Stable Internet Route Selection

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1 Stable Internet Route Selection Brighten Godfrey Matthew Caesar Ian Haken Scott Shenker Ion Stoica UC Berkeley NANOG 40 June 6, 2007

2 BGP instability: trouble control plane data plane CPU cycles update processing uses majority of cycles on some core routers degraded path quality BGP causes majority of packet loss bursts Stable Route Selection: simple technique to significantly improve stability

3 What about Route Flap Damping? Introduces pathologies Impacts availability...the application of flap damping in ISP networks is NOT recommended. --RIPE Route Working Group, May 2006 Only helps for very unstable routes

4 Stable Route Selection Given a choice between routes, select routes that are less likely to fail. RFD philosophy SRS philosophy shut off bad routes always pick a route if possible, but prefer more stable routes

5 Challenges Inferring stability of paths, locally Dependence: does one ISP s benefit require others participation? Flexibility required TRADEOFFS AHEAD

6 Outline Design Evaluation Improvement in stability Dependence Flexibility Conclusion

7 Design? BGP decision process 1. Highest local pref 2. Shortest path length 3. Lowest origin type 4. Lowest MED 5. ebgp- over ibgp-learned 6. Lowest IGP cost 7. Lowest router ID SRS heuristic 2. Current route 3. Shortest path length 4. Longest uptime

8 Simplified processes Simulator has one router per AS, at most one link between AS s So... Standard BGP 1. Highest local pref 2. Shortest path length 3. Lowest router ID SRS 1. Highest local pref 2. Current route 3. Shortest path length 4. Longest uptime

9 Outline Design Evaluation Improvement in stability Dependence Flexibility Conclusion

10 Evaluation methodology Event-based BGP simulator Topology Local prefs AS-adjacency failures Internet AS-level cust./prov./peer inferred from RouteViews Measuring interruptions: route changes/ withdrawals

11 The bottom line RFD & SRS 2.8 SRS 5.3 RFD 8.9 Mean interruptions per month per src-dst pair Availability loss relative to Std BGP 4% 0% 5% Std. BGP 26 0%

12 Dependence between ISPs Std. BGP Interruptions per month % reduction for first adopters 80% reduction at full deployment Fraction of ASs running SRS

13 Dependence between ISPs Factor improvement using SRS Tier 1 s AT&T Quest XO Comm. Tier 1s benefit more than other ISPs when unilaterally running SRS mean for all ISPs Interruptions per month in Standard BGP

14 Route flexibility Flexibility also needed for load balancing business relationships path length What is the tradeoff with these other objectives?

15 How much flexibility? Flexibility for SRS Business LP s 5.3 Realistic traffic eng., etc.? Std BGP 26 Flexibility for other objectives Interruptions per month per src/dst pair

16 Tradeoffs: path length SRS only 4% longer! Fraction of source-destination pairs (Hypothetical 0.4 Longest paths strategy: % longer) 0 1 Longest paths SRS Standard BGP Mean path length

17 Outline Design Evaluation Improvement in stability Dependence Flexibility Conclusion

18 Summary Stable Route Selection: use flexibility in path selection to optimize for stability Significantly more stable Very low stretch No impact on availability Ongoing work: implementation & deployment

19 Questions for operators 1 How useful is stability? 2 3 What are the barriers? (nondeterminism, traffic engineering...) How much flexibility would be available to SRS? Very interested in feedback and collaborations

20 Backup slides

21 AS adjacency mean session time distribution Fraction of links e+06 1e+07 Average sessiontime (seconds)

22 Attribution of improvement instability = interruptions per event x # events speed convergence avoid failures ~8% better Majority of the improvement

23 SRS vs. flap damping SRS: better mean improvement RFD: better for worst ~0.5% of src-dst pairs Fraction of source-destination pairs Std. BGP FD SRS SRS + FD x 10x Interruptions per month

24 SRS vs. flap damping SRS is more conservative SRS is more aggressive always pick a route if one is advertised use any flexibility available for stability

25 SRS with less flexibility Interruptions per month Substantial benefit with just 1.2 choices Mean number of route options 1.85 possible paths with business class Local Prefs But how much flexibility in practice?

26 SRS convergence Convergence depends on decision process If heuristic is passive SRS Heuristic 2. Current route 3. Lowest path length 4. Longest uptime Any stable state for Std BGP is still stable Gao-Rexford constraints still sufficient to guarantee convergence to stable state (Simulations: slightly faster convergence)

27 SRS can converge where standard BGP doesn t } tie 24 Dispute wheel

28 Acknowledgements This material is based upon work supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Traffic sign image from Manual of Traffic Signs, by Richard C. Moeur (http://www.trafficsign.us)

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