# CSE/EE 461 Section 2

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1 CSE/EE 461 Section 2 Latency in a store-and-forward network 4ms, 10MB/s B How long does it take to send a 2kB packet from to B? 2ms, 10MB/s C 2ms, 10MB/s B What if it has to pass through a node C?

2 Plan for today Examples Latency computation Internet Checksum Ethernet Back-off Few words about Token Rings Wireless Communication Solution First case: latency = propagation + transmit propagation = 4ms transmit = 2kB * (1s/10MB) = 0.2ms latency = 4.2ms second case: latency = 2ms +0.2ms +2ms +0.2ms = 4.4ms

3 IP Checksum Makes sure that the information in the IP header has not been corrupted. To compute Break data into 16 bit words Perform one s complement addition on the words. Complement the answer To check Break data and checksum into 16 bit words Perform one s complement addition on all of the words Check if this equals 0 (ie, all bits equal to 1) Sample Checksum For simplicity, show the 4 bit word case(real IP uses 16 bit case) ssume data: What is the checksum?

4 Solution ???? Do first two first dd to third Complement 0110 carry back 0111 Is this right? YES!!

5 Ethernet CSM/CD Ethernet transmit rules Don t transmit if you hear someone else If you re transmitting and hear someone else, send a jamming signal and stop Wait a random number of slots between 0 and 2 n -1 If collide again, wait a random time between 0 and 2 n+1-1 and try again Back Off Example Suppose and B are stations on an Ethernet and they collide on their first attempt to send a frame, and then collide on their second attempt. a) What is the probability there are no more collisions and sends before B? b) What is the probability there is another collision (between and B) before anyone sends successfully?

6 Solution B Time 0: Both Send simultaneously, collide back-off interval {0,1} B back-off interval {0,1} Suppose both choose {0} Time 1: Both Send again and collide back-off interval {0,1, 2, 3} B back-off interval {0,1, 2, 3} Part a. sends before B, and no more collisions What are the possibilities, in which sends before B.B possibilities Total Possibilities: 4*4 = 16 Probability: 6/16

7 Is it likely we ll really collide? If we use CSM, why do we have collisions? Effectively simultaneous start possible or even likely. Finite speed of light. 100 meters 0.3 microseconds Token Ring (802.5) D C B nodes Direction of transmission Permission to send token rotates around loop When token arrives if no data to send, forward the token if data to send, remove token and inject packet remove packet and re-inject token at sender Maximum token holding time (THT) bounds access time

8 FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface Roughly a large, fast token ring 100 Mbps and 200km vs 4/16 Mbps LN Dual counter-rotating rings for better reliability Complex token holding policies for real-time traffic Token ring advantages No contention, bounded access delay Support fair, reserved, priority access Disadvantages Complexity, reliability, scalability Break! Why Did Ethernet Win? Reliablity Token ring failure mode -- network unusable Ethernet failure mode -- node detached Cost Passive tap cheaper to build than active forwarder Volume => lower cost => volume => lower cost Scalability Repeater: copy all packets across two segments Bridge: selectively repeat packets across two segs Switch: bridge k segments; Hub: repeater for k segs

9 Wireless Communication Wireless is more complicated than wired 1. Cannot detect collisions Transmitter swamps co-located receiver 2. Different transmitters have different coverage areas symmetries lead to hidden/exposed terminal problems CSM with Collision voidance Since we can t detect collisions, we avoid them CSM/C as opposed to CSM/CD If medium busy, choose random backoff interval Wait for that many idle timeslots to pass before sending If a collision is inferred, retransmit with binary exponential backoff (like Ethernet) Use CRC and CK from receiver to infer no collision gain, exponential backoff helps us adapt p as needed

10 Hidden and Exposed Terminals B C D B transmit ranges Hidden terminals: B and D can both send to C but can t hear each other Exposed terminals: B, C can hear each other but can safely send to, D C D RTS / CTS Protocols (MC) RTS B C D CTS 1. B asks C: Request To Send (RTS) 2. hears RTS and defers to allow the CTS 3. C replies to B with Clear To Send (CTS) 4. D hears CTS and defers to allow the data 5. B sends to C

11 Wireless LNs Basestation Emerging standard: wireless plus wired system or pure wireless (ad hoc) voids collisions (CSM/C (p-persistence), RTS/CTS Built on new links (spread spectrum, or diffuse infrared)

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