A+ Certification Guide. Chapter 16 (Part B) Networking

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1 A+ Certification Guide Chapter 16 (Part B) Networking

2 Chapter 16 (Part B) Objectives Installing and Configuring Network Interface Cards Networking Configuration for Small Network Switches and Routers Setting Up Shared Resources Install file and print sharing How to share folders, drives, and printers Setting Up the Network Client Software and Printers Using Shared Resources How to utilize UNCs, FQDNs, and map drives to resources Browser Installation and Configuration Using Network Command-Line Tools Network and Internet Troubleshooting

3 Installing Network Interface Cards Types: PCI and PCIe Normally plug n play USB Needs drivers to function as network adapter PC Card/CardBus Normally plug n play

4 Configuring Network Interface Cards Hardware Resources: IRQ and I/O port address range In case of a need to resolve conflicts Media type Normally only needs to be set on legacy cards with both RJ- 45 and 10base2 or AUI connectors Full/Half Duplex Usually set to auto. Full Duplex can be selected for compatibility with full duplexonly devices. Half Duplex should be selected only for older systems or older networks.

5 Configuring Network Interface Cards Wireless Configuration Settings to consider These must be matched between the Wireless Access Point and the client NIC: SSID Channel WEP WEP strength and WEP key Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) WPA key and Encryption type Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) Not recommended

6 Switches and Hubs Hubs: Older connection point for star topologies. All devices share bandwidth. It is a broadcast device; no security possible. Switch: Reads and memorizes MAC addresses for more efficient networking. Each port isolates its bandwidth from other ports. Can engage in port security. Both switches and hubs can be connected together using a crossover cable: Some ports are marked as uplink ports and can use either a straight or crossover cable.

7 Switched Network This is a also known as a broadcast domain. All hosts on this network can reach all other hosts without the need for a default gateway address in their settings.

8 Beyond LANs: Repeaters, Bridges, and Routers Repeater: Boosts signal strength to enable longer cable runs than those permitted by the "official" cabling limits of Ethernet. Hubs and switches can be used as repeaters. Bridge /Switch: Connects two segments of the same network that use the same protocol to each other. Normally connects hosts to rest of network. Router: Used to connect together multiple broadcast domains (networks). Can also be used to connect different types of networks

9 Networking Configuration Installing network protocols in Windows: NetBEUI: Can only be installed manually Only useful on local broadcast domains TCPIP: Available in all currently used versions of Windows Two versions: IPv4 usually installed by default. IPv6 installed by default on Vista and Windows 7» Must be manually added to XP and earlier Installation accomplished from Network Connection Properties: In Vista Control Panel Network and Sharing Center Manage Network Connections. Right-click the connection, select Properties, click Install, select the protocol, and click OK.

10 TCP/IPv4 Configuration Settings to configure if static assignment is used: IP address: Network administrator assigns this Subnet mask: Default may be displayed; need to verify DNS server address: Administrator may provide; can be obtained automaticall. Default gateway: Required for going to other networks and Internet WINS configuration: Not used on modern networks

11 TCPIP Properties DHCP Versus Static IP Configuration

12 TCP/IP Configuration with a DHCP Server DHCP servers provide: IP addresses from a preset pool of addresses to clients who request them Other settings information, such as DNS server and default gateway address DHCP client side is configured from Local Area Connection: Properties TCP/IP Properties. To use DHCP, set it to Obtain an IP Address Automatically. This is the TCP/IP Properties installation default setting. DNS can still be manually configured if necessary.

13 Advanced TCP/IP Configuration

14 Anatomy of an IP Address Two parts: Network part (on left side) Host part (on right side) Network part is defined by the subnet mask: Subnet mask can be Predefined by the address class (a default mask) Assigned by the network administrator The length of the subnet mask determines the network number: Example: subnet mask The network number is 10. Example: , subnet mask is The network number is

15 IP Address Classes The following address classes are the ones that addresses are generally assigned from. These numbers are controlled by IANA, a public organization in charge of the Internet numbering scheme. Class First Octet Range Starting IP Ending IP Default Subnet Mask A B C D Specially Assigned

16 Reserved Addresses Private Address Ranges: Loopback Address: APIPA Address Range: Multicast Addresses: Various addresses in this range are reserved for networking and routing protocols.

17 APIPA Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) If a client cannot obtain an IP address, it can provide itself one from a defined pool of addresses. Addresses come from the network. Host machine will randomly choose a number to fill in the last two octets. It will try to reach this number (PING). If no duplicated response is received, it keeps the self-assigned number. If a duplicated response is received, it chooses another random number. Useful for networks where DHCP server is down.

18 IPv6 Addressing 128-bits, separated into (8)16-bit sections separated by colons Example: 21DA:00D3:0000:2F3B:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A Can be shortened by eliminating leading zeroes Example: 21DA:D3:0:2F3B:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A Can be further shortened by using a single :: to represent a section of zeroes Example: 21DA:D3::2F3B:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A Different prefixes indicate different types of addresses If it starts with a 2, it is a global unicast address ::1 = loopback address FE80::/64 = APIPA address

19 Setting Up Shared Resources

20 Installing File and Printer Sharing Install and/or enable file and printer sharing. Install from Network Connections. Right-click Properties. Click Instal l Service Add File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks. Select which drives, folders, or printers to share. Right-click folder to be shared Sharing and Security. Click Share This Folder on the Network. Set permissions. Windows Explorer Tools Folder Options. View Advanced Settings, Use Simple File Sharing. Clear the check box. This allows manual permissions assignment.

21 Installing File and Printer Sharing

22 Sharing a Folder with User/Group Permissions in Windows Vista Ensure that file sharing is enabled. Start, Control Panel, and double-click Network and Sharing Center icon. Down arrow next to File Sharing, and select the Turn on File Sharing radio button. Click Start, and then click Computer. In the Computer window, navigate to a folder that you want to share. Right-click the folder that you want to share; then click Share. The File Sharing window is now displayed. If using enabled password-protected sharing, use the File Sharing window. Select which users will have access and select their permission levels. To allow all users, select the Everyone group within the list of users. If you disabled password-protected sharing, use the File Sharing window, and select the Guest or Everyone account. If done configuring permissions, click Share and then click Done.

23 Setting Up a Network Shared Folder

24 Setting Up the Network Client Client/Server-based networks Clients need the ability to log into such servers. Network client software Installed from Network Places Properties. Install the network client required. May need The name of the network and server(s) with shared resources The printer drivers for the network printers May need to add a printer URL

25 Using Shared Resources Requires user to log in with username/password. Log in must have been previously created. Accessing resources. Universal Naming Convention: \\servername\share name\path\filename This path can be seen by going to Windows Explorer and right-clicking a filename Properties. Name convention on TCP/IP networks. Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN): ServerName.DomainName.ToplevelDomain\filename Can also access the filename using the IP address: \filename

26 Mapped Drives Allows user s machine to automatically connect to a remote machine at logon. No need to use My Network Places to search for frequently accessed files. From XP or Vista: Open Network (Vista) or My Network Places (XP). Click shared folder in Network or My Network Places Click tools, Map Network Drive. Select a drive letter. Click Reconnect at Logon box.

27 Mapping Desktop to a Remote Drive

28 Browser Installation and Configuration Changes to consider when setting up browser: Proxies for use with LAN-based or filtered access Users accessing the Internet using a LAN might use a proxy. Proxy server information is set with browser's configuration menu. In Internet Explorer: Internet Options LAN connections. Automatic dial-up for convenience Most browsers can be set to dial up the Internet automatically whenever you start the browser. Useful for dial-up connections. configuration Browsers include an client needing server information. Other options allow to be seen and replied to within the browser. Disable graphics For users with extremely slow connections to see text only. Security settings for Java

29 Browser and Proxy

30 Multifunction Routing Devices Home Office /Small Office routers act as DHCP Server Network Address Translation Server (NAT) Converts private addresses into a usable public address Firewall Device functions Stateful packet filtering Acts to suppress traffic that has not been specifically invited into the network, such as a web page request MAC Filtering Allows only those devices with specifically authorized MAC addresses

31 Network Command-Line Tools Net Displays and uses network resources Ping Tests TCP/IP and Internet connections Tracert Traces the route between a specified website or IP address and your PC NSLookup Displays detailed information about DNS IPConfig Displays detailed TCP/IP configuration about your Windows NT/2000/XP system Netstat For protocol statistics and connections

32 IPCONFIG

33 Network and Internet Troubleshooting Duplicate IP address Slow network performance Check for bad or damaged cables. Hub bandwidth saturation. Mismatches of 10Mbps and 100Mbps devices. Wireless signal channel overlaps. Problems connecting to printers Check UNC path. Browser issues Check Internet options. Proxy server. Security settings

34 Troubleshooting on the Network Any host wanting to reach a host on another network will be required to go through the router, which is the address known as the default gateway

35 What Have You Learned? Where would a technician go to change an IP address to a static configuration? If a user cannot get to the Internet, what might you want to check first? How do you map a remote drive to a user s desktop? What might be a problem with having a printer server obtain its IP address automatically? What command-line tool can you use to report a user s TCPIP settings? How do you check to see if there is a connection to another machine?

36 Reflection You have been asked to examine the IP address of a node and report if there is a problem. Here is the information gained from the command ipconfig: IP address: Subnet mask: Default gateway: Ask: "Is there a problem with this configuration?"

37 Chapter 16 (Part B) Summary Cable and Connector Types Installing and Configuring Network Interface Cards Switches and Hubs, Repeaters, and Routers Networking Configuration Protocols configuring TCP/IP and IPv4 addressing concepts Setting Up Shared Resources File and print sharing Share folders, drives, and printers Setting Up the Network Client Software and Printers Using Shared Resources How to utilize UNCs, FQDNs, and map drives to resources Browser Installation and Configuration Using Network Command-Line Tools Network and Internet Troubleshooting

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