WLAN. Antti Siitonen Technologist MSc (EE), Radiolinja

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1 WLAN Antti Siitonen Technologist MSc (EE), Radiolinja T Telecommunications architectures Lectures on WLAN overview Antti Siitonen,

2 Contents WLAN 2,4 GHz» Network and Radio properties»terminals»security»development»roaming»business models»future 2

3 WLAN-basics Current WLAN solutions are mainly based on IEEE standards and they implement ETHERNET over wireless Media Focus on OSI layers 1 & 2 Bandwidth 1-11 Mbit/s IEEE or 2 Mbit/s IEEE b - 1, 2, 5.5 and 11 Mbit/s Network architecture can be Ad hoc (spontaneus) Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Infrastructure network 3

4 Wireless LAN Protocols Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link WebBrowsers Net Management XWindows NetWare Proprietary MANAGEMENT NFS FTP SNMP SMB NDS NCP Telnet IAPP TCP UDP NetBEUI RIP SPX (Microsoft) IP (Internet Protocol) Possible Possible proprietary proprietary protcols protcols IEEE WLAN MAC IPX (Novell) Physical 2.4 GHz 2 Mbps FHSS 2.4 GHz 11 Mbps DSSS 5 GHz 54 Mbps OFDM Antti Siitonen, 2001

5 WLAN - Plain Wireless Ethernet Extension Applications Application Level Data Application TCP/IP stack Network addressing, routing Bridge control IP routing TCP/IP Other LAN interface WLAN radio WLAN radio Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet 5

6 2,4 GHz Frequecy Standard Radio Bit rate Max/Net 2,4 GHz DS CSMA/CA, DSSS, PSK 2,4 GHz FH CSMA/CA, FHSS, PSK 2,4 GHz b CSMA/CA, DSSS, CKK 2,4 GHz g CSMA/CA, OFDM tai DSSS 2,4 GHz HomeRF TDMA/CS MA/CD,FH SS 2/1 Mbit/s 100 2Mbit/s 2/1 Mbit/s Mbit/s 11/5 Mbit/s Mbit/s 22/11 Mbit/s Mbit/s 1,6/0,5 Mbit/s 50 1,6 Mbit/s 2,4 GHz HomeRF 2 WBFH 10 / 5 Mbit/s 10 Mbit/s Range Encryption Status Note N/A Outdated Not available any more N/A Outdated Not available WEP 40 bit/128 bit WEP 40 bit/128 bit Blowfish Standard organisations IEEE ( standards) and ETSI (HIPERLAN/2) Standards around PHY and MAC-layer WiFi sertification very important for interoperability Most used Ready in 2002? Standard ready any more De Facto Open Open Open Not available yet No products availableresidential CSMA/CA = Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance, DSSS=Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum, PSK = Phase Shift Keying, FHSS = Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum, CKK = Complementary Code Keying, WBFH = Wide Band Frequency Hopping, WEP = Wired Equivalent Privacy 6

7 Wireless Access: System Performance Gross bit rate 54 Mbps BRAN Wireless Local Multimedia 11 Mbps 5.5 Mbps Hiperlan/ a b (11 Mbps) b (5.5 Mbps mode) Wireless Local Area Coverage Personal Area Coverage/ Serial Cable Replacement 2 Mbps 1 Mbps HomeRF Wide Area Coverage 500 kbps Bluetooth UMTS Source: Nokia 10 m 30 m 60 m 100 m 200 m > 400 m Indoors 500 m 5 km Outdoors 7

8 Network architecture Roaming Internet Channel 1 Channel 3 Channel 2 Channel 2 Channel 1 8

9 Why WLAN is not real CDMA In theory Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) can handle several simultaneous connections on one frequency BUT In order not to infere other transmissions on the same frequency, the Chip-code used on the system should be at least 15 bit = 2 simultaneous system In WLAN there is only 11 bits (optimisation of computational efficiency and costs) => Two systems on the same channel cause interference to each other => User experiences this interference as bit rate reduction / smaller coverage 9

10 Channels and interference Power EIRP 100 mw = 20 dbm in Europe 1000 mw = 30 dbm in USA Mbit/s bit rate 2400 MHz ,5 MHz 11 Mbit/s bit rate 2,4 GHz is widely in use (ISM band = Industrial, Scientific, Medical) open for all if power limit is not exceeded No guarantees of channel availability Microwaves operate the same band, but their interference is quite small in reality Most important sources of interference are other WLAN-networks, Bluetooth and Wireless Video transmission systems Lack of channels is the most important problem => Only one network in one premises There are different opinion on Bluetooth interference - but it still exisists 10

11 Access Point average indoor coverage IEEE b Standard DSSS 2 Mbit/s 90m radius 5.5 Mbit/s 50m radius 11 Mbps 30m radius Antti Siitonen, 2001

12 Outdoor Coverage 90 degrees Channel 8 Max distance 1 km 90 degrees Channel 12 Max distance 1 km 90 degrees Channel 4 Max distance 1 km 90 degrees Channel 1 Max distance 1 km 25 degrees 50 meters / 23 m 200 meters / 93 m 500 meters / 233 m 12

13 Link budget Downlink Expected multpath fading 3 % 99,76 db TX RF power 15 dbm Pigtail -0,4 db In meters 948,35 meters LMR400 22,5 m -5,3 db Lightning protecto -0,4 db Frequency 2,45E+09 Antenna 10 dbi Signal velocity 3E+08 EIRP 18,9 dbm Wavelength 0, RX Antenna 2,45 dbi 250 cm cable -0,5 db Sensitivity 82 dbm Treshold -84 dbm More critical - Delay spread treshold Mbit/s Mbit/s 13

14 Limitations Best effort resource management (CSMA/CA) No QoS No guaranteed bit rates 11 Mbit/s system provides only 5,5 Mbit/s Layer 3 bit rate and is half duplex Channel limitation - only 3 orthogonal channels Several networks on the same spot cause interference Small power - short connections Practically Line of Sight Commercial equipment mainly for indoor use 14

15 Terminals Laptop PCs PDA:s Hybrids» PCMCIA-cards primary» IBM, HP, DELL and Toshiba offer also built in WLAN in some laptop models» Trend: WLAN will be standard property of Laptop» So far PCMCIA-cards + adapter» Examples: Compaq ipaq ja HP Jornada» Trend: WLAN will integrate with PDA» Challenges in battery life time» WLAN+GPRS, WLAN+UMTS, WLAN+Bluetooth 15

16 Security: WLAN Physical Layer Licence free frequency band Uncontrolled usage of frequency allows anyone to use the spectrum DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACKS» Difficult (impossible) to prevent Spread Spectrum technology Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (most important) Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (less used) Basically complex methods, but EAVESDROPPING IS POSSIBLE» Buy a WLAN-card!» Can be prevented on higher layers 16

17 WLAN DataLink Layer Medium Access Control CSMA/CA RTS/CTS possible Security IEEE provides two security methods» Authentication» Open System» All stations may request authentication» Authentication can be granted to any request or only those from defined stations» Shared Key» Encryption» Authentication only for those stations that possess a secret encryption key» Encryption (optional) must be supported» Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) RC-4 17

18 WEP Authentication & Encryption Based on RC4 PRNG algorithm from RSA Data Security Inc. Key length bits Was originally selected to meet following criteria» reasonably strong..but still easy and light to implement» self-synchronizing..packet loss, mobility» computationally efficent..price-performance» exportable..nsa in USA Provides enough security to most purposes, BUT Encrypts only data (no headers) Has been proven to be weak [Walker, J. Unsafe at any key size; An analysis of the WEP encapsulation, IEEE /362, October 2000] Easy to insert extra packets in to the network Attacks may be done by passive eavesdropping - software available in Internet Manual key management» Difficult (Impossible) on public network» WEAK SECURITY - NONE AT PUBLIC NETWORK 18

19 WLAN Security in general Standard security solution is weak and implementation has disadvantages Must be taken into consideration when planning high security solutions Can not be used in public networks WEP encryption doesn t solve higher layer security needs Authentication for users and terminals Session encryption, integrity and origin Ipsec and application layer solutions are recommended 19

20 WLANs WPANs Unlicenced spectrum standards Infrared IRdA Bluetooth kbit/s-10 Mbit/s HomeRF IEEE b Hiperlan 1 2,4 GHz 700 kbit/s HomeRF Wideband 1,6 Mbit/s 8 Mbit/s 11 Mbit/s 5 GHz 2,4 GHz 5 GHz IEEE a Hiperlan 2 Frozen Bluetooth 2 No support 3-10 Mbit/s Higher bit rates New profiles New radio Higher bit rate, security, g,I,e QoS (Dynamic Frequency Selection, 36 Mbit/s Transmit Power Control) Most probable IEEE h evolution Harmonized 5GHz 23 Mbit/s 54 Mbit/s ? 20

21 WLAN-standards Techology IEEE B IEEE G IEEE I,E Hiperlan 2 Europe USA IEEE A Europe USA Integrated WLAN/GPRS?? Integrated WLAN/UMTS?? Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q Evaluation Building Pilot use <1% Commercial use 21

22 vs. HiperLAN/2 Property b a HiperLAN/2 Frequency 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz 5 GHz 5 GHz ~Max Layer 1 2 Mbit/s 11 Mbit/s 54 Mbit/s 54 Mbit/s bit rate ~Max Layer Mbit/s 5 Mbit/s 32 Mbit/s 32 Mbit/s bit rate Resource management Best effort CSMA/CA Best effort CSMA/CA Best effort CSMA/CA Centralized management / TDMA/TDD Connection Connectionless Connectionless Connectionless Connectionless QoS Poor Poor Poor Adequate Encryption Poor RC4 Poor RC4 So far poor RC4 Good DES, 3DES Radio Link Quality control Wired connection Poor Poor So far poor Good Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet, IP, ATM, UMTS, FireWire, PPP 22

23 WLAN & UMTS For GSM/GPRS/ÙMTS-operator WLAN is an opportunity to offer local high bit rate wireless data connections as an extention to basic mobile services Interesting issues are roaming between technologies, user authentiaction and customer relationship management and billing If hybrid terminals enter the market this scenario seems even more interesting Mobile IP, IPsec and IPv6 seem to be very interesting solutions for this kind of usage scenarios 23

24 Roaming - current situation WLAN networks mainly corporate private networks No roaming agreements For security reasons corporates will not open their networks By itself WLAN offers only local mobility In public netoworks there is always the network name challenge Often there is also separate access control for billing purposes Technology interoperability has improven a lot 24

25 ISP roaming There are some RADIUS-based roaming implementations for traditional Dialup-ISP-operators Clearing-houses ipass and GRIC-communications Value: Local access services Could be utilized also in WLAN-implementations Primary option for ISP Challenge: Popularity Only partial solution 25

26 GSM-based roaming In GSM there are several roaming agreements made and the system has proved to be working Using GSM technology for authentication, roaming and billing does t solve all challenges and actually introduces some new If GSM technology is in use there is a need for external gateway solution between WLAN and GSM Solutions are available on the market, but they still need some integration work before commercial launches 26

27 Ω Ω ENTERPRISE 4000 UL TRA SPA RC DRIVEN Ω Ω Ω ENTERPRISE 4000 UL TR ASPA RC DRIV EN Ω SD SD Ω Ω ENTERPRISE 4000 UL TRA SPA RC DRIVEN Ω SD MobileIP Macro mobility Mobile Node Soft Hand-off BTS BTS BTS Sun BSC FA Hard Hand-off BTS BTS Sun BTS Sun Parent FA BSC FA 27

28 WLAN Business Models Corporate Market Equipment and solutions sales Solution as service (Operations and maintenance) Operated access network for public use Flat rate Time based or volume based billing Prepaid - voucher type WLAN as home network extension WLAN access as mobile extension 28

29 Future Network? Operaattorin palvelut: Signalling gateway, HLR, CAMEL, Mobile IP Home Agent WAP, SIP Proxy, DNS, WWW, , etc.. PSTN N*64 kbps GSM GPRS Media Gateway IPv6 Operaatorin IP runkoverkko- Real time QoS - Multicast - Accounting - Security - Mobility Internet Digital TV UMTS HIPERLAN/2 Local mobility domain One Terminal - several interfaces WLAN 29

30 A Future Usage Scenario UMTS Download MP3 music files Check and download messages WLAN UMTS Send a picture message WLAN UMTS WLAN GSM/GPRS Place a phone call Start 30

31 Summary For corporate use WLAN offers already high bit rate IP connections with local mobility Security issues must be taken into consideration - IP-VPN is recommended WLAN fits best in controlled environment Interference and capacity issues can be handled if the environment is restricted For mobile operator WLAN could offer complementary service to exisisting mobile services if mobile WLAN terminals emerge Billing Authentication & Customer Relationship Management Roaming 31

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