CSC 401 Data and Computer Communications Networks

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1 CSC 401 Data and Computer Communications Networks Application Layer Video Streaming, CDN and Sockets Sec Prof. Lina Battestilli Fall 2017

2 Outline Application Layer (ch 2) 2.1 principles of network applications 2.2 Web and HTTP 2.3 electronic mail 2.4 DNS 2.5 P2P applications 2.6 Video Streaming and CDNs 2.7 Socket programming with UDP and TCP NCSU CSC401 Lina Battestilli 10

3 11 Video Streaming and CDNs: context Video traffic: major consumer of Internet bandwidth Netflix(DASH) 37%, YouTube(HTTP Streaming) 16% of downstream residential ISP traffic ~1B YouTube users, ~75M Netflix users Challenges: Scale - how to reach ~1B users? Single mega-video server won t work (why?) Heterogeneity: different users have different capabilities (e.g., wired versus mobile; bandwidth rich versus bandwidth poor) Solution: distributed, application-level infrastructure, on-demand

4 Multimedia: video Video: sequence of digital images displayed at constant rate (e.g., 24 images/sec) Digital Image: array of pixels each pixel represented by bits Coding: use redundancy within and between images to decrease # bits used to encode image spatial (within image) temporal (from one image to next) Rates CBR: (constant bit rate): video encoding rate fixed VBR: (variable bit rate): video encoding rate changes as amount of spatial, temporal coding changes Examples: MPEG 1 (CD-ROM) 1.5 Mbps MPEG2 (DVD) 3-6 Mbps MPEG4 (often used in Internet, < 1 Mbps) spatial coding example: instead of sending N values of same color (all purple), send only two values: color value (purple) and number of repeated values (N).... frame i temporal coding example: instead of sending complete frame at i+1, send only differences from frame i frame i+1 12

5 3 application types streaming, stored audio, video streaming: can begin playout before downloading entire file stored (at server): can transmit faster than audio/video will be rendered (implies storing/buffering at client) e.g., YouTube, Netflix, Hulu conversational voice/video over IP interactive nature of human-to-human conversation limits delay tolerance e.g., Skype streaming live audio, video e.g., live sporting event (football) 13

6 buffered video Streaming stored video CBR video transmission variable network delay Video received at client constant bit rate video playout at client client playout delay time client-side buffering and playout delay: compensate for network-added delay, delay jitter

7 Client-side buffering, playout variable fill rate, x(t) buffer fill level, Q(t) playout rate, e.g., CBR r video server client application buffer, size B client

8 Client-side buffering, playout variable fill rate, x(t) buffer fill level, Q(t) playout rate, e.g., CBR r video server client application buffer, size B client 1. Initial fill of buffer until playout begins at t p 2. playout begins at t p, 3. buffer fill level varies over time as fill rate x(t) varies and playout rate r is constant

9 Streaming multimedia: UDP server sends at rate appropriate for client often: send rate = encoding rate = constant rate transmission rate can be oblivious to congestion levels short playout delay (2-5 seconds) to remove network jitter error recovery: application-level RTP [RFC 2326]: multimedia payload types UDP may not go through firewalls

10 7-18 Streaming multimedia: HTTP multimedia file retrieved via HTTP GET send at maximum possible rate under TCP variable rate, x(t) video file TCP send buffer server TCP receive buffer client application playout buffer fill rate fluctuates due to TCP congestion control, retransmissions (in-order delivery) larger playout delay: smooth TCP delivery rate HTTP/TCP passes more easily through firewalls

11 Streaming multimedia: DASH DASH: Dynamic, Adaptive Streaming over HTTP standardized by MPEG in 2011 Server: divides video file into multiple chunks each chunk stored, encoded at different rates manifest file: provides URLs for different chunks Client: periodically measures serverto-client bandwidth consulting manifest file, requests one chunk at a time chooses maximum coding rate sustainable given current bandwidth can choose different coding rates at different points in time (depending on available bandwidth at time) 19

12 Streaming multimedia: DASH DASH: Dynamic, Adaptive Streaming over HTTP standardized by MPEG in 2011 Intelligence at Client: client determines when to request chunk (so that buffer starvation, or overflow does not occur) what encoding rate to request (higher quality when more bandwidth available) where to request chunk (can request from URL server that is close to client or has high available bandwidth) 20

13 Outline Application Layer (ch 2) 2.1 principles of network applications 2.2 Web and HTTP 2.3 electronic mail 2.4 DNS 2.5 P2P applications 2.6 Video Streaming and CDNs 2.7 Socket programming with UDP and TCP NCSU CSC401 Lina Battestilli 21

14 Content Distribution Networks (CDNs) Challenge: how to stream content (selected from millions of videos) to hundreds of thousands of simultaneous users? option 1: single, large mega-server single point of failure point of network congestion long path to distant clients multiple copies of video sent over outgoing link Doesn t scale! option 2: store/serve multiple copies of videos at multiple geographically distributed sites (CDN) enter deep: push CDN servers deep into many access networks close to users used by Akamai, 1700 locations bring home: smaller number (10 s) of larger clusters in POPs near (but not within) access networks 22

15 Content Distribution Networks (CDNs) CDN: stores copies of content at CDN nodes e.g. Netflix stores copies of MadMen subscriber requests content from CDN directed to nearby copy, retrieves content may choose different copy if network path congested where s Madmen? manifest file 23

16 Content Distribution Networks (CDNs) over the top Internet host-host communication as a service OTT challenges: coping with a congested Internet from which CDN node to retrieve content? viewer behavior in presence of congestion? what content to place in which CDN node?

17 CDN Operation Strategy Challenge: How does CDN selects, intercepts and redirects to a good CDN node to stream for a particular client Selection Strategy: Lowest Load Lowest Latency Any alive Server Interception & Redirection Strategy: Routing (e.g. IP anycast) Application Based (e.g. HTTP redirect) Naming Based (e.g DNS) Centralized Decision: pick CDN node geographically closest to client pick CDN node with shortest delay (or min # hops) to client (CDN nodes periodically ping access ISPs, reporting results to CDN DNS) Client Decision: let client decide - give client a list of several CDN servers client pings servers, picks best Netflix approach 25

18 CDN content access: a closer look Bob (client) requests video video stored in CDN at 1. Bob gets URL for video from netcinema.com web page 1 6. request video from KINGCDN server, streamed via HTTP resolve via Bob s local DNS Bob s local DNS server netcinema.com 3. netcinema s DNS returns URL &5. Resolve via KingCDN s authoritative DNS, which returns IP address of KingCDN server with video netcinema s authoratative DNS KingCDN.com KingCDN authoritative DNS

19 Example of CDN Mapping via DNS Different A records for different locations: [NYC]% host CNAME a568.d.akamai.net a568.d.akamai.net A a568.d.akamai.net A [Boston]% host CNAME a568.d.akamai.net a568.d.akamai.net A a568.d.akamai.net A

20 Netflix Case Study Netflix owns very little infrastructure, uses 3 rd party services: own registration, payment servers Amazon (3 rd party) Cloud Services: Netflix uploads studio master to Amazon cloud create multiple version of movie (different encodings) in cloud upload versions from cloud to CDNs Cloud hosts Netflix web pages for user browsing Three 3 rd party CDNs host/stream Netflix content: Akamai, Limelight, Level-3 28

21 Case study: Netflix 2015: 37% ISP Downstream Traffic Netflix registration, accounting servers upload copies of multiple versions of video to CDN servers CDN server 1 1. Bob manages Netflix account 2. Bob browses Netflix video Manifest file returned for requested video CDN server CDN server 4. DASH streaming

22 Outline Application Layer (ch 2) 2.1 principles of network applications 2.2 Web and HTTP 2.3 electronic mail 2.4 DNS 2.5 P2P applications 2.6 Video Streaming and CDNs 2.7 Socket programming with UDP and TCP NCSU CSC401 Lina Battestilli 31

23 32 Socket programming goal: learn how to build client/server applications that communicate using sockets socket: door between application process and end-endtransport protocol application process socket application process controlled by app developer transport transport network link Internet network link controlled by OS physical physical

24 33 Socket programming Two socket types for two transport services: UDP: unreliable datagram TCP: reliable, byte stream-oriented Let s use the following application example: 1. Client reads a line of characters (data) from its keyboard and sends the data to the server. 4. The client receives the modified data and displays the line on its screen. 2. The server receives the data and converts characters to uppercase. 3. The server sends the modified data to the client.

25 Socket programming with UDP UDP: no connection between client & server no handshaking before sending data sender explicitly attaches the IP destination address and port# to each packet receiver extracts sender IP address and port# from received packet UDP: transmitted data may be lost or received out-of-order Application viewpoint: UDP provides unreliable transfer of groups of bytes ( datagrams ) between client and server 34

26 Client/Server socket interaction: UDP server (running on serverip) create socket, port= x: serversocket = socket(af_inet,sock_dgram) read datagram from serversocket write reply to serversocket specifying client address, port number client create socket: clientsocket = socket(af_inet,sock_dgram) Create datagram with serverip and port=x; send datagram via clientsocket read datagram from clientsocket close clientsocket 35

27 Example App: UDP Server create UDP socket bind socket to port Read from socket getting client s address (client IP and port) send upper case string back to this client 36

28 Example App: UDP Client include Python s socket library create UDP socket Attach server name, port to message; send into socket read reply characters from socket into string 37

29 Socket programming with TCP client must contact server server process must first be running server must have created socket (door) that welcomes client s contact client contacts server by: Creating TCP socket, specifying IP address, port number of server process when client creates socket: client TCP establishes connection to server TCP when contacted by client, server TCP creates NEW socket for server process to communicate with that particular client allows server to talk with multiple clients port numbers used to distinguish clients application viewpoint: TCP provides reliable, in-order byte-stream transfer ( pipe ) between client and server 38

30 Client/server socket interaction: TCP server (running on serverip) client create socket, port=x, for incoming request: serversocket = socket() wait for incoming connection request connectionsocket = serversocket.accept() read request from connectionsocket write reply to connectionsocket close connectionsocket TCP connection setup create socket, connect to serverip, port=x clientsocket = socket() send request using clientsocket read reply from clientsocket close clientsocket 39

31 Example app: TCP server create TCP welcoming socket Server begins listening for incoming TCP requests new socket created read bytes from socket (but not address as in UDP) close connection to this client (but NOT welcoming socket) 40

32 Example App: TCP Client create TCP socket & create a connection No need to attach server name, port 41

33 Example running TCP Server/Client Verify my process is listening 42

34 Chapter 2: Summary our study of network apps now complete! application architectures client-server P2P application service requirements: reliability, bandwidth, delay Internet transport service model connection-oriented, reliable: TCP unreliable, datagrams: UDP specific protocols: HTTP SMTP, POP, IMAP DNS P2P: BitTorrent, DHT socket programming: TCP, UDP sockets 43

35 Chapter 2: Summary most importantly: learned about protocols! typical request/reply message exchange: client requests info or service server responds with data, status code message formats: headers: fields giving info about data data: info being communicated important themes: control vs. data msgs in-band, out-of-band centralized vs. decentralized stateless vs. stateful reliable vs. unreliable msg transfer complexity at network edge 44

36 References Some of the slides are identical or derived from 1. Slides for the 7 th edition of the book Kurose & Ross, Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, 2. Nick Feamster COS 461: Computer Networking, Spring 2016

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