Seminar 7 Title: IT architecture

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1 IMS 1502 Studio 2: Information Systems Foundations 2 Seminar 7 Title: IT architecture Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 Seminar Objectives The aim of this seminar is for students to: develop an understanding of the organisational structure required of computer systems to store electronic files (program code and texts) extend their knowledge of computer networks understanding the complexities involved in implementing a networked information system Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 References IMS1501 seminar 11 Benson, S and Standing, C. (2005) Information systems: A business approach. Wiley, Australia (Chapter 3, 5) Martin, EW., Brown, C., DeHayes, D., Hoffer, J and Perkins, C. (2005) Managing Information Technology. Pearson Education, Australia. (Chapter 3, 4 and p ) / Seminar Sem. 2, 2005

2 Seminar overview IT architecture (hardware, software, networks, data) Computer networks Wide area networks: Internet Local area networks: Intranets Servers and services Cabled and cableless or wireless networks Data File management File sharing > IR, Bluetooth, network drives, ftp, telnet, Signifies that the slide is NOT in the student seminar notes Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 IT architecture Technological assets: hardware software networks data Human assets: personnel culture/values management system (See Martin et al, page ) VISIT The Monash Museum of Computing History" (level 2, Building B, Caulfield.) Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 IT architecture: Hardware Personal computers Workstations and Terminals Servers Desktop PC, laptops, portable, handhelds Reduced applications, kiosks, remote Many users, many computers. Web, file, print servers Operating systems Linux / Unix Windows Apple.. Tiger (others eg VMS) Someone needs to decide what is best for the user, the organisation and the system. This someone could be you! Seminar Sem. 2, 2005

3 IT architecture: Software See ims1501 seminar 11, and Martin et al chapter 3 Computer software: Operating system > Platform for application software > Basic tasks such as recognising I/O devices and peripherals, file management facilities System software > Controls and monitors activities and recourses such as memory, tasks ( eg printing, copying, deleting) Application software > General purpose ( eg wordprocessing), dedicated ( eg payroll) Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 IT architecture: Networks Networked world, networked people, networked business, networked computers and applications, network society, networked workers. Network topologies. The geometric arrangement of a computer nodes (systems). Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring. Network protocols. The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols in networking are Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), Wi-Fi (IEEE ), Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Network architecture. Connectivity relationship, eg peerto-peer and client/server architecture. Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 IT architecture: Networks - common topologies Seminar Sem. 2, 2005

4 IT architecture: Networks - WANs Wide Area Networks A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs). Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through public networks, such as the telephone system. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet. ( Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 IT architecture: Networks - LANs Local Area Networks A computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves (making a WAN). Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers, but it also is able to access data and devices anywhere on the LAN. This means that many userscan share devices as well as data. Users can also use the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending or engaging in chat sessions. [ ] Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 IT architecture: Networks - Servers A server is a computer or device on a network that manages network resources Need to be robust, process instructions fast, and have large amounts of memory and storage. Examples: File server, print server, database server, web server Services of a server need to be started and permissions organised Seminar Sem. 2, 2005

5 IT architecture: Networks - Servers Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 IT architecture: Networks - Cabled Coaxial used to cable together computer equipment on networks (and for your TV aerial). Centre wire surround by insulation CAT 5 - used to cable together computer equipment on networks, is faster and cuts out more interference than coaxial Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 IT architecture: Networks - Cableless (wireless) [Drawings are by James Grant Monash Uni MIT , however they have been modified for this presentation] Seminar Sem. 2, 2005

6 Wireless networks connectivity comparison Protocol IrDA IrDA Bluetooth Wireless networking technology comparison Standard Max range Max speed SIR 1.7m 115kbps FIR 1.4m 4mbps Short range 10m 721Kbps Power Low Low Very low Bluetooth High range 100m 721Kbps Medium a ~25m 54Mbps Medium- High b ~100m 11Mbps Medium g ~100m 54Mbps Medium- High (Table obtained from James Grant s thesis Monash Uni MIT -2004:14) Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 IT architecture: Networks -cable and cableless (wireless) Which one to use?? Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 IT architecture: Data File management File structure should be logical, intuitive and consistent in naming conventions, font properties, and location. For example, naming conventions > Db1.mdb -> references.mdb > Book1.xls ->ims1502_2005_final.xls > Document1.doc -> 3323_courseMap05.doc If a web server the file structure should mirror the structure of the web site itself. Important to form and follow standards. Watch out for case sensitive servers (Unix). For example: SIMS web site Seminar Sem. 2, 2005

7 IT architecture: Data File management Quality Standards Maintenance Personal computers, servers and workstations Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 IT architecture: Data File sharing Sharing files electronically: Collaborative workspaces /shared drives private and public, eg Lotus Notes, Yahoo Groups Mobile devices, eg USB devices, mobile phones, PDAs and laptops via infrared or Bluetooth File transfer protocol (ftp) Caution Over-writing files, poor file management Version control, logging changes, backup procedures Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 IT architecture: Data File sharing Remotely accessing data telnet (a terminal emulation program that runs on a local computer to access a remote computer.) Windows Remote Desktop is a GUI version of telnet File transfer Propotocl (FTP): command, GUI including Web > ftp://ftp.monash.edu.au/ ->pub/ May require software Often requires username and password to access content Seminar Sem. 2, 2005

8 Information systems running on networks What you need to plan Workstations Servers Connectivity between servers and workstations Service providers (ISP); (Domain name registration); Services provided (costs) Data security - access Data quality - loading, editing files, version Change management, training Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 Summary IT architecture is a critical component when designing an information system. The analyst should consider: Hardware Software Networks Data (review week6 seminar on Information architecture) Seminar Sem. 2, 2005 This week in studios Monashs computer networks Internet service providers Asking the right (computer infrastructure) questions. Seminar Sem. 2, 2005

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