Wi-Fi Mesh Networking: IEEE s

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1 Wi-Fi Mesh Networking: IEEE s Piotr Mitoraj Tampere University of Technology Department of Communications Engineering November 3, 2009 Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 1/35

2 Outline 1 Mesh Networking Introduction Theoretical Background 2 Standardization Efforts IEEE s Fundamentals MAC Layer Routing 3 tutmesh - mesh network testbed at TUT Overview Hardware & software Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 2/35

3 Outline 1 Mesh Networking Introduction Theoretical Background 2 Standardization Efforts IEEE s Fundamentals MAC Layer Routing 3 tutmesh - mesh network testbed at TUT Overview Hardware & software Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 3/35

4 Mesh networking Wired networks - full mesh topology All to all connections knotted material of open texture with evenly spaced holes Merriam-Webster dictionary In wireless networking mesh is a wireless backbone Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 4/35

5 IEEE reminder Basic Service Set (BSS) Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) Extended Service Set (ESS) Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 5/35

6 Outline 1 Mesh Networking Introduction Theoretical Background 2 Standardization Efforts IEEE s Fundamentals MAC Layer Routing 3 tutmesh - mesh network testbed at TUT Overview Hardware & software Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 6/35

7 Wireless Mesh Networks Main Features Self-organizing backbone Overlapping coverage Lack of wired distribution system Freedom in selecting the node location ad-hoc networks mesh networks cellular networks ESS networks Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 7/35

8 Exteneded Service Set WIRED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AP AP AP Radio Link AP Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 8/35

9 Mesh Extended Service Set WIRED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM MPP MAP MP MPP Radio Link Mesh Radio Link Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 9/35

10 Advantages Fast deployment Low cost Removes dead spots Very scalable Easy network maintenance Robust etc... Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 10/35

11 Outline 1 Mesh Networking Introduction Theoretical Background 2 Standardization Efforts IEEE s Fundamentals MAC Layer Routing 3 tutmesh - mesh network testbed at TUT Overview Hardware & software Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 11/35

12 Motivation Many companies were developing proprietary mesh solutions independently Lack of interoperability between vendors Nortel, MITRE, Philips, Thomson, etc. (Wi-mesh) Intel, Motorola, Nokia (SEEMesh Simple Efficient Extensible) BelAir Networks, Tropos Networks, Strix Systems (outsiders) IEEE s Task Group formed in July 2004 Joint proposal contributed to the first draft (1.0) of the standard Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 12/35

13 New network entities Mesh Point (MP) implements the basic functionality of path selection and forwarding the traffic of other MPs. It might be used to interconnect two remote parts of the mesh cluster. Mesh Access Point (MAP) Same functionality as bare MP. Additionally, it serves as a legacy AP for the nodes. In simpler terms, it is an MP collocated with AP. Mesh Portal (MPP) Same functionality as bare MP. Moreover, it is a gateway to the external network, e.g. Ethernet or WiMax. It is an MP collocated with a gateway. Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 13/35

14 Usage Scenarios Residential/Consumer Electronics Office single building or flat audio and video streaming eliminate the dead spots and low quality areas cabling not feasible scalability cost reduction Campus/Community/Public Access Network wider coverage lower cost and higher bandwidth fast deployment and scalability Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 14/35

15 Usage scenarios Public Safety Military emergency response: such as fire, police and emergency workers at the accident scene video surveillance, voice communication, collection of the data from sensors non-combat and combat extreme mode mobility fully automated network management power preservation schemes for detached nodes Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 15/35

16 IEEE s Routing Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) First standard to define layer 2 routing Medium Access techniques Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) mandatory Mesh Deterministic Access (MDA) introduces novel medium access method optional Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 16/35

17 Open source implementation Present in the Linux Kernel since Supported wireless drivers: ath5k, b43, libertas_tf, p54, zd1211rw Sponsors: Nortel, cozybit, olpc, google, Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 17/35

18 Outline 1 Mesh Networking Introduction Theoretical Background 2 Standardization Efforts IEEE s Fundamentals MAC Layer Routing 3 tutmesh - mesh network testbed at TUT Overview Hardware & software Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 18/35

19 EDCA drawbacks in multihop environmnent Designed for single hop wireless networks Dense deployment of MPs leads to large amount of exposed terminals No means to prioritize backbone traffic over locally generated traffic Unaware station problem Ongoing transmission between A and B blocks node C being close to B. Node D placed outside A s Energy Detection (ED) range is an unaware station. It may try several retransmissions to not responding C node Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 19/35

20 MDA Currently does not include any multi-hop scheme allowing two stations outside mutual radio range to communicate Separates a negotiation process and medium reservation More awareness of the difficult radio environment Mitigates unaware station problem MP exchange the information about: Their own Tx and Rx transmission periods (MDAOP) Their neighbors Tx and Rx transmission periods, interference reports Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 20/35

21 Outline 1 Mesh Networking Introduction Theoretical Background 2 Standardization Efforts IEEE s Fundamentals MAC Layer Routing 3 tutmesh - mesh network testbed at TUT Overview Hardware & software Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 21/35

22 Network layer routing Host A Application Layer 3 routing Host B Application Presentation Frame Forwarding Presentation Session Session Transport Mesh Router Mesh Router Transport Network Network Network Network Network Network Data Link Data Link Data Link Data Link Data Link Data Link Physical Physical Physical Physical Physical Physical Hop #1 Hop #2 Hop #3 Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 22/35

23 IEEE s ESS Host A Application Layer 2 routing Host B Application Presentation Path Selection Presentation Session Session Transport Transport Network Mesh Router Mesh Router Network Data Link Data Link Data Link Data Link Data Link Data Link Physical Physical Physical Physical Physical Physical Hop #1 Hop #2 Hop #3 Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 23/35

24 HWMP overview Routing protocol must be aware of rapidly changing radio environment Combines on-demand routing with proactive tree-based approach, not exclusive The protocol specifies four information elements: 1 PREQ Path Request Contains cumulative metric and destination address 2 PREP Path Reply 3 PERR Path Error 4 RANN Root Announcement Sequence numbers in use Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 24/35

25 HWMP Proactive tree building mode 1 Utilizing PREQ One node acts as a tree root Root node sends proactively PREQs Formation of paths between root and all other nodes 2 Utilizing RANN Root node periodically broadcasts RANNs Each node creates or updates the path to the root Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 25/35

26 HWMP Reactive path selection mode 1 Node A needs to discover a path to the destination 2 Node A broadcasts PREQ 3 The recipients process the PREQ based on two flags: Destination Only (DO) Reply and Forward (RF) DO=1 (default) Only the destination node is eligible to response with PREP, RF flag has no influence, All intermediate nodes learn the path to the destination DO=0 and RF=0 Intermediate node that knows the path to the destiantion may respond with unicast PREP, Reduction of the path selection delay Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 26/35

27 HWMP Reactive path selection mode DO=0 and RF=1 The same behaviour as in the previous case, but PREQ is being forwarded, Intermediate node sets DO=1 Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 27/35

28 Outline 1 Mesh Networking Introduction Theoretical Background 2 Standardization Efforts IEEE s Fundamentals MAC Layer Routing 3 tutmesh - mesh network testbed at TUT Overview Hardware & software Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 28/35

29 Motivation To deploy Wireless Mesh Network testbed IEEE Free (open source) software Embedded platform Dual-radio Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 29/35

30 Testbed topology Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 30/35

31 Outline 1 Mesh Networking Introduction Theoretical Background 2 Standardization Efforts IEEE s Fundamentals MAC Layer Routing 3 tutmesh - mesh network testbed at TUT Overview Hardware & software Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 31/35

32 Mesh Router Compact Flash Card (min 64MB) enclosure Ethernet port Alix3c1 board - PC Engines 2 Compex MiniPCI b/g wireless cards 1GB Compact Flash (CF) card 2 5dBi omni-directional antennas minipci atheros based b/g card ALIX3c1 System Board minipci atheros based b/g card Serial port DC jack omnidirectional antenna omnidirectional antenna AC adapter (18V / 15W) Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 32/35

33 Mesh Router platform PCengine s Alix3c1 CPU 433 MHz AMD Geode LX700 DRAM 128 MB DDR DRAM Storage Compact Flash socket Power DC jack Expansion 2 minipci slots, LPC bus Connectivity 1 Ethernet channel I/O DB9 serial port Board size 100 x 160 mm Firmware tinybios Power consumption W (peak 5 W) Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 33/35

34 Software selection Operating System - Debian-based linux Wireless Drivers - MadWiFi dnsmasq - DHCP daemon iptables - Masquerade on the gateway node olsrd - Ad-hoc routing daemon GRUB - GRand Unified Bootloader Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 34/35

35 That s all THANK YOU Piotr Mitoraj / MUW2NET / TUT TLT-2756: Mesh Networking IEEE s 35/35

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