2 Today s Topics Wireless Networking Economic drivers and Vulnerabilities IEEE Family WLAN Operational Modes Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) WPA and WPA2 Authentication Protocols WLAN Threats Wireless Hacking (Auditing) Tools Securing WLANs Bluetooth and Infrared Overview WiMax IEEE
3 Wireless Communications Transmission of information from one place to another without cables. Can utilize: Radio Microwave Infrared Other Common wireless examples include Cell phone network Wireless (802.11) networking In the future, will they merge into one pervasive network?
4 Convergence/Pervasive Networking
5 Wireless Growth Drivers 1. Convenience 2. Cost Dynamic Attributes Gilder's Law Total bandwidth of communication systems triples every twelve months. Metcalfe's Law Value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of nodes. As a network grows, the value of being connected to it grows exponentially, while the cost per user remains the same or reduces.
6 Wireless Vulnerabilities At home, your next door neighbor, with a UHF scanner, may listen to your cordless phone calls. At the coffee shop, the person next to you might sniff your wireless connection. (MiM Attack) Stealing your credit card numbers, passwords, Facebook credentials... Conclusion Open broadcast infrastructures such as Wireless LANs (WLANs) have vulnerabilities. 1. For the last decade or so, it has been illegal for a nongovernmental person to purchase a scanner with these capabilities Prior to that, these receivers were legal
7 Governmental Regulations In US, electromagnetic frequencies used for communications are treated as a public resource and FCC regulated. Governmental regulation means: Wireless systems in different countries may operate on different frequencies Allocated wireless frequencies in one country may not match allocated frequencies in another country.
8 Industrial, Scientific, and Medical Bands In US, WLANs operate in three radio spectrum areas, aka the ISM bands 1. Industrial 2. Scientific 3. Medical In general, communications equipment must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment b operation falls under the ISM mandate while a operation falls under the National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) mandate
9 Cellular Network Elements Cell Tower Base Station Controller (BSC) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Visiton Location Register (VLR) Home location Register (HLR) Mobile Identity Number (MIN) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Authentication Center (AuC) Operations and (OMC) Maintenance Center
10 Wireless Networking Spread Spectrum a de facto wireless LAN communication standard. Broadcasts signals over a range of frequencies. Originally military technology developed to provide secure, mission-critical communications. Provides some immunity to interference associated with narrowband systems.
11 Spread Spectrum RF Technologies ` Different spread spectrum modulation technologies utilized in different Wireless LANs: 1. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) (802.11b) 2. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) a multi-carrier modulation scheme where data is split up among several closely spaced subcarriers. ( a,g,n) 3. MIMO--multiple-input multiple-output ( n)
12 IEEE Family Most popular Wireless LAN (WLAN) standards. 1997, IEEE accepts Specification. Specifies an over-the-air interface between: A mobile device wireless client and a base station or Between two mobile device wireless clients. Uses Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) Bands MHz GHz GHz
13 Standard Family Protocol Release Frequen cy Throughput Modulation Indoor Range Outdoor Range GHz 2Mbps 20m 100m a GHz 54Mbps OFDM 35m 120m b GHz 11Mbps DFSS 38m 140m g GHz 54Mbps OFDM 38m 140m n * Est /5GH z 248Mbps MIMO 70m 250m *DRAFT STANDARD
14 Channels and Throughputs Channels Available Throughputs
15 IEEE Standard Specifies physical and data link (medium access control (MAC)) network layer attributes. Physical layer responsible for transmission of data among nodes. Can use direct sequence spread spectrum, frequency hopping spread spectrum or infrared pulse position remodulation. MAC Layer consists of a set of protocols responsible for maintaining order on the shared medium.
16 Service Sets A Basic Service Set (BSS) without an Access Point (AP) is called an ad hoc network A BSS with an AP is called an infrastructure network. When using multiple APs called an Extended Service Set (ESS)>
17 MAC Layer Services Data transfer CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance Contrast to wired CSMA/CD Association In Infrastructure mode, establishes wireless links between wireless clients and access points Re-association Takes place when a wireless client moves from one Basic Service Set (BSS) to another Authentication Proves a client s identity with Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) Shared key configured into the access point and each client.
18 WLAN Operational Modes Ad Hoc Mode Denotes a mesh wireless network with computers connected as peers. Infrastructure Mode Centered around a wireless access point (WAP). A WAP is a centralized wireless device that controls wireless traffic.
19 Original MAC Layer Services Privacy By default, data transfers in the clear. Optional WEP encryption originally RC-4 in output feedback mode Secret key shared between mobile and base stations Flawed implementation Using CRC-32 checksum another vulnerability No protection against replay attacks Aireplay to send fake authentication packets to the AP
20 Association Frames Before communicating data, mobile wireless clients and access points must establish a relationship, or an association. Three Possible States 1. Unauthenticated and unassociated 2. Authenticated and unassociated 3. Authenticated and associated
21 Service Set Identifier (SSID) and Basic Service Set Channel and service set identifier must be configured for a WLAN to function. SSID is an alphanumeric string that differentiates networks operating on the same channel and functions as a unique identifier. In infrastructure mode one access point (AP) together with all associated stations (STAs) is called a Basic Service Set (BSS). Each BSS is identified by an BSSID. In infrastructure mode, a basic BSS consists of at least one AP and one STA...
22 Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) Original mechanism for securing wireless LANs. Part of original standard. Utilized RC 4 stream cipher Symmetric scheme same key encrypts and decrypts. To encrypt, keystream X0Red with plaintext.
23 (Flawed) RC-4/WEP Encryption Process 24 bit IV
24 WEP Goals Access control Prevent users lacking WEP key from gaining network access Privacy (Confidentiality) Protect wireless LAN data streams by encrypting them Allowing decryption only by users with correct WEP keys
25 WEP Authentication Methods Client cannot participate in a wireless LAN until after client is authenticated. Two types 1. Open Open, the default authentication protocol, authenticates any request. 2. Shared Key Considered a null authentication
26 Shared Key Authentication Utilizes shared secret key to authenticate station to AP. Uses: Challenge and response Anyone without assigned key is denied access. Same shared key encrypts and decrypts Note, this vulnerability
27 WEP Key Management Shared key resides in each station s Management Information Database (mib). Two schemes 1. A set of four default keys are shared by all stations, including the wireless clients and their access points. 2. Each client establishes a key mapping relationship with another station
28 Popular WEP Cracks Passive attacks that decrypt traffic based on statistical analysis Active attacks that inject new traffic from unauthorized mobile stations Based on known plaintext (ARPs) Active attacks that decrypt traffic based on tricking the access point Dictionary-building attacks that, after an analysis of an appropriate volume of traffic, allow real-time automated decryption of all traffic.
29 WPA and WPA2 WPA instant response to WEP vulnerabilities WPA2 part of i standard Attempts to address WEP s vulnerabilities Consists of two encryption approaches: 1. TKIP/MIC 2. AES-CCMP
30 Supports RADIUS Provides remote centralized authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) services. Until the client is authenticated, 802.1x access control allows only Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL) traffic through the port to which the client is connected. After successful authentication, normal traffic can pass through the port. Also supports EAP, EAP-TLS, and LEAP.
31 EAP and LEAP Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is an authentication framework that provides some common functions and negotiation of authentication methods (called EAP methods). LEAP is a proprietary EAP method that uses a modified version of MS-CHAP. Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol (LEAP) developed by Cisco Systems. Cracked early 2004, when Joshua Wright released ASLEAP.
32 Extensible Authentication Protocol
33 PEAP Designed to correct some EAP deficiencies, Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol (PEAP), a protocol that encapsulates EAP within a potentially encrypted and authenticated Transport Layer Security (TLS) tunnel. Jointly developed by Cisco Systems, Microsoft, and RSA Security. aka Protected EAP or PEAP
34 WLAN Threats Denial of Service Attacks Many potential vectors. For example, Microwave ovens operate in the 2.4 GHz range SSID Problems Default The Broadcast Bubble Extends past your building War Driving Rogue Access Points MAC Spoofing defeats MAC filtering
35 Wireless Auditing Tools Kismet Layer 2 wireless network detector, sniffer, and intrusion detection system. Sniffs a, b, and g traffic NetStumbler Functions as a high level WLAN scanner. WEPCrack Open source tool for breaking WEP secret Keys.
36 Wireless Auditing Tools AirCrack WLAN and WEP auditing tool. Fast tool can crack encryption. Tools such as Kismet, NetStumbler, and NetSurveyer can also be used to identify rogue access points.
37 Securing WLANs Includes strategies for MAC address filtering, firewalls or a combination of protocol based or standards based measures. Standards and Policy Based Solutions Address ownership and control of wireless MAC Address Filtering Time consuming, limited effectiveness.
38 Securing WLANs SSID Solutions If the SSID is set to manufacturers default settings, it often means that the other measures are also at default. SSID should not reflect company s name, division, or products. Antenna Placement Should be incorporated into site survey and site updates
39 Other Measures VLANS VPNs Wireless RADIUS Dynamic WEP Keys
40 Want Security? Don t use WEP Enable WPA2 For enterprises, employ a AAA server Employ regular scans to find rogue access points. Consider network based Intrusion detection on the wireless LAN Employ secure logging
41 TKIP Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) was designed by the IEEE i task group and the Wi-Fi Alliance as a solution to replace WEP without requiring the replacement of legacy hardware.
42 CCMP Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) was created to replace TKIP and WEP. Uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm with a 128-bit key and a 128-bit block.
43 Bluetooth A simple peer to peer protocol that connects multiple consumer mobile information devices with different functions (cell phones, laptops, printers, cameras, ) Whenever any Bluetooth enabled devices come within range, they instantly transfer address information and establish small ad hoc networks between each other.
44 Bluetooth and Infrared Attributes Bluetooth Class 1,2, or 3 creates Personal Area Networks (PANs) Range from 1 to 100 meters Power from 1 to 100 mw Infrared Networking Line of sight Range up to 1 meter Throughput up to 4 Mbps
45 WiMAX IEEE Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access Physical and DataLink Standard Long (relatively) range system that uses licensed or unlicensed spectrul to deliver network connectivity Complements
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