1. Data Link Layer Protocols

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1 1. Data Link Layer Protocols

2 Purpose of the Data Link Layer The Data Link Layer

3 Purpose of the Data Link Layer Data Link Sublayers Network LLC Sublayer Data Link Physical MAC Sublayer Ethernet Wi-Fi Bluetooth

4 Purpose of the Data Link Layer Media Access Control The Data Link Layer

5 Purpose of the Data Link Layer Providing Access to Media

6 Data Link Layer Formatting Data for Transmission

7 Layer 2 Frame Structure Creating a Frame

8 Layer 2 Standards Data Link Layer Standards Standard organization IEEE Networking Standards 802.2: Logical Link Control (LLC) 802.3: Ethernet 802.4: Token bus 802.5: Token passing : Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification) : Bluetooth : WiMax ITU-T ISO G.992: ADSL G G.8199: MPLS over Transport aspects Q.921: ISDN Q.922: Frame Relay HDLC (High Level Data Link Control) ISO 9314: FDDI Media Access Control (MAC) ANSI X3T9.5 and X3T12: Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)

9 Topologies Controlling Access to the Media

10 Topologies Physical and Logical Topologies

11 Topologies Physical and Logical Topologies (cont.)

12 WAN Topologies Common Physical WAN Topologies

13 WAN Topologies Physical Point-to-Point Topology

14 WAN Topologies Logical Point-to-Point Topology

15 WAN Topologies Half- and Full-Duplex Half-Duplex Full-Duplex

16 LAN Topologies Physical LAN Topologies

17 LAN Topologies Logical Topology for Shared Media

18 LAN Topologies Contention-Based Access Characteristics Stations can transmit at any time Collision exist There are mechanisms to resolve contention for the media Contention-Based Technologies CSMA/CD for Ethernet networks CSMA/CA for wireless networks

19 LAN Topologies Multi-Access Topology

20 LAN Topologies Controlled Access Characteristics Only one station can transmit at a time Devices wanting to transmit must wait their turn No collisions May use a token passing method Controlled Access Technologies Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) FDDI

21 LAN Topologies Ring Topology

22 Data Link Frame The Frame

23 Data Link Frame The Header

24 Data Link Frame Layer 2 Address

25 Data Link Frame The Trailer

26 Data Link Frame LAN and WAN Frames

27 Data Link Frame Ethernet Frame

28 Data Link Frame Point-to-Point Protocol Frame

29 Data Link Frame Wireless Frame

30 Data Link Frame Wireless Frame Protocol Version field: Version of frame in use Type and Subtype fields: Identifies one of three functions and sub functions of the frame: control, data, and management To DS field: Set to 1 in data frames destined for the distribution system (devices in the wireless structure) From DS field: Set to 1 in data frames exiting the distribution system More Fragments field: Set to 1 for frames that have another fragment Retry field: Set to 1 if the frame is a retransmission of an earlier frame Power Management field: Set to 1 to indicate that a node will be in power-save mode More Data field: Set to 1 to indicate to a node in power-save mode that more frames are buffered for that node Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) field: Set to 1 if the frame contains WEP encrypted information for security Order field: Set to 1 in a data type frame that uses Strictly Ordered service class (does not need reordering) Duration/ID field: Depending on the type of frame, represents either the time, in microseconds, required to transmit the frame or an association identity (AID) for the station that transmitted the frame Destination Address (DA) field: MAC address of the final destination node in the network Source Address (SA) field: MAC address of the node that initiated the frame Receiver Address (RA) field: MAC address that identifies the wireless device that is the immediate recipient of the frame Fragment Number field: Indicates the number for each fragment of a frame Sequence Number field: Indicates the sequence number assigned to the frame; retransmitted frames are identified by duplicate sequence numbers Transmitter Address (TA) field: MAC address that identifies the wireless device that transmitted the frame Frame Body field: Contains the information being transported; for data frames, typically an IP packet FCS field: Contains a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) of the frame

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