WPAN-like Systems. UWB Ultra Wide Band. IrDA Infrared Data Association. Bluetooth. Z-Wave. WPAN Wireless Personal Area Network

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1 WPAN-like Systems WPAN Wireless Personal Area Network PAN: Personal Area Network. Small, within a few meters. WPAN: Wireless PAN. Mostly short-range, low-power, lowrate networks. More or less self-organizing. TSKS03 Wireless Systems, Lecture 10 Mikael Olofsson, spring 2009 IrDA Infrared Data Association UWB Ultra Wide Band Z-Wave Remote control Bluetooth Short range network ZigBee Short range network IrDA Infrared Data Association Medium: Infrared light Range: Approximately 1m. Direction: Directed within at least ±15 degrees. Datarate: 2.4 kb/s to 16 Mb/s Point-to-point Requires line-of-sight. IrDA was popular on laptops and some desktops during the late 90s through the early 2000s. Replaced by Bluetooth and WiFi. UWB Ultra Wide Band Small low-power networks. Uses at least 500MHz of bandwidth. (528 MHz) Datarate: Up to 480 Mb/s Rate 1/3 convolutional code with various puncturing schemes. Modulation: QPSK and 16-QAM. Used with OFDM. Frequency bands: 14 bands between GHz. Power control: Yes. Z-Wave Very low-rate communication for in-door use, primarily remote control. Frequency band: Uses the 900 MHz ISM-bands (varies between countries). Less interference than for systems in the 2.4 GHz band. Datarate: 9.6 kb/s or 40 kb/s Modulation: GFSK Range: 30m (line-of-sight) Max power: 1mW (USA), 25 mw (Europe) Topology: Mesh network (no master node). Bluetooth Named after Harald Blåtand (Bluetooth), king of Denmark and later also Norway, dead 986 or 987. United and connected Denmark and Norway. Small low-power, low-rate, networks. Frequency band: 2.4 GHz band. Based on IEEE Three classes: 1: 100mW, 100m 2: 2.5mW, 10m 3: 1mW, 1m Datarates: Up to 3 Mb/s Access-method: FH-CDMA with collisions Modulation: GFSK, PSK, DQPSK, 8-DPSK. 1

2 ZigBee Based on IEEE Self-organizing ad-hoc network. Frequency bands: 868 MHz with BPSK and 20 kb/s 915 MHz with BPSK and 40 kb/s 2.4 GHz with QPSK and 250 kb/s Range: m. Spread spectrum: FH-CDMA Access method: CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance) Sender side Sending application. Representation of data, such as encryption. Negotiates starting and stopping sessions. Translates a whole message into packets. Routing packets. Translates packets into a bitstream. Translates a bitstream into a signal accepted by the channel. The OSI Model Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer The actual physical channel Receiver side Receiving application. Inverse representation mapping. Negotiates starting and stopping sessions. Reassembles a whole message from packets. Reassembling packets. Takes a bitstream as input and delivers packets as output. Translates received signal into a bitstream. IEEE 802 Standards Overview Security 802 Overview and Architecture Management MAC PHY MAC PHY Logical Link Bridging MAC MAC MAC MAC MAC MAC MAC PHY PHY PHY PHY PHY PHY PHY Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer CSMA/CD Token Ring Integrated Demand WiMAX Services Priority Token Bus Distributed WLAN Bluetooth Queue and Token Bus ZigBee Is Bluetooth only for headphones? It is a Wireless Network for Short Range Communication Bluetooth Applications Wireless keyboards 2

3 Bluetooth Applications Bluetooth Applications Handy mobile phones In-car communication Bluetooth Applications Three power classes for different ranges. Approx range Bar-code scanners 100 m 10 m 1 m Modulation: GFSK, Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying Error Control Coding 1: Headers and data Headers (3,1,3) Repetition Code Payload (15,10,4) Shortened Hamming Code 3

4 Error Control Coding 2: CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check for ARQ Timing Bluetooth Topology Bluetooth Piconet Bluetooth Topology Bluetooth Scatternet Master Slave - Active Parked - Inactive Stand-By - Disconnected Master Slave Parked Stand-By IEEE Coexistence with other 2.4 GHz technologies Overview of Modulation, Coding and Rates Timing issues Interference 4

5 TCM Trellis Coded Modulation The output of the convolutional encoder chooses signal points. Trellises Trellises 0 Trellises IEEE ZigBee Overview c.f. IEEE Standard

6 ZigBee Applications Wireless Sensor Networks ZigBee Applications Agricultural Sensor Networks ZigBee Applications ZigBee Topology One coordinator, the rest is more or less arbitrary. Star Medical Sensor Networks for patient surveillance Mesh Cluster Coordinator Router End node 6

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