Routing Protocols. The routers in an internet are responsible for receiving and. forwarding IP datagrams through the interconnected set of

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Routing Protocols. The routers in an internet are responsible for receiving and. forwarding IP datagrams through the interconnected set of"

Transcription

1 Routing Protocols MITA DUTTA The routers in an internet are responsible for receiving and forwarding IP datagrams through the interconnected set of sub-networks from source to destination. Routing protocols essential to operation of an internet. Router must have idea of topology and condition of internet. Routing protocols provide this information. Routing algorithm is used to make a routing decision for a particular datagram, based on current routing information. Decisions based on some least cost criterion. Routing Table One required for each router Entry for each network Not for each destination Routing only needs network portion 1

2 Once datagram reaches router attached to destination network, that router can deliver to host. Each entry shows next node on route Not whole route Routing Tables in Hosts May also exist in hosts If attached to single network with single router then not needed All traffic must go through that router (called the gateway) If multiple routers attached to network, host needs table saying which to use A routing protocol is the implementation of a routing algorithm in software or hardware. A routing protocol uses metrics to determine which path to utilize to transmit a packet across an internetwork. 2

3 3 MITA DUTTA The metrics used by routing protocols include: Number of network layer devices along the path (hop count) Delay Load Cost Static routing and Dynamic Routing : The router learns about remote networks from neighbor routers or from an administrator. The router then builds a routing table, that describes how to find the remote networks. If the network is directly connected then the router already knows how to get to the network. If the networks are not attached, the router must learn how to get to the remote network with either static routing (administrator manually enters the routes in the router's table) or dynamic routing. The routers then update each other about all the networks they know. If a change occurs e.g. a router goes down, the dynamic

4 routing protocols automatically inform all routers about the change. If static routing is used, then the administrator has to update all changes into all routers and therefore no routing protocol is used. Only dynamic routing uses routing protocols, which enable routers to : Dynamically discover and maintain routes Calculate routes Distribute routing updates to other routers Reach agreement with other routers about the network topology Autonomous Systems (AS) An autonomous system is an internet connected by homogeneous routers; generally, the routers are under the administrative control of a single entity. 4

5 5 MITA DUTTA Group of routers exchanging information via common routing protocol Set of routers and networks managed by single organization Connected Except in time of failure An interior router protocol (IRP) passes routing information between routers within an autonomous system. The protocol used within the autonomous system does not need to be implemented outside of the system. Interior Routing Protocol (IRP) Passes routing information between routers within AS Does not need to be implemented outside AS Allows IRP to be tailored May be different algorithms and routing information in different connected AS Need minimum information from other connected AS

6 At least one router in each AS must talk Use Exterior Routing Protocol (ERP) Examples of an IRP: Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol Exterior Routing Protocol 6 MITA DUTTA The protocol used to pass routing information between routers in different autonomous systems is referred to as an exterior router protocol (ERP). Pass less information than IRP Router in first system determines route to target AS Routers in target AS then co-operate to deliver datagram ERP does not deal with details within target AS Examples of an EGP: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Exterior Gateway Protocol (Replaced by BGP)

7 Fig. Application of Exterior and Interior Routing Protocols 7

8 Approaches to Routing Protocols "Distance Vector" and "Link State" are terms used to describe routing protocols which are used by routers to forward packets between networks. The purpose of any routing protocol is to dynamically communicate information about all network paths used to reach a destination and to select the from those paths, the best path to reach a destination network. The terms distance vector and link state are used to group routing protocols into two broad categories based on whether the routing protocol selects the best routing path based on a distance metric (the distance) and an interface (the vector), or selects the best routing path by calculating the state of each link in a path and finding the path that has the lowest total metric to reach the destination. Distance Vector Routing 8

9 Distance means how far and vector means in which direction. Distance Vector Routing calculate a best route to reach a destination. Distance Vector means that Routers are advertised as vector of Distance and Direction. Distance Vector Algorithm D x (y) = estimate of least cost from x to y Distance vector: D x = [D x (y): y є N ] Node x knows cost to each neighbor v: c(x,v) Node x maintains D x = [D x (y): y є N ] Node x also maintains its neighbors distance vectors For each neighbor v, x maintains D v = [D v (y): y є N ] Basic Idea: Each node periodically sends its own distance vector estimate to neighbors 9

10 When a node x receives new DV estimate from neighbor, it updates its own DV using B-F equation: D x (y) min{c(x,v) + D v (y)} for each node y N Under minor, natural conditions, the estimate D x (y) converge to the actual least cost d x (y) Bellman-Ford Equation: Define d x (y) := cost of least-cost path from x to y Then D x (y) min{c(x,v) + D v (y)} for each node y N where min is taken over all neighbors v of x Bellman-Ford example 10

11 Fig. Packet Switched Network Clearly, d v (z) = 5, d x (z) = 3, d w (z) = 3 d u (z) = min { c(u,v) + d v (z), c(u,x) + d x (z), c(u,w) + d w (z) } = min {2 + 5, 1 + 3, 5 + 3} = 4 Node that achieves minimum is next hop in shortest path DV EXAMPLE 1: 11

12 Packet Switched Network In this network we have 3 routers X, Y and Z: D x (y) = min{c(x,y) + D y (y), c(x,z) + D z (y)} = min{2+0, 7+1} = 2 D x (z) = min{c(x,y) + D y (z), c(x,z) + D z (z)} = min{2+1, 7+0} = 3 Node that achieves minimum is the next hop in the shortest path. 12

13 13

14 DV EXAMPLE 2 The current time (or iteration) in the algorithm with T, and shall begin (at time 0, or T=0) by creating distance matrices for each router to its immediate neighbors. The routing tables below, are build with the shortest path is highlighted with the color green, a new shortest path is highlighted with the color yellow. 14

15 At this point, all the routers (A,B,C,D) have new "shortest-paths" for their DV (the list of distances that are from them to another router via a neighbor). They each broadcast this new DV to all their neighbors: A to B and C, B to C and A, C to A, B, and D, and D to C. As each of these neighbors receives this information, they now recalculate the shortest path using it. For example: A receives a DV from C that tells A there is a path via C to D, with a distance (or cost) of 5. Since the current "shortestpath" to C is 23, then A knows it has a path to D that costs 23+5=28. As there are no other shorter paths that A knows about, it puts this as its current estimate for the shortest-path from itself (A) to D, via C. 15

16 At T =1 Again, all the routers have gained in the last iteration (at T=1) new "shortest-paths", so they all broadcast their DVs to their neighbors; This prompts each neighbor to re-calculate their shortest distances again. For instance: A receives a DV from B that tells A there is a path via B to D, with a distance (or cost) of 7. Since the current "shortestpath" to B is 3, then A knows it has a path to D that costs 7+3=10. This path to D of length 10 (via B) is shorter than the existing "shortest-path" to D of length 28 (via C), so it becomes the new "shortest-path" to D. 16

17 At T=2 This time, only routers A and D have new shortest-paths for their DVs. So they broadcast their new DVs to their neighbors: A broadcasts to B and C, and D broadcasts to C. This causes each of the neighbors receiving the new DVs to re-calculate their shortest paths. However, since the information from the DVs doesn't yield any shorter paths than they already have in their routing tables, then there are no changes to the routing tables. At T=3 17

18 None of the routers have any new shortest-paths to broadcast. Therefore, none of the routers receive any new information that might change their routing tables. So the algorithm comes to a stop. Distance vector routing protocols pass periodic copies of routing table to neighbor routers and accumulate distance vectors. In distance vector routing protocol, routers discover the best path to destination from each neighbor. The routing table updates proceed step by step from router to router. Periodic Updates Periodic updates means that at the end of a certain time period, updates will be transmitted. 18

19 Neighbors In the context of routers, neighbors always means routers sharing a common data link. A distance vector routing protocol sends its updates to neighboring routers and depends on them to pass the update information along to their neighbors. For this reason, distance vector routing is said to use hop-by-hop updates. Broadcast Updates When a router first becomes active on a network, how does it find other routers and how does it announce its own presence? Several methods are available. The simplest is to send the updates to the broadcast address. Neighboring routers speaking the same routing protocol will hear the broadcasts and take appropriate action. Hosts and other devices uninterested in the routing updates will simply drop the packets. Link State Routing : 19

20 20 MITA DUTTA A Link-state routing is a concept used in routing of packet-switched networks in computer communications. Link-state routing works by having the routers tell every router on the network about its closest neighbors. Each router does the following: Keeps track of its neighbors: the neighbor s name, and the cost of the link to the neighbor. Construct an LSA (Link state Advertisement) packet that lists its neighbor s router names and link costs. This includes new neighbors, changes in link costs and links to neighbors that have gone down. Sends out LSA packet so that all routers receive it. Records each LSA packet it receives in its database immediately, to ensure that it has the most recently generated LSA packet from every other router. Using accumulated LSA packet data to construct a complete map of internetwork topology.

21 Can calculate shortest path to each destination network Router use routing algorithm to determine shortest paths In practice, Dijkstra's algorithm Open shortest path first (OSPF) protocol uses link-state routing. Dijkstra's Algorithm : Find shortest paths from given source node to all other nodes, by developing paths in order of increasing path length Proceeds in stages Let N s M = set of nodes in the network = source node = set of nodes so far incorporated d ij = link cost from node i to node j 21

22 d ii = 0 d ij = if nodes are not directly connected d ij 0 if nodes directly connected D n = cost of least-cost path s to n currently known At termination, cost of least-cost path in graph from s to n The algorithm has three steps; steps 2 and 3 are repeated until M = N. That is, steps 2and 3 are repeated until final paths have been assigned to all nodes in the network: 1. Initialization M = {s} i.e. set of nodes so far incorporated consists of only source node D n = d sn for n s i.e. initial path costs to neighboring nodes are link costs 2. Get Next Node Find neighboring node not in M with least-cost path from s 22

23 Incorporate node into M Incorporate that node in M that contributes to the path. This can be expressed as: Find w M such that Add w to M; 3. Update Least-Cost Paths D n = min[d n, D w + d wn ] for all n M If the latter term is the minimum, the path from s to n is now the path from s to w concatenated with the link from w to n. The algorithm terminates when all nodes have been added to M. 23

24 Figure. Packet-switched Network Table below shows the result of applying this algorithm to the above Figure using s = 1. Note that at each step, the path to each node plus the total cost of that path is generated. After the final iteration, the least-cost path to each node and the cost of that path have been developed. The same procedure can be used with node 2 as source node, and so on. 24

25 Table 25

26 Figure. Example of Dijkstra s algorithm based on above Table Bellman-Ford Algorithm: Find shortest paths from source node such that paths contain at most one link Find shortest paths such that paths have at most two links 26

27 s = source node w(i, j) = link cost from node i to node j w(i, i) = 0 w(i, j) = if nodes are not directly connected w(i, j) 0 if nodes directly connected h = maximum number of links in path at current stage L h (n) =cost of least-cost path from s to n such that no more than h links The algorithm has the following steps, step 2 of which is repeated until none of the costs change: 1. Initialization L 0 (n) =, for all n s L h (s) = 0, for all h 2. Update For each successive h 0: For each n s, compute 27

28 Connect n with predecessor node j that achieves minimum Eliminate any connection of n with different predecessor node formed during an earlier iteration. Path from s to n terminates with link from j to n Table b shows the result of applying this algorithm to Figure, using s = 1. At each step, the least-cost paths with a maximum number of links equal to h are found. After the final iteration, the least-cost path to each node, and the cost of that path, have been developed. The same procedure can be used with node 2 as source node, and so on. Note that the results agree with those obtained using Dijkstra's algorithm. Figure illustrate the results of Table. Table b Bellman-Ford Algorithm (s=1) 28

29 29

30 Figure. Example of Bellman-Ford algorithm based on above Table Open Shortest Path First Protocol OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is a router protocol used within larger autonomous system networks OSPF is interior routing protocol for TCP/IP based internets Link state routing used Router maintains descriptions of state of local links Transmits updated state information to all routers it knows about Router receiving update must acknowledge Each router maintains database Directed graph Router Database Graph 30

31 Vertices Router Network Transit, if it can carry data that neither originates nor terminates on an end system attached to this network. Stub, if it is not transit Edges graph edges that connect two router vertices when the corresponding routers are connected to each other by a direct point-to-point link. graph edges that connect a router vertex to a network vertex when the router is directly connected to the network. Figure below shows an autonomous system. 31

32 Fig. An Autonomous system Figure below shows the directed graph of an above autonomous system. 32

33 Fig. Directed graph of autonomous system The mapping is straightforward: 33

34 Two routers joined by a point-to-point link are represented in the graph as being directly connected by a pair of edges, one in each direction (e.g., routers 6 and 10). When multiple routers are attached to a network, the directed graph shows all routers bi-directionally connected to the network vertex (e.g., routers 1,2,3, and 4 all connect to network 3). If a single router is attached to a network, the network will appear in the graph as a stub connection (e.g., network 7). An end system, called a host, can be directly connected to a router; such a case is depicted in the corresponding graph (e.g., host 1). If a router is connected to other autonomous systems, then the path cost to each network in the other system must be obtained by some exterior routing protocol (ERP). Each such network is 34

35 represented on the graph by a stub and an edge to the router with the known path cost (e.g., networks 12 through 15). A cost is associated with the output side of each router interface. This cost is configurable by the system administrator. Arcs on the graph are labeled with the cost of the corresponding router-output interface. Arcs having no labeled cost have a cost of 0. Note that arcs leading from networks to routers always have a cost of 0. A database corresponding to the directed graph is maintained by each router. It is pieced together from link-state messages from other routers in the internet. Using Dijkstra's algorithm a router calculates the least-cost path to all destination networks. The result for router 6 of Figure (Directed graph) is shown as a tree in Figure below, with R6 as the root of the tree. The tree gives the entire route to any destination network or host. However, only the next hop to the destination is used in the forwarding process. The resulting routing table for router 6 is shown in Table. The table includes 35

36 entries for routers advertising external routes (routers 5 and 7). For external networks whose identity is known, entries are also provided. 36

37 Fig. The Shortest Path Tree for router R6 Routing table for router R6 37

38 OSPF Packet Header 38

39 Version number: 2 is current Type: one of 5 Packet length: in octets including header Router id: This field contains the 4-byte IP address. The router (source) ID is used to uni-quely identify the router throughout the autonomous system. Area id: Area to which source router belongs. This is also a 4- byte number. 39

40 Checksum This field includes the checksum for the entire OSPF packet, excluding the authentication for data corruption. Authentication type: This field contains the code for the authentication. Authentication data: used by authentication procedure OSPF Packet Types Hello: used in neighbour discovery. Hello packets are used to form a neighbor relationship between two routers. Database description: the database description (DBD) packet, is used mostly during the database exchange. Link state request a link-state request packet, is sent if part of the database is missing or out-of-date. The link-state request packet is used 40

41 to retrieve that precise piece of database information that is missing. Link state update Responds to a link-state request packet. Link state acknowledgement Acknowledges link-state update packets Routing Information Protocol (RIP) The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance-vector protocol that uses hop count as its metric. RIP is widely used for routing traffic in the global Internet and is an interior gateway protocol (IGP), which means that it performs routing within a single autonomous system. Features associated with RIP include the routing-update process, RIP routing metrics, routing stability, and routing timers. Routing Updates 41

42 RIP sends routing-update messages at regular intervals and when the network topology changes. After updating its routing table, the router immediately begins transmitting routing updates to inform other network routers of the change. RIP Routing Metric RIP uses a routing metric (hop count) to measure the distance between the source and a destination network. The maximum number of hops in a path is 15. If the metric value increases by one causes the metric to be infinity (that is, 16), the network destination is considered unreachable. RIP Stability Features To adjust for rapid network-topology changes, RIP specifies a number of stability features that are common to many routing protocols. RIP, for example, implements the split-horizon and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from 42

43 being propagated. In addition, the RIP hop-count limit prevents routing loops from continuing indefinitely. RIP Timers RIP uses numerous timers to regulate its performance. These include a routing-update timer, a route timeout, and a route-flush timer. The routing-update timer clocks the interval between periodic routing updates. Generally, it is set to 30 seconds. Each routingtable entry has a route-timeout timer associated with it. When the route-timeout timer expires, the route is marked invalid but is retained in the table until the route-flush timer expires. RIP Packet Format 43

44 Fig. RIP Packet MITA DUTTA A = Command (Request or Response) B = Version Number C = Zero D = Address Family Identifier E = Address F = Metric Command Indicates whether the packet is a request or a response. The request asks that a router send all or part of its routing table. The response can be an unsolicited regular routing update or a reply to a request. Responses contain routing table entries. Version Number Specifies the RIP version used. Zero Not used. 44

45 45 MITA DUTTA Address-Family Identifier (AFI) Specifies the address family used. RIP is designed to carry routing information for several different protocols. The AFI for IP is 2. Address Specifies the IP address for the router. Metric Indicates how many internetwork hops (routers) have been traversed in the trip to the destination. This value is between 1 and 15 for a valid route, or 16 for an unreachable route. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Allows routers (gateways) in different ASs to exchange routing information The protocol operates in terms of messages BGP Messages Open Start neighbour relationship with another router Update

46 Transmit information about single route List multiple routes to be withdrawn Keep-alive Acknowledge open message Periodically confirm neighbour relationship Notification Send when error condition detected It has three functional procedures Neighbour acquisition Neighbour reach-ability Network reach-ability Neighbor acquisition routers are considered to be neighbors if they are attached to the same sub-network 46

47 If in different ASs routers may wish to exchange information Neighbour acquisition is when two neighbouring routers agree to exchange routing information regularly One router sends request (Open Message), the other acknowledges (Keep-alive Message) Neighbor reach-ability Once a neighbor relationship is established, the neighbour reach-ability procedure is used to maintain the relationship. Periodic issue of keep-alive messages. Between all routers that are neighbours. Network reachability Each router keeps database of sub-networks it can reach and preferred route. 47

48 When change made, router issues update message that is broadcast to all other routers implementing BGP. All BGP routers build up and maintain routing information. Figure below illustrates the formats of all of the BGP messages. Each message begins with a 19-octet header containing three fields : Marker : Reserved for authentication. The sender may insert a value in this field that would be used as part of an authentication mechanism to enable the recipient to verify the identity of the sender. Length : Length of message in octets. Type: Type of message: Open, Update, Notification, Keepalive. 48

49 49

50 Open Message Format Sends open message Identifies sender s AS and gives IP address Includes Hold Time As proposed by sender If recipient prepared to open neighbour relationship Calculate hold time Reply with keep-alive Keep-alive Message Format Header only Update Message Format Information about single route through internet Information to be added to database of any recipient router Network layer reach-ability information (NLRI) 50

51 51 MITA DUTTA List of network portions of IP addresses of subnets reached by this route Total path attributes length field Path attributes field List of previously advertised routes being withdrawn May contain both Notification Message Format Error notification Message header error Includes authentication and syntax errors Open message error Syntax errors and option not recognised Proposed hold time unacceptable Update message error Syntax and validity errors Hold time expired

52 Close connection in absence of any other error Finite state machine error Includes any procedural error. Cease Used by a router to close a connection with another router in the absence of any other error. 52

Routing Protocols. Autonomous System (AS)

Routing Protocols. Autonomous System (AS) Routing Protocols Two classes of protocols: 1. Interior Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) 2. Exterior Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Autonomous System (AS) What is an AS?

More information

CS321: Computer Networks Unicast Routing

CS321: Computer Networks Unicast Routing CS321: Computer Networks Unicast Routing Dr. Manas Khatua Assistant Professor Dept. of CSE IIT Jodhpur E-mail: manaskhatua@iitj.ac.in Introduction The goal of the network layer is deliver a datagram from

More information

CSCD 330 Network Programming Spring 2018

CSCD 330 Network Programming Spring 2018 CSCD 330 Network Programming Spring 018 Lecture 16 Network Layer Routing Protocols Reading: Chapter 4 Some slides provided courtesy of J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross, All Rights Reserved, copyright 017 1 Network

More information

CSCD 330 Network Programming Spring 2017

CSCD 330 Network Programming Spring 2017 CSCD 330 Network Programming Spring 017 Lecture 16 Network Layer Routing Protocols Reading: Chapter 4 Some slides provided courtesy of J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross, All Rights Reserved, copyright 1996-007

More information

Routing Protocols --- Exterior Gateway Protocol

Routing Protocols --- Exterior Gateway Protocol Content Routing Protocols --- Exterior Gateway Protocol Linda Wu (CMPT 471 23-3) Limiting router interaction Autonomous system BGP protocol BGP messages Other issues on BGP Reference: chapter 15 Notes-13

More information

Chapter 4: Network Layer, partb

Chapter 4: Network Layer, partb Chapter 4: Network Layer, partb The slides are adaptations of the slides available by the main textbook authors, Kurose&Ross Network Layer 4-1 Interplay between routing, forwarding routing algorithm local

More information

Internet Routing Protocols Tuba Saltürk

Internet Routing Protocols Tuba Saltürk Internet Routing Protocols 15505068 Tuba Saltürk Outline Internet Routers Routing Protocol Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) Distance- Vector Routing Protocol Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Interior

More information

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) CHAPTER 42 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Background Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol developed for Internet Protocol (IP) networks by the interior gateway protocol (IGP) working

More information

Last time. Transitioning to IPv6. Routing. Tunneling. Gateways. Graph abstraction. Link-state routing. Distance-vector routing. Dijkstra's Algorithm

Last time. Transitioning to IPv6. Routing. Tunneling. Gateways. Graph abstraction. Link-state routing. Distance-vector routing. Dijkstra's Algorithm Last time Transitioning to IPv6 Tunneling Gateways Routing Graph abstraction Link-state routing Dijkstra's Algorithm Distance-vector routing Bellman-Ford Equation 10-1 This time Distance vector link cost

More information

Basic Idea. Routing. Example. Routing by the Network

Basic Idea. Routing. Example. Routing by the Network Basic Idea Routing Routing table at each router/gateway When IP packet comes, destination address checked with routing table to find next hop address Questions: Route by host or by network? Routing table:

More information

Why dynamic route? (1)

Why dynamic route? (1) Routing Why dynamic route? (1) Static route is ok only when Network is small There is a single connection point to other network No redundant route 2 Why dynamic route? (2) Dynamic Routing Routers update

More information

Why dynamic route? (1)

Why dynamic route? (1) Routing Why dynamic route? (1) Static route is ok only when Network is small There is a single connection point to other network No redundant route 2 Why dynamic route? (2) Dynamic Routing Routers update

More information

Routing by the Network

Routing by the Network Routing Basic Idea Routing table at each router/gateway When IP packet comes, destination address checked with routing table to find next hop address Questions: Route by host or by network? Routing table:

More information

Routing Protocols of IGP. Koji OKAMURA Kyushu University, Japan

Routing Protocols of IGP. Koji OKAMURA Kyushu University, Japan Routing Protocols of IGP Koji OKAMURA Kyushu University, Japan Routing Protocol AS (Autonomous System) Is operated autonomous in the organization. 6bit IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) Routing Control inside

More information

Unit 3: Dynamic Routing

Unit 3: Dynamic Routing Unit 3: Dynamic Routing Basic Routing The term routing refers to taking a packet from one device and sending it through the network to another device on a different network. Routers don t really care about

More information

BLM6196 COMPUTER NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS

BLM6196 COMPUTER NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS BLM696 COMPUTER NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS Prof. Dr. Hasan Hüseyin BALIK (7 th Week) 7. Routing 7.Outline Routing in Packet-Switching Networks Examples: Routing in ARPANET Internet Routing Protocols

More information

Why dynamic route? (1)

Why dynamic route? (1) Routing Why dynamic route? (1) Static route is ok only when Network is small There is a single connection point to other network No redundant route 2 Why dynamic route? (2) Dynamic Routing Routers update

More information

Chapter 7 Routing Protocols

Chapter 7 Routing Protocols Chapter 7 Routing Protocols Nonroutable Protocols In the early days of networking, networks were small collections of computers linked together For the purposes of sharing information and expensive peripherals

More information

Chapter 22 Network Layer: Delivery, Forwarding, and Routing 22.1

Chapter 22 Network Layer: Delivery, Forwarding, and Routing 22.1 Chapter 22 Network Layer: Delivery, Forwarding, and Routing 22.1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 22-3 UNICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS 22.2 A routing

More information

Network Layer: Routing

Network Layer: Routing Network Layer: Routing The Problem A B R 1 R 2 R 4 R 3 Goal: for each destination, compute next hop 1 Lecture 9 2 Basic Assumptions Trivial solution: Flooding Dynamic environment: links and routers unreliable:

More information

CSCE 463/612 Networks and Distributed Processing Spring 2018

CSCE 463/612 Networks and Distributed Processing Spring 2018 CSCE 463/612 Networks and Distributed Processing Spring 2018 Network Layer IV Dmitri Loguinov Texas A&M University April 12, 2018 Original slides copyright 1996-2004 J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross 1 Chapter

More information

Network Protocols. Routing. TDC375 Autumn 03/04 John Kristoff - DePaul University 1

Network Protocols. Routing. TDC375 Autumn 03/04 John Kristoff - DePaul University 1 Network Protocols Routing TDC375 Autumn 03/04 John Kristoff - DePaul University 1 IPv4 unicast routing All Internet hosts perform basic routing for local net destinations, forward to local host for non-local

More information

Internet Interconnection Structure

Internet Interconnection Structure Internet Interconnection Structure Basic Concepts (1) Internet Service Provider (ISP) Provider who connects an end user customer with the Internet in one or few geographic regions. National & Regional

More information

ETSF05/ETSF10 Internet Protocols Routing on the Internet

ETSF05/ETSF10 Internet Protocols Routing on the Internet ETSF05/ETSF10 Internet Protocols Routing on the Internet 2014, (ETSF05 Part 2), Lecture 1.1 Jens Andersson Circuit switched routing 2014 11 05 ETSF05/ETSF10 Internet Protocols 2 Packet switched Routing

More information

CS118 Discussion Week 7. Taqi

CS118 Discussion Week 7. Taqi CS118 Discussion Week 7 Taqi Outline Hints for project 2 Lecture review: routing About Course Project 2 Please implement byte-stream reliable data transfer Cwnd is in unit of bytes, not packets How to

More information

ETSF05/ETSF10 Internet Protocols. Routing on the Internet

ETSF05/ETSF10 Internet Protocols. Routing on the Internet ETSF05/ETSF10 Internet Protocols Routing on the Internet Circuit switched routing ETSF05/ETSF10 - Internet Protocols 2 Routing in Packet Switching Networks Key design issue for (packet) switched networks

More information

Network Protocols. Routing. TDC375 Winter 2002 John Kristoff - DePaul University 1

Network Protocols. Routing. TDC375 Winter 2002 John Kristoff - DePaul University 1 Network Protocols Routing TDC375 Winter 2002 John Kristoff - DePaul University 1 IP routing Performed by routers Table (information base) driven Forwarding decision on a hop-by-hop basis Route determined

More information

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell Informazione. 06 Routing protocols. Fundamentals of Communication Networks

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell Informazione. 06 Routing protocols. Fundamentals of Communication Networks Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell Informazione 06 Routing protocols Fundamentals of Communication Networks Topics o Routing basics o Routing algorithms (Bellman-Ford, Dijkstra)

More information

Redes de Computadores. Shortest Paths in Networks

Redes de Computadores. Shortest Paths in Networks Redes de Computadores Shortest Paths in Networks Manuel P. Ricardo Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto » What is a graph?» What is a spanning tree?» What is a shortest path tree?» How are

More information

9.1. Routing Protocols

9.1. Routing Protocols 9.1. Routing Protocols Each organization that has been assigned a network address from an ISP is considered an autonomous system (AS). That organization is free to create one large network, or divide the

More information

CS 457 Networking and the Internet. What is Routing. Forwarding versus Routing 9/27/16. Fall 2016 Indrajit Ray. A famous quotation from RFC 791

CS 457 Networking and the Internet. What is Routing. Forwarding versus Routing 9/27/16. Fall 2016 Indrajit Ray. A famous quotation from RFC 791 CS 457 Networking and the Internet Fall 2016 Indrajit Ray What is Routing A famous quotation from RFC 791 A name indicates what we seek An address indicates where it is A route indicates how we get there

More information

Inter-Domain Routing: BGP

Inter-Domain Routing: BGP Inter-Domain Routing: BGP Richard T. B. Ma School of Computing National University of Singapore CS 3103: Compute Networks and Protocols Inter-Domain Routing Internet is a network of networks Hierarchy

More information

CS118 Discussion 1A, Week 7. Zengwen Yuan Dodd Hall 78, Friday 10:00 11:50 a.m.

CS118 Discussion 1A, Week 7. Zengwen Yuan Dodd Hall 78, Friday 10:00 11:50 a.m. CS118 Discussion 1A, Week 7 Zengwen Yuan Dodd Hall 78, Friday 10:00 11:50 a.m. 1 Outline Network control plane Routing Link state routing (OSPF) Distance vector routing (RIP) BGP ICMP Midterm/Project 2

More information

Graph abstraction: costs. Graph abstraction 10/26/2018. Interplay between routing and forwarding

Graph abstraction: costs. Graph abstraction 10/26/2018. Interplay between routing and forwarding 0/6/08 Interpla between routing and forwarding Routing Algorithms Link State Distance Vector BGP routing routing algorithm local forwarding table header value output link 000 00 0 00 value in arriving

More information

CSC 4900 Computer Networks: Routing Algorithms

CSC 4900 Computer Networks: Routing Algorithms CSC 4900 Computer Networks: Routing Algorithms Professor Henry Carter Fall 2017 Last Time Subnets provide granularity for address assignment and ease management. What is 192.168.8.0? 192.168.32.0? 192.168.8.0:

More information

Lecture 12. Introduction to IP Routing. Why introduction? Routing

Lecture 12. Introduction to IP Routing. Why introduction? Routing Lecture. Introduction to IP Routing Why introduction? Routing: very complex issue need in-depth study entire books on routing our scope: give a flavour of basic routing structure and messaging give an

More information

Internet rou)ng. V. Arun CS491G: Computer Networking Lab University of MassachuseFs Amherst

Internet rou)ng. V. Arun CS491G: Computer Networking Lab University of MassachuseFs Amherst Internet rou)ng V. Arun CS491G: Computer Networking Lab University of MassachuseFs Amherst Slide material copyright 1996-2013 J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross, All Rights Reserved Graph abstraction 5 graph: G

More information

Keywords RIP, OSPF, IGP, EGP, AS, LSA

Keywords RIP, OSPF, IGP, EGP, AS, LSA Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2014 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsse.com Evolution of

More information

Dynamic Routing. The Protocols

Dynamic Routing. The Protocols Dynamic Routing The Protocols Desirable Characteristics of Dynamic Routing Automatically detect and adapt to topology changes Provide optimal routing Scalability Robustness Simplicity Rapid convergence

More information

Top-Down Network Design, Ch. 7: Selecting Switching and Routing Protocols. Top-Down Network Design. Selecting Switching and Routing Protocols

Top-Down Network Design, Ch. 7: Selecting Switching and Routing Protocols. Top-Down Network Design. Selecting Switching and Routing Protocols Top-Down Network Design Chapter Seven Selecting Switching and Routing Protocols Copyright 2010 Cisco Press & Priscilla Oppenheimer 1 Switching 2 Page 1 Objectives MAC address table Describe the features

More information

Module 8. Routing. Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur

Module 8. Routing. Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur Module 8 Routing Lesson 27 Routing II Objective To explain the concept of same popular routing protocols. 8.2.1 Routing Information Protocol (RIP) This protocol is used inside our autonomous system and

More information

5.1 introduction 5.5 The SDN control 5.2 routing protocols plane. Control Message 5.3 intra-as routing in Protocol the Internet

5.1 introduction 5.5 The SDN control 5.2 routing protocols plane. Control Message 5.3 intra-as routing in Protocol the Internet Chapter 5: outline 5.1 introduction 5.5 The SDN control 5.2 routing protocols plane link state 5.6 ICMP: The Internet distance vector Control Message 5.3 intra-as routing in Protocol the Internet t 5.7

More information

Routing in the Internet

Routing in the Internet Routing in the Internet Daniel Zappala CS 460 Computer Networking Brigham Young University Scaling Routing for the Internet 2/29 scale 200 million destinations - can t store all destinations or all prefixes

More information

Routing Between Autonomous Systems (Example: BGP4) RFC 1771

Routing Between Autonomous Systems (Example: BGP4) RFC 1771 CS 4/55231 Internet Engineering Kent State University Dept. of Computer Science LECT-7B Routing Between Autonomous Systems (Example: BGP4) RFC 1771 52 53 BGP4 Overview Example of Operations BGP4 is a path

More information

CSc 450/550 Computer Networks Internet Routing

CSc 450/550 Computer Networks Internet Routing CSc 450/550 Computer Networks Internet Routing Jianping Pan Summer 2007 7/12/07 CSc 450/550 1 Review Internet Protocol (IP) IP header addressing class-based, classless, hierarchical, NAT routing algorithms

More information

Routing, Routing Algorithms & Protocols

Routing, Routing Algorithms & Protocols Routing, Routing Algorithms & Protocols Computer Networks Lecture 6 http://goo.gl/pze5o8 Circuit-Switched and Packet-Switched WANs 2 Circuit-Switched Networks Older (evolved from telephone networks), a

More information

BGP. BGP Overview. Formats of BGP Messages. I. Header

BGP. BGP Overview. Formats of BGP Messages. I. Header Overview Three early versions of are -1 (RFC1105), -2 (RFC1163) and -3 (RFC1267). The current version in use is -4 (RFC1771). -4 is rapidly becoming the defacto Internet exterior routing protocol standard

More information

Network layer: Overview. Network layer functions Routing IP Forwarding

Network layer: Overview. Network layer functions Routing IP Forwarding Network layer: Overview Network layer functions Routing IP Forwarding Network Layer Functions Transport packet from sending to receiving hosts Network layer protocols in every host, router application

More information

DATA COMMUNICATOIN NETWORKING

DATA COMMUNICATOIN NETWORKING DATA COMMUNICATOIN NETWORKING Instructor: Ouldooz Baghban Karimi Course Book & Slides: Computer Networking, A Top-Down Approach By: Kurose, Ross Introduction Course Overview Basics of Computer Networks

More information

Unicast Routing Protocols (RIP, OSPF, and BGP)

Unicast Routing Protocols (RIP, OSPF, and BGP) CHAPTER 4 Unicast Routing Protocols (RIP, OSPF, and BGP) Exercises. RIP is an intradomain routing protocol that enables routers to update their routing tables within an autonomous system. 3. The expiration

More information

Routing Unicast routing protocols

Routing Unicast routing protocols Routing Unicast routing protocols Jens A Andersson Electrical and Information Technology R1 Choosing an Optimal Path R4 5 R7 5 10 40 R6 6 5 B R2 15 A 20 4 10 10 R8 R3 5 10 R5 1 Router A router is a type

More information

Determining IP Routes. 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 9-1

Determining IP Routes. 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 9-1 Determining IP Routes, Cisco Systems, Inc. 9- Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to complete the following tasks: Distinguish the use and operation of static and dynamic routes

More information

Antonio Cianfrani. Routing Protocols

Antonio Cianfrani. Routing Protocols Antonio Cianfrani Routing Protocols Routing protocols A routing protocol provides a communication channel among routers to exchange reachability information about networks Routing tables are properly configured

More information

ICS 351: Today's plan. OSPF BGP Routing in general

ICS 351: Today's plan. OSPF BGP Routing in general ICS 351: Today's plan OSPF BGP Routing in general link-state routing in distance-vector (Bellman-Ford, Ford-Fulkerson, RIP-style) routing, each router distributes its routing table to its neighbors an

More information

BGP Configuration. BGP Overview. Introduction to BGP. Formats of BGP Messages. Header

BGP Configuration. BGP Overview. Introduction to BGP. Formats of BGP Messages. Header Table of Contents BGP Configuration 1 BGP Overview 1 Introduction to BGP 1 Formats of BGP Messages 1 BGP Path Attributes 4 BGP Route Selection 8 Configuring BGP 8 Configuration Prerequisites 8 Configuration

More information

Routing. Routing. Overview. Overview. Routing vs. Forwarding. Why Routing

Routing. Routing. Overview. Overview. Routing vs. Forwarding. Why Routing Routing Dr. Arjan Durresi Department of Computer Science Louisiana State University Overview Routing vs. Forwarding Routing Algorithms, Distance Vector, Link State Dijkstra s Algorithm ARPAnet Routing

More information

CHAPTER 9: PACKET SWITCHING N/W & CONGESTION CONTROL

CHAPTER 9: PACKET SWITCHING N/W & CONGESTION CONTROL CHAPTER 9: PACKET SWITCHING N/W & CONGESTION CONTROL Dr. Bhargavi Goswami, Associate Professor head, Department of Computer Science, Garden City College Bangalore. PACKET SWITCHED NETWORKS Transfer blocks

More information

ELEC / COMP 177 Fall Some slides from Kurose and Ross, Computer Networking, 5 th Edition

ELEC / COMP 177 Fall Some slides from Kurose and Ross, Computer Networking, 5 th Edition ELEC / COMP 177 Fall 01 Some slides from Kurose and Ross, Computer Networking, 5 th Edition Homework #4 Due Thursday, Nov 1 st Project # Due Tuesday, Nov 6 th Later this semester: Homework #5 Due Thursday,

More information

2008 NDP Lectures 7 th Semester

2008 NDP Lectures 7 th Semester 2008 NDP Lectures 7 th Semester Neeli R. Prasad, Associate Professor Head of Wireless Security and Sensor Networks Group Networking and Security Aalborg University Niels Jernes Vej 12, 9220 Aalborg East,

More information

Configuring RIP. Information About RIP CHAPTER

Configuring RIP. Information About RIP CHAPTER CHAPTER 23 This chapter describes how to configure the ASASM to route data, perform authentication, and redistribute routing information using the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). This chapter includes

More information

Chapter 4 Network Layer

Chapter 4 Network Layer Chapter 4 Network Layer A note on the use of these ppt slides: We re making these slides freely available to all (faculty, students, readers). They re in PowerPoint form so you see the animations; and

More information

Routing. Jens A Andersson Communication Systems

Routing. Jens A Andersson Communication Systems Routing Jens A Andersson Communication Systems R1 Choosing an Optimal Path R4 5 R7 5 10 40 R6 6 5 B R2 15 A 20 4 10 10 R8 R3 5 R5 10 Router A router is a type of internetworking device that passes data

More information

ICS 351: Today's plan. distance-vector routing game link-state routing OSPF

ICS 351: Today's plan. distance-vector routing game link-state routing OSPF ICS 351: Today's plan distance-vector routing game link-state routing OSPF distance-vector routing game 1. prepare a list of all neighbors and the links to them, and the metric for each link 2. create

More information

TDC 363 Introduction to LANs

TDC 363 Introduction to LANs TDC 363 Introduction to LANs Routing Protocols and RIP Greg Brewster DePaul University TDC 363 1 Dynamic Routing Routing Protocols Distance Vector vs. Link State Protocols RIPv1 & RIPv2 RIP Problems Slow

More information

HY 335 Φροντιστήριο 8 ο

HY 335 Φροντιστήριο 8 ο HY 335 Φροντιστήριο 8 ο Χειμερινό Εξάμηνο 2009-2010 Παπακωνσταντίνου Άρτεμις artpap@csd.uoc.gr 4/12/2009 Roadmap IP: The Internet Protocol IPv4 Addressing Datagram Format Transporting a datagram from source

More information

Routing. Advanced Computer Networks: Routing 1

Routing. Advanced Computer Networks: Routing 1 Routing Advanced Computer Networks: Routing 1 Gateway To internet or wide area network Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) s s Organization Servers Backbone R S R R Departmental Server s R S R s S R s s s

More information

OSPF Protocol Overview on page 187. OSPF Standards on page 188. OSPF Area Terminology on page 188. OSPF Routing Algorithm on page 190

OSPF Protocol Overview on page 187. OSPF Standards on page 188. OSPF Area Terminology on page 188. OSPF Routing Algorithm on page 190 Chapter 17 OSPF Protocol Overview The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is an interior gateway protocol (IGP) that routes packets within a single autonomous system (AS). OSPF uses link-state information

More information

Distance vector and RIP

Distance vector and RIP DD2490 p4 2008 Distance vector and RIP Olof Hagsand KTHNOC/NADA Literature RIP lab RFC 245: RIPv2. Sections 1 2 contains some introduction that can be useful to understand the context in which RIP is specified..1.4

More information

Architectures and Protocols for Integrated Networks. Intra-domain and Inter-domain Routing Protocols

Architectures and Protocols for Integrated Networks. Intra-domain and Inter-domain Routing Protocols Architectures and Protocols for Integrated Networks Intra-domain and Inter-domain Routing Protocols How is the routing table built? Path finding Paths from a device to any other device. Aggregated according

More information

CMPE 80N: Introduction to Networking and the Internet. Katia Obraczka Computer Engineering UCSC Baskin Engineering Lecture 20

CMPE 80N: Introduction to Networking and the Internet. Katia Obraczka Computer Engineering UCSC Baskin Engineering Lecture 20 CMPE 80N: Introduction to Networking and the Internet Katia Obraczka Computer Engineering UCSC Baskin Engineering Lecture 0 Announcements Final exam: June 7 th at 4pm. Comprehensive. Photo id required.

More information

Chapter 4: Advanced Internetworking. Networking CS 3470, Section 1

Chapter 4: Advanced Internetworking. Networking CS 3470, Section 1 Chapter 4: Advanced Internetworking Networking CS 3470, Section 1 Intra-AS and Inter-AS Routing a C C.b b d A A.a a b A.c c B.a a B c Gateways: perform inter-as routing amongst themselves b perform intra-as

More information

Http://www.passcert.com Exam : 4A0-101 Title : Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Version : Demo 1 / 9 1.When a router receives an IP packet, but does not find a match in the routing table

More information

Lecture 4. The Network Layer (cont d)

Lecture 4. The Network Layer (cont d) Lecture 4 The Network Layer (cont d) Agenda Routing Tables Unicast and Multicast Routing Protocols Routing Algorithms Link State and Distance Vector Routing Information and Open Shortest Path First Protocols

More information

Two types of routing protocols are used in internetworks: interior gateway protocols (IGPs) and exterior gateway protocols (EGPs).

Two types of routing protocols are used in internetworks: interior gateway protocols (IGPs) and exterior gateway protocols (EGPs). Introduction Dynamic routing is when protocols are used to find networks and update routing tables on routers. True, this is easier than using static or default routing, but it ll cost you in terms of

More information

Routing Protocol. Seiya Tsubone. Apr The University of Tokyo. Seiya Tsubone (The University of Tokyo) Routing Protocol Apr. 25.

Routing Protocol. Seiya Tsubone. Apr The University of Tokyo. Seiya Tsubone (The University of Tokyo) Routing Protocol Apr. 25. Routing Protocol Seiya Tsubone The University of Tokyo Apr. 25. 2013 Seiya Tsubone (The University of Tokyo) Routing Protocol Apr. 25. 2013 1 / 60 Table of Contents 1 The Concept of Routing 2 RIP 3 OSPF

More information

Alcatel-lucent EXAM - 4A Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability. Buy Full Product.

Alcatel-lucent EXAM - 4A Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability. Buy Full Product. Alcatel-lucent EXAM - 4A0-101 Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Buy Full Product http://www.examskey.com/4a0-101.html Examskey Alcatel-lucent 4A0-101 exam demo product is

More information

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS S.Kokila, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, A.V.P College of Arts and Science, Tiruppur, Tamilnadu, India. G.Pramela, Assistant Professor, Department

More information

Computer Networks ICS 651. IP Routing RIP OSPF BGP MPLS Internet Control Message Protocol IP Path MTU Discovery

Computer Networks ICS 651. IP Routing RIP OSPF BGP MPLS Internet Control Message Protocol IP Path MTU Discovery Computer Networks ICS 651 IP Routing RIP OSPF BGP MPLS Internet Control Message Protocol IP Path MTU Discovery Routing Information Protocol DV modified with split horizon and poisoned reverse distance

More information

CS 640: Introduction to Computer Networks. Intra-domain routing. Inter-domain Routing: Hierarchy. Aditya Akella

CS 640: Introduction to Computer Networks. Intra-domain routing. Inter-domain Routing: Hierarchy. Aditya Akella CS 640: Introduction to Computer Networks Aditya Akella Lecture 11 - Inter-Domain Routing - BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) Intra-domain routing The Story So Far Routing protocols generate the forwarding

More information

Overview. Problem: Find lowest cost path between two nodes Factors static: topology dynamic: load

Overview. Problem: Find lowest cost path between two nodes Factors static: topology dynamic: load Dynamic Routing Overview Forwarding vs Routing forwarding: to select an output port based on destination address and routing table routing: process by which routing table is built Network as a Graph C

More information

Important Lessons From Last Lecture Computer Networking. Outline. Routing Review. Routing hierarchy. Internet structure. External BGP (E-BGP)

Important Lessons From Last Lecture Computer Networking. Outline. Routing Review. Routing hierarchy. Internet structure. External BGP (E-BGP) Important Lessons From Last Lecture 15-441 Computer Networking Inter-Domain outing BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) Every router needs to be able to forward towards any destination Forwarding table must be

More information

CSC 4900 Computer Networks: Routing Protocols

CSC 4900 Computer Networks: Routing Protocols CSC 4900 Computer Networks: Routing Protocols Professor Henry Carter Fall 2017 Last Time Link State (LS) versus Distance Vector (DV) algorithms: What are some of the differences? What is an AS? Why do

More information

Chapter 4: outline. Network Layer 4-1

Chapter 4: outline. Network Layer 4-1 Chapter 4: outline 4.1 introduction 4.2 virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 what s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 routing algorithms link

More information

Internet Routing Protocols Part II

Internet Routing Protocols Part II Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Internet Routing Protocols Part II Prof. Indranil Sen Gupta Dept. of Computer Science & Engg. I.I.T. Kharagpur, INDIA Lecture 8: Internet routing protocols Part

More information

Part II. Chapter 3. Determining IP Routes

Part II. Chapter 3. Determining IP Routes Part II Chapter 3 Routers perform two main functions: switching and routing. The switching function is the process of moving packets from an inbound interface to an outbound interface. The switching function

More information

2011, Sushile Tejwani

2011, Sushile Tejwani BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) By Sushil Tejwani Bobby.b. Lyle school of Engineering Southern Methodist University Smu id- 37060014 What is BGP? Index :- Path Vector Routing Message Formats Path Attributes

More information

Chapter 5 Network Layer: The Control Plane

Chapter 5 Network Layer: The Control Plane Chapter 5 Network Layer: The Control Plane A note on the use of these Powerpoint slides: We re making these slides freely available to all (faculty, students, readers). They re in PowerPoint form so you

More information

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP-4)

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP-4) Vanguard Applications Ware IP and LAN Feature Protocols Border Gateway Protocol (BGP-4) Notice 2008 Vanguard Networks 25 Forbes Blvd Foxboro, MA 02035 Phone: (508) 964 6200 Fax: (508) 543 0237 All rights

More information

Table of Contents. Cisco Introduction to EIGRP

Table of Contents. Cisco Introduction to EIGRP Table of Contents Introduction to EIGRP...1 Introduction...1 Before You Begin...1 Conventions...1 Prerequisites...1 Components Used...1 What is IGRP?...2 What is EIGRP?...2 How Does EIGRP Work?...2 EIGRP

More information

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP-4)

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP-4) Vanguard Applications Ware IP and LAN Feature Protocols Border Gateway Protocol (BGP-4) Notice 2008 Vanguard Networks 25 Forbes Blvd Foxboro, MA 02035 Phone: (508) 964 6200 Fax: (508) 543 0237 All rights

More information

Chapter 7: Routing Dynamically. Routing & Switching

Chapter 7: Routing Dynamically. Routing & Switching Chapter 7: Routing Dynamically Routing & Switching The Evolution of Dynamic Routing Protocols Dynamic routing protocols used in networks since the late 1980s Newer versions support the communication based

More information

Chapter 3. Introduction to Dynamic Routing Protocols. CCNA2-1 Chapter 3

Chapter 3. Introduction to Dynamic Routing Protocols. CCNA2-1 Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Introduction to Dynamic Routing Protocols CCNA2-1 Chapter 3 Introduction to Dynamic Routing Protocols Introduction to Dynamic Routing Protocols CCNA2-2 Chapter 3 Perspective and Background Dynamic

More information

Routing Information Protocol. RIP application. RIP version 1

Routing Information Protocol. RIP application. RIP version 1 Routing Information Protocol A simple distance vector scheme Karst Koymans Informatics Institute University of Amsterdam (version 16.3, 2017/03/01 13:00:45) Friday, March 3, 2017 RIP version 1 Origin and

More information

CHAPTER 4: ROUTING DYNAMIC. Routing & Switching

CHAPTER 4: ROUTING DYNAMIC. Routing & Switching CHAPTER 4: ROUTING DYNAMIC Routing & Switching CHAPTER4 4.1 Dynamic Routing Protocols 4.2 Distance Vector Dynamic Routing 4.3 RIP and RIPng Routing 4.4 Link-State Dynamic Routing 4.5 The Routing Table

More information

ICMP, ARP, RARP, IGMP

ICMP, ARP, RARP, IGMP Internet Layer Lehrstuhl für Informatik 4 Raw division into three tasks: Data transfer over a global network Route decision at the sub-nodes Control of the network or transmission status Routing Protocols

More information

IP Routing Volume Organization

IP Routing Volume Organization IP Routing Volume Organization Manual Version 20091105-C-1.03 Product Version Release 6300 series Organization The IP Routing Volume is organized as follows: Features IP Routing Overview Static Routing

More information

IP Protocols. ALTTC/Oct

IP Protocols. ALTTC/Oct IP Protocols Internet or IP technology over the years has emerged as the most prominent data communication technology. TCP/IP protocol has become de-facto data comm standard throughout the world. It can

More information