Data Data... Data 16 us Ove Edfors - ETIN15 14

15 ETSI - HIPERLAN/2 SIGNAL SIGNAL CONSTELLATIONS CONSTELLATIONS BPSK (OPTION) QPSK 16-QAM 64-QAM 1 bit/symbol 2 bit/symbol 4 bit/symbol 6 bit/symbol Ove Edfors - ETIN15 15

16 ETSI - HIPERLAN/2 TRANSMISSION TRANSMISSION MODES MODES Sig.const Code Databit/symbol Data rate BPSK 1/ Mbit/s BPSK 3/ Mbit/s QPSK 1/ Mbit/s QPSK 3/ Mbit/s 16QAM 9/ Mbit/s 16QAM 3/ Mbit/s 64QAM 3/ Mbit/s Ove Edfors - ETIN15 16

17 IEEE PHY layer diffused infrared - in baseband DSSS and FHSS (50 hops/sec) in 2.4 GHz ISM band 1 and 2 Mbps data rate MAC layer Two network architectures: Infrastructure Network and Ad-Hoc Network Primary services: Data transfer, Association, Reassociation, Authentication, Privacy, and Power Management MISSING AP-to-AP coordination for roaming, Data frame mapping, Confomance test Ove Edfors - ETIN15 17

18 IEEE a-1999 (supplement to ) New PHY (and MAC) layer for GHz band Essentially the same physical layer (OFDM) as HIPERLAN/ Mbps data rate b-1999 (supplement to ) New PHY (and MAC) layer for GHz band DSSS based physical layer 11 Mbps data rate Ove Edfors - ETIN15 18

19 IEEE g-2003 (supplement to ) Same PHY layer as a 2.4 GHz band New MAC layer 6-54 Mbps data rate n-2009 Up to 500 Mbit/sec Proposal based on MIMO technology Developed beyond 500 Mbit/sec in ac Ove Edfors - ETIN15 19

20 IEEE a bigger family IEEE The original 1 Mbit/s and 2 Mbit/s, 2.4 GHz RF and IR standard IEEE a - 54 Mbit/s, 5 GHz standard (1999, shipping products in 2001) IEEE b - Enhancements to to support 5.5 and 11 Mbit/s (1999) IEEE d - international (country-to-country) roaming extensionsnew countries IEEE e - Enhancements: QoS, including packet bursting IEEE F - Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP) IEEE g - 54 Mbit/s, 2.4 GHz standard (backwards compatible with b) (2003) IEEE h - 5 GHz spectrum, Dynamic Channel/Frequency Selection (DCS/DFS) and Transmit Power Control (TPC) for European compatibility IEEE i (ratified 24 June 2004) - Enhanced security IEEE j - Extensions for Japan IEEE k - Radio resource measurements IEEE n - Higher throughput improvements IEEE p - WAVE - Wireless Access for the Vehicular Environment (such as ambulances and passenger cars) IEEE r - Fast roaming IEEE s - Wireless mesh networking IEEE T - Wireless Performance Prediction (WPP) - test methods and metrics IEEE u - Interworking with non-802 networks (e.g., cellular) IEEE v - Wireless network management and more! Ove Edfors - ETIN15 20

21 Bluetooth Special Interest Group - Bluetooth FHSS in the 2.4 GHz band max 1600 hops/sec (much faster than IEEE FHSS) 1 MHz channels 79 frequency channels Modulation Version 1.x GFSK (BT=0.5) 1 Mbps (raw) Version 2.x Additionally differential 4PSK and 8PSK 2 & 3 Mbps Range 10 cm m (for Class 2) Ove Edfors - ETIN15 21

22 Bluetooth Special Interest Group - Bluetooth PICONET Slave 2 Slave 3 Master Slave Ove Edfors - ETIN15 22

23 Bluetooth Special Interest Group - Bluetooth SCATTERNET Master Master Ove Edfors - ETIN15 23

24 Bluetooth Special Interest Group - Bluetooth MASTER SLAVE same clock Mater internal clock (hop sequence timing) Frequency hop generator Hop freq. Slave internal clock Frequency hop generator Hop freq. Offset Master unit BlueTooth Device Address Master unit BlueTooth Device Address (selection of hop sequence) Ove Edfors - ETIN15 24

25 Bluetooth Special Interest Group - Bluetooth FH FH // TDD TDD Frequency: f(2k) f(2k+1) f(2k+2) f(2k+3) MASTER t SLAVE 625 us t Ove Edfors - ETIN15 25

26 Bluetooth Special Interest Group - Bluetooth 625 us Packet Packet lengths lengths 1, 1, 3 and and 5 f(k) f(k+1) f(k+2) f(k+3) f(k+4) f(k+5) t f(k) f(k+3) f(k+4) f(k+5) t f(k) f(k+5) t Ove Edfors - ETIN15 26

27 Bluetooth Special Interest Group - Bluetooth Modulation Gaussian-filtered Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) [c.f. GMSK] BT b = 0.5 B = 500 khz Mod.index = 0.32 (+/-3%) Bitrate 1 Mbit/sec (+/-1ppm) f d = 320/2 khz = 160 khz (+/-3%) F T + f d f 1 1 Transmit center frequency F T t F T - f d 0 0 T b = 1 us Ove Edfors - ETIN15 27

28 Bluetooth Special Interest Group - Bluetooth Synchronous connection oriented (SCO) Synchronous transmission Symmetric data rate Reserved time slots Intended for voice No retransmission Asymmetric connection less (ACL) Asynchronous transmission Used for asymmetric communication Retransmission used (Go-back-1 ARQ) These are the basic packet types Ove Edfors - ETIN15 28

29 Bluetooth evolution Bluetooth has evolved to newer versions, e.g. Version EDR Main feature: (optional) higher data rate (3 Mbit/sec) Version EDR Main feature: secure simple pairing of devices Version HS Main feature: up to 24 Mbit/sec by using MAC/PHY Version 4.0 (Smart) Includes classic Bluetooth, Bluetooth high speed and Bluetooth low energy (previously Wibree) Ove Edfors - ETIN15 29

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