# IO2654 Optical Networking. WDM network design. Lena Wosinska KTH/ICT. The aim of the next two lectures. To introduce some new definitions

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1 IO2654 Optical Networking WDM network design Lena Wosinska KTH/ICT 1 The aim of the next two lectures To introduce some new definitions To make you aware about the trade-offs for WDM network design To give you insight into the dimensioning and optimization problems 2 IO2654 Optical networking 1

2 WDM Network design Introduction Definitions Trade-offs Problem definition Lightpath topology design (LTD) Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) Summary Examples 3 Objective Seattle New York Given a traffic matrix (a forecast) and a fiber (physical) topology: design the network that supports the traffic forecast 4 IO2654 Optical networking 2

3 Definitions Lightpath topology: Logical (virtual) topology Physical topology: Fiber topology Grooming: Kind of time multiplexing: packing a low speed channels into higher speed channels. 5 Problem definition The WDM network transports data traffic from the client layer The WDM network is to establish lightpaths to support the client traffic demands Given the fiber (physical) topology and traffic demand (forecast) Determine the lightpath (virtual or logical) topology (Lightpath topology design: LTD) Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) Traffic demands are expressed in a traffic matrix T=[λ sd ] λ sd is the demand in packets/second between source node s and destination node d The traffic matrix is obtained by forecasting 6 IO2654 Optical networking 3

4 Heuristic solution Hard to determine the lightpath topology jointly with the routing and wavelength assignment Split into separate LTD and RWA problems Solve the LTD problem and then realize the obtained LTD within the optical layer (i.e. for the obtained LTD solve RWA problem). 7 WDM Network design Introduction Definitions Trade-offs Problem definition Lightpath topology design (LTD) Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) Summary Examples 8 IO2654 Optical networking 4

5 Lightpath Topology Design (LTD) problem Given The traffic demands The maximum number of ports per client node, Lightpaths interconnect client nodes bidirectionally Determine the topology and routing of packets Objective: Minimize the maximum load that any lightpath must carry 9 LTD: mathematical formulation Assume n source and destination nodes Up to (n-1)n lightpaths (λ ij = 0, i=j) Traffic between s and d might use several lightpaths o Conservation of flow s-d: rate λ sd at source, λ sd at the destination, and 0 at all intermediate nodes Each lightpath starts and terminates at ports in client nodes o b ij = 1 if nodes i and j are interconnected by a lightpath, 0 otherwise Goal: Find the b ij under the objective min λ, λ = max s, max max i, j d sd sd a λ, 0 a ij sd ij 1 10 IO2654 Optical networking 5

6 LTD computation This is a mathematical program Linear if unconstrained (LP) Mixed integer linear program (MILP) when ο λ s are real, positive, and o b ij are integer {0, 1} Computational complexity an issue 11 WDM Network design Introduction Definitions Trade-offs Problem definition Lightpath topology design (LTD) Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) Summary Examples 12 IO2654 Optical networking 6

7 How to map the LT to the fiber topology Undirected or directed edges o Can one wavelength channel be used in both directions? Lightpaths cannot share wavelength channels on a shared fiber link Wavelength conversion o Allows the lightpath to use different wavelengths o No conversion: One wavelength for the entire path o Limited conversion From a limited input set to a limited output set In some but not all nodes Other limitations o Signal quality (regeneration) o Survivability o etc 13 WDM network planning: Input Input parameters, given a priori Physical topology (OXC nodes and WDM spans) Forecast of traffic demand (virtual topology = lightpath topology) o Connections can be unidirectional or bidirectional o Each connection corresponds to one lightpath to be setup between the nodes o Each connection requires the full capacity of a wavelength channel (no traffic grooming) 14 IO2654 Optical networking 7

8 WDM network planning: Resources Network resources: two cases Fiber-constrained: the number of fibers per link is a pre-assigned global parameter while the number of wavelengths per fiber required to setup all the lightpaths is to be defined Wavelength-constrained: the number of wavelengths per fiber is a pre-assigned global parameter and the number of fibers per link required to setup all the lightpaths is to be defined 15 Static WDM network planning: Physical constraints Wavelength conversion capability Absent (wavelength path, WP) Full (virtual wavelength path, VWP) Partial (partial virtual wavelength path, PVWP) Propagation impairments The length of lightpaths and #of nodes are limited by physical impairments (physicallength constraint) 16 IO2654 Optical networking 8

9 WDM network optimization Routing: Constrained: only some possible paths between source and destination (e.g. the K shortest paths) are admissible o Great problem simplification Unconstrained: all the possible paths are admissible o Higher efficiency in network resource utilization Cost function to be optimized (optimization objectives) Route all the lightpaths using the minimum number of wavelengths Route all the lightpaths using the minimum number of fibers Route all the lightpaths minimizing the total network cost, taking into account also switching systems 17 Objective Realize the lightpath topology, meet all constraints Minimize the number of wavelengths used per link o Offline: For all lightpaths determined by the LTD Minimize blocking and number of wavelengths used per link o Online: For demands coming during operation 18 IO2654 Optical networking 9

10 This image cannot currently be displayed. RWA approaches ILP formulation Heuristic Routing sub-problem Wavelength assignment sub-problem 19 RWA: ILP formulation Minimize: Such that: i F sd ij k F F max max F F sd jk λ sd sd ij : s, d F sd ij λsd = λ 0 : sd ij if if otherwise s = # of lightpaths between s and d. # of lightpaths on link i j that are following from s to d. d = j j 20 IO2654 Optical networking 10

11 RWA (provisioning) Problem Statement Given: a set of lightpaths that need to be established in the network physical topology number of fibers and number of wavelengths on fiber other constraints: e.g., wavelength continuity, physical impairments, survivability, etc Determine: the routes over which these lightpaths should be set up the wavelengths which should be assigned to these lightpaths meet all constraints Lightpath is blocked when it cannot be set up due to lack of resources (routes and/or wavelengths) or due to other constraints The corresponding network optimization problem is to minimize the blocking probability 21 Wavelength Continuity Constraint No wavelength conversion functionality in the network lightpaths operate on the same wavelength across all fiber links Wavelength continuity constraint can be alleviated by wavelength converter functionality at all or some selected nodes Lightpath may switch between different wavelengths on its route from its origin to its termination Tradeoff: cost vs. performance 22 IO2654 Optical networking 11

12 Physical Impairments Constraint Directly related to the nature of the physical medium (fiber) and transparent optical transmission Optical signal impairments affect the quality of the lightpaths Limiting reach of the lightpaths Physical impairments can be mitigated by signal regeneration 3R regeneration: Re-amplification, Re-shaping and Retiming Tradeoff: cost vs. performance 23 Survivability Constraint Related to the network ability to ensure service provisioning in the presence of failures Link and path protection Each working lightpath is assigned spare wavelength resources to survive in case of a link or node failure Impact on the RWA solution due to the extra contraints for disjointness: link disjoint node disjoint SRLG disjoint 24 IO2654 Optical networking 12

13 Routing & Wavelength Assignment - Routing sub-problem - Wavelength assignment sub-problem 25 Routing sub-problem Fixed routing Fixed-alternate routing Adaptive routing Fault-tolerant routing 26 IO2654 Optical networking 13

14 Routing algorithms Shortest Path selects the shortest sourcedestination path (# of links/nodes) Least Loaded Routing avoids the busiest links Least Loaded Node avoids the busiest nodes 27 Wavelength assignment sub-problem Static (offline) WA sub-problem Graph coloring Dynamic/static (on/offline) WA subproblem etc. Random (R) Wavelength Assignment First-Fit (FF) Least-Used (LU)/SPREAD Max-Used (MU)/PACK Least Loaded (LL) 28 IO2654 Optical networking 14

15 Static (offline) WA: Graph coloring NC Wavelength continuity constraint Given: all connections and routes Objective: assign wavelengths (colors) to each lightpath so as to minimize the number of wavelengths used under the wavelength continuity constraint Construct a graph G so that each lightpath in the system is represented by a node. Undirected edge between nodes in the G if the corresponding lightpaths share a physical link Color the nods of G such that no two adjacent nodes have the same color. 29 Dynamic (online) WA algorithms Random (R) Determine the set of wavelengths that are available at a given route Pick one with uniform probability First-Fit (FF) All wavelengths are numbered Assign the first available wavelength Least-Used (LU)/SPREAD Select the wavelength that is the least used in the network Max-Used (MU)/PACKED Select the most used wavelength in the network Least-Loaded (LL) designed for multi-fiber networks Select the wavelength with largest residual capacity on the most loaded link along the connection. 30 IO2654 Optical networking 15

16 WA: Alternate routing lowers blocking Random-1: (no alternative routes) Choose at random one of the available wavelengths on a fixed shortest path between s-d Random-2: Fix two shortest paths between every s-d Choose at random one of the available wavelengths on the first shortest path If no such wavelength is available choose a random one on the second shortest path Max-used-1: On a fixed shortest path between s-d choose the available wavelength that is used most in the network at that time Max-used-2: Use the wavelength for first path that is used most in network Try second path when first path is full 31 Dimensioning wavelength routing (WR) networks common practice IO2654 Optical networking 16

17 Deterministic vs. Statistical dimensioning Deterministic network dimensioning: Forecast traffic demands Solve the LTD Solve the RWA (network dimensioning problem) Iterate every 6 to 12 months Upgrade the network to meet all demands Constrain RWA not to disturb established lightpaths Deterministic setting Alternatively: Statistical dimensioning using statistical models First-passage model Blocking model 33 RWA Statistical dimensioning: First-passage model Transient network state Network starts without any lightpaths Demands arrive randomly and lightpaths are set up one by one Lightpaths might be terminated o Rate of termination strictly less than rate of arrivals of demands Number of lightpaths increases Eventually, a demand cannot be met Dimensioning of WDM network Blocking should not occur before a given time Time chosen to be long enough for network upgrade Goal is probabilistic Problem with tractability 34 IO2654 Optical networking 17

18 RWA. Statistical dimensioning: Blocking model Assume stochastic equilibrium Arrival rate strictly smaller than departure rate Determine maximum offered traffic (offered load) Given an upper bound on blocking probability Usually assumes arrival as Poisson process, lightpaths with exponentially distributed durations and uniform traffic distribution Reuse factor: offered load per wavelength at given blocking probability. Depends on network topology traffic distribution actual RWA algorithm number of wavelengths available Usually evaluated by simulation 35 Summary The WDM network should meet client layer demands Demands arrive one by one Demands forecasted The lightpath topology is designed to meet limits in port counts while minimize the highest load Routing and wavelength assignment Maps the lightpath topology to the fiber topology Provides dimensioning of WDM network General problems of computability Optimization problems with complex constraints 36 IO2654 Optical networking 18

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