CSE 461 Quality of Service. David Wetherall

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1 CSE 461 Quality of Service David Wetherall

2 QOS Focus: How to provide better than best effort Fair queueing Application Application needs Transport Traffic shaping Guarantees IntServ / DiffServ Network Link Physical

3 Network Roadmap Various Mechanisms Simple to build, Weak assurances Complex to build, Strong assurances FIFO w/drop Tail FIFO with RED Weighted Fair Queuing Differentiated Services Integrated Services Classic Best Effort Congestion Avoidance Per Flow Fairness Aggregate Guarantees Per Flow Guarantees

4 Fairer Queuing: Round Robin (Nagle) Take one packet from each input flow in turn

5 Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Want to share bandwidth At the bit level, but in reality must send whole packets Approximate with virtual finish times for each packet Clock ticks once for each bit sent from all queues finish (F) = max (arrive, finish previous packet) + length Send in order of finish times But don t preempt (stop) transmission if a new packet arrives that should go first More generally, assign weights to queues F = max (arrive, finish previous) + length / weight This is Weighted FQ (WFQ)

6 Packet Scheduling (2) Fair Queueing approximates bit-level fairness with different packet sizes; weights change target levels Result is WFQ (Weighted Fair Queueing) Packets may be sent out of arrival order F i = max(a i, F i-1 ) + L i /W Finish virtual times determine transmission order CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

7 Deficit it Round Robin (Varghese, 95) WFQ has complexity O(log N) to pick which packet goes next Disadvantage for high speed implementation Deficit Round Robin is a O(1) approximation Fix the number of queues Give them a quantum of service in round robin order Skip queues until they build up enough credit for a large packet Gives both efficiency and fairness

8 QOS Framework QOS gives better than best effort guarantees. To achieve this we need to: 1. Understand what network services applications need network services 2. Characterize application traffic entering the network flow specifications or SLAs 3. Decide whether to accept offered traffic admission control 4. Differentially process traffic in the network packet scheduling

9 Application Requirements (1) Different applications care about different properties We want all applications to get what they need. High means a demanding requirement, e.g., low delay CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

10 An Audio Example Playback is a real-time service in the sense that the audio must be received by a deadline to be useful Microphone Sampler, A D converter Internet Buffer, D A Speaker Variable bandwidth and delay (jitter) Real-time apps need assurances from the network Q: What assurances does playback require?

11 Network Support for Playback Bandwidth There must be enough on average But we can tolerate to short term fluctuations Delay Ideally it would be fixed But we can tolerate some variation (jitter) Loss Ideally there would be none But we can tolerate some losses

12 Tolerating Jitter with Buffering Seque ence numbe er Packet generation Network delay Buffer Packet arrival a Playback Time Buffer before playout so that most late samples will have arrived

13 Real-Time Transport (3) Buffer at receiver is used to delay ypackets and absorb jitter so that streaming media is played out smoothly Constant rate Packet 8 s 8s network delay is too large for buffer to help Variable rate Constant rate CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

14 Real-Time Transport (3) High jitter, or more variation in delay, requires a larger playout buffer to avoid playout misses Propagation delay does not affect buffer size Buffer Misses CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

15 Specifying i Bandwidth Needs Problem: Many applications have variable bandwidth demands Band dwidth (MB Bps) 2 1 Flow A Flow B Time (seconds) Same average, g, but very different needs over time. So how do we describe bandwidth to the network?

16 Token Buckets Common, simple descriptor Limits long-term rate and short- term burstiness Use tokens to send bits Average bandwidth is R bps Maximum burst is B bits Can be used to shape or meter traffic entering network

17 Token Bucket example R = 200 Mbps with B=16000KB R = 200 Mbps with B=9600KB R = 200 Mbps with B=0KB

18 Guarantees How do we build the network to provide guaranteed levels of bandwidth and maximum delay/jitter to apps? Bearing in mind that traffic is bursty Not viable to reserve resources for apps at burst levels Will require that we limit the traffic in the network Admission i control

19 Admission Control (1) Admission control takes a traffic flow specification and decides whether the network can carry it Sets up packet scheduling to meet QoS Example flow specification CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

20 Admission Control (2) Construction to guarantee bandwidth B and delay D: Shape traffic source to a (R, B) token bucket Run WFQ with weight W / all weights > R/capacity Holds for all traffic patterns, all topologies CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

21 IETF Integrated t Services Fine-grained (per flow) guarantees Guaranteed service (bandwidth and bounded delay) Controlled load (bandwidth but variable delay) RSVP used to reserve resources at routers Receiver-based signaling that handles failures WFQ used to implement guarantees Router classifies packets into a flow as they arrive Packets are scheduled using the flow s resources

22 Integrated Services (2) Merge R3 reserves flow from S1 R3 reserves flow from S2 R5 reserves flow from S1; merged with R3 at H CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

23 IETF Differentiated t Services A more coarse-grained approach to QOS Packets are marked as belonging to a small set of services, e.g, premium or best-effort, using the TOS bits in the IP header This marking is policed at administrative boundaries Your ISP marks 10Mbps (say) of your traffic as premium depending di on your service level agreement (SLAs) SLAs change infrequently; much less dynamic than Intserv Routers understand only the different service classes Might separate classes with WFQ, but not separate flows

24 Differentiated Services (1) Design with classes of QoS; customers buy what they want Expedited d class is sent in preference to regular class Less expedited traffic but better quality for applications CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

25 Two-Tiered Ti Architecture t Mark at Edge routers (per flow state, complex) Core routers stay simple (no per-flow state, few classes)

26 QOS in the Internet t today Is in its infancy Routers have many knobs (performance issues though) Buy economic incentives stifle innovation/deployment Customers may get SLAs, e.g., bandwidth, uptime Mostly a provisioning issue for ISPs For well-provisioned, congestion is at the edges, e.g., DSL VPNs are a natural service offering Network mostly decoupled from hosts Hosts don t mark packets for QOS But network edge devices may classify, e.g., VoIP vs P2P Point solution at edge, or ISP network can then differentiate i

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