Wireless LAN, WLAN Security, and VPN

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1 Wireless LAN, WLAN Security, and VPN 麟瑞科技台南辦事處技術經理張晃崚

2 WLAN & VPN FAQ What is WLAN?802.11a?802.11b?802.11g? Which standard (product) should we use? How to deploy WLAN? How to block intruders? How to authenticate users? How to keep data secure? What is roaming? How to provide a fast path for some VIP users? How to exchange data securely between offices?

3 Agenda Introduction to Wireless LAN WLAN deployments WLAN security issues WLAN security solutions VPN solutions

4 Agenda Introduction to Wireless LAN WLAN deployments WLAN security issues WLAN security solutions VPN solutions

5 What is Wireless Network Wireless Network: x standards (Wi-Fi) Cell phones Bluetooth HomeRF Fixed Broadband wireless, IEEE Mobile broadband Optical point-to-point wireless

6 What is Wireless LAN IEEE based networks Bluetooth is regarded as a PAN (Personal Area Network) Need Wireless NIC and Access Point(AP)

7 Wireless LAN vs. Wired LAN Wireless LAN Wired LAN Media Access CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Bit error rate 0.1% Duplex half half/full Speed slow fast Throughput Reduce 50-60% N/A

8 Wireless LAN vs. Wired LAN All 802 WLANs employ handshaked transmission to compensate WLAN just like PUSH-to-TALK radio WLAN will be a step backward: slower speed, half duplex, shared media. BUT, gain FREEDOM AP usually is a Layer 2 bridge (between wired LAN and wireless LAN) Spanning Tree Protocol issue

9 Wireless LAN Standards b a g Frequency 2.4 GHz 5 GHz 2.4 GHz Channel Max speed 11Mbps 54Mbps 54Mbps Real throughput 4-6 Mbps Mbps Mbps Interference Yes No Yes Distance for max speed Distance for half speed ft. 1-2 ft ft ft. 60 ft.??? ft. Maturity Very mature Early No product

10 802.11b+ IEEE g will be finalized in May 2003 Not a formal IEEE specification Texas Instruments (TI) applied PBCC to enable 22Mbps data rate Interoperable with b device at 11Mbps Must use TI s chip to enable 22Mbps

11 Other x standard d: Multiple regulatory domains e: QoS f: Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP) h: Dynamic Frequency Selection(DFS) and Transmit Power Control (TPC) i: Security

12 Which Technology should you use? Decision should be based on requirements of system/users User bandwidth requirements User density Overall implementation cost Upgrade requirements Client availability Client platform features

13 Agenda Introduction to Wireless LAN WLAN deployments WLAN security issues WLAN security solutions VPN solutions

14 Typical WLAN Topologies Wireless Cell Wireless Cell Channel 1 Channel 6 LAN Backbone Access Point Access Point Wireless Clients Wireless Clients

15 Wireless Repeater Topology Wireless Repeater Cell Channel 1 LAN Backbone Channel 1 Access Point Access Point Wireless Clients

16 Hot Standby LAN Backbone Monitored AP Standby AP Wireless Clients

17 Multi-rate Implementations 2 Mbps 2 Mbps 2 Mbps 2 Mbps 2 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 11 Mbps 11 Mbps 11 Mbps 11 Mbps 11 Mbps 11 Mbps 11 Mbps 11 Mbps 11 Mbps 11 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 2 Mbps 2 Mbps 2 Mbps 2 Mbps 2 Mbps

18 Higher and variable transmission power Vendor Offering External antennas Little throughput degradation with encryption Line-power via the wired Ethernet cable Dual-band: b a AP load balancing Roaming between IP subnets Hot Standby AP VLAN support Lockable case Enhanced security features: 802.1x, i draft, etc.

19 Agenda Introduction to Wireless LAN WLAN deployments WLAN security issues WLAN security solutions VPN solutions

20 WLAN Security Issues Wireless is like having an RJ45 jack in the parking lot Need to deny access to intruders Need to secure message with good encryption technology

21 Managing the security side of you networks requires several things Protecting the network from intruders Requires authentication for users Protecting the Wireless DATA from sniffers Requires some type of encryption WLAN Security Issues Protecting you RF networks from being detected The ability to MANAGE you users credentials Includes WEP keys, users names, passwords, etc. Protecting your wireless infrastructure from improper configuration Required a good user manager interface on APs

22 Managing the security side of you networks requires several things To dynamically assign user s IP address, gateway, etc. Deploy DHCP server WLAN Security Issues To let roaming users be authenticated by their original account and passwords Requires authentication roaming features for authentication servers

23 Agenda Introduction to Wireless LAN WLAN deployments WLAN security issues WLAN security solutions VPN solutions

24 Authentication Techniques Open System Authentication No security SSID Authentication SSID is broadcast in clear text form Can be obtained by snooping on traffic Shared key Authentication (WEP) Key stolen Employee leaves

25 Authentication Techniques MAC address Authentication MAC is sent in clear form Can be obtained be snooping Attackers may change their MAC to match Not flexible and scalable 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) Secure not only client but also devices Only Windows XP and few vendors support this technique

26 Authentication Techniques VPN client Authentication Does good authentication and encryption Variable authentication and encryption method to choose Need VPN client software installed Wireless Gateway Authentication No need to install any client software Pop up authentication window when initiating connection (use web browser) Easy to install and configure One wireless gateway for a subnet

27 Wireless Gateway Topology

28 Blocking Inter-client communication PSPF Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding Prevents WLAN interclient communication Relies on MAC address Same subnet devices only

29 Encryption Techniques Key Management Can be painful Requires a power tool to manage keys Easy to hack with well-know single key Key Rotation Changing the user s key periodically Broadcast Key Rotation WEP Encryption 128 bit WEP IPsec

30 Encryption Techniques IEEE i TKIP (Data Integrity) MIC (Data Integrity) AES (Encryption) Not yet complete

31 WLAN Security Solution Product Wireless Gateway Bluesocket Vernier ReefEdge VPN Cisco VPN concentrator/router/client NetScreen Authentication Server Cisco ACS (RADIUS, TACACS, LEAP) RADIUS

32 WLAN Security Solution Product Campus switch DHCP&AAA Server Wireless Gateway (Bluesocket) Or VPN Gateway (Cisco/NetScreen) Cisco Aironet 1100 (802.11b, g) Mobile IP VLAN Cisco Aironet 1200 (802.11a, b, g) External Antenna

33 Cisco Aironet 1200 AP Modular platform for single or dual band operation Field upgradeable radios Modular design enhances future upgrade ability Simultaneous dual radio operation 10/100 Ethernet LAN uplink

34 VLAN support b, g (2.4 GHz) Cisco Aironet 1100 AP

35 Bluesocket Wireless Gateway

36 Agenda Introduction to Wireless LAN WLAN deployments WLAN security issues WLAN security solutions VPN solutions

37 VPN Type and Applications Type Application As Alternative To Benefits Remote Access VPN Remote Dial Connectivity Dedicated Dial ISDN Ubiquitous Access Lower Cost Site-to-Site VPN Site-to-Site Internal Connectivity Leased Line Frame Relay ATM Extend Connectivity Increased Bandwidth Lower Cost Extranet VPN Biz-to-Biz External Connectivity Fax Mail EDI Facilitates E-Commerce

38 VPN Type and Applications Extranet Business Partner Mobile User POP Internet VPN Home Telecommuter DSL Cable Site-to-Site Remote Office Central Site

39 Remote Access VPN Cisco VPN Clients Microsoft Win 2000 (IPSec) Microsoft Win 9x/NT (PPTP) WAN Router PIX Firewall Cisco VPN 3000 Concentrator Cisco Secure ACS (AAA) Telecommuter POP Internet VPN Central Site Mobile Customer

40 Site-to-Site VPN Remote Campus Main Campus Remotel Campus Internet Small Office/ Home Office

41 Extranet VPN Supplier ISP Gateway Firewall Remote Office Security Server Supplier ISP Network DMZ Corporate Intranet

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