White Paper. Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) with AODV. Revision 1.0

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1 White Paper Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) with AODV Revision 1.0

2 This page is intentionally blank, or rather nearly blank.

3 Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS...3 TABLE OF FIGURES...4 WHAT IS MANET?...5 MANET Protocols...5 AODV...7 Hello Beacons...7 Route Creation...7 Route Deletion...10 Sequence Numbers...11 Stationary Wireless Infrastructure...12 GLOSSARY...16 Page 3

4 Table of Figures Figure 1: RREQ is sent by source node 8 Figure 2: Intermediate Node 1 rebroadcasts RREQ 8 Figure 3: Intermediate Node 2 sends RREP. 9 Figure 4: Destination Node has been separated from the network. 11 Figure 5: Wireless network using multiple towers to extend range 13 Figure 6: Vehicle has weak link to Tower A and strong link to Tower B 14 Page 4

5 What is MANET? The Internet Engineering Task Force ( has defined a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) as: an autonomous system of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links--the union of which form an arbitrary graph. The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily; thus, the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to the larger Internet. Simply put, a MANET is a wireless mobile network that is self-forming, selfmaintained, and self-healing. Nodes stay connected even as the network topology changes. MANET Protocols Numerous MANET protocols exist; yet, very few have been implemented outside of the research community. Some of the better known MANET protocols are AODV, TORA, DSR, TBRPF and OLSR. Each protocol has evolved over time to better suit the particular requirements of various types of mobile ad hoc networks. MANET protocols are typically categorized as either proactive or on-demand (reactive). Proactive MANET protocols update routing information in a proactive manner by exchanging route information at periodic intervals. The exchange of table-based route information is evenly distributed across the wireless network. As a result, routes are established prior to being needed, providing a wireless network that is low in latency, at the expense of increased overhead. Rather than distribute all route information across the entire network, On-demand MANET protocols perform route maintenance only when required. On-demand Page 5

6 protocols create less network overhead since the exchange of routing information is localized rather than evenly distributed. The result is a network with less overhead, at the expense of increased latency due to the route discovery process. Page 6

7 AODV The NovaRoam Mobile Router is unique as it uses an embedded MANET protocol called AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector) that works dynamically to establish and maintain routes, adapting quickly to changing link conditions. As its name implies, AODV is an on-demand routing protocol. Routes between nodes are built only as requested by source nodes. These routes are maintained locally until they are no longer needed by the source nodes or a link breakage occurs. Hello Beacons AODV uses hello beacons to determine which NovaRoams are capable of direct (one hop) communication. These beacons are broadcast periodically by all NovaRoams. Any node from which a NovaRoam receives a beacon is considered a neighbor and added to the local neighbor list. Route Creation When a source node does not have a route for a required destination, AODV initiates a route request/route reply cycle by broadcasting a route request (RREQ) packet across the wireless network. Upon receiving the RREQ, nodes must determine whether or not they are the destination node. If a node is not the destination and does not have a route to the destination, it will rebroadcast the RREQ to its neighbors and update its route table to include a reverse pointer to the source node. This process will continue until a route to the destination node is found, or the route request process times out. If a node is the destination node, or has a route to the destination node, it will respond by sending a route reply (RREP) to the source node. Intermediate nodes Page 7

8 update their route information about the source and destination nodes. Upon receiving the RREP, the source node can forward data to the destination node using the newly created route. If the RREP is not received within a certain time frame, the source node will retry the RREQ. Figures 1-3 demonstrate the Route Request-Route Reply query cycle. Figure 1: Source node sends RREQ Page 8

9 Figure 2: Intermediate Node 1 rebroadcasts RREQ Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) with AODV Page 9

10 Figure 3: Intermediate Node 2 sends RREP Route Deletion A route will remain active as long as data continues to travel across the route. If a route becomes inactive for a period of time, the route will be deleted. A userdefined timeout value determines the time period for which a route must be inactive in order to be deleted from the route table. Each time a packet is sent across a route, the timer is reset. Routes can also be deleted based on hello beacons. A route will be deleted if a node fails to receive some number of consecutive hello beacons from its next hop Page 10

11 neighbor. The number of consecutive hello beacons, that when missed causes a route to be deleted, is a user-definable parameter. Any time a link breakage occurs, a route error (RERR) is propagated to mark the unusable route as invalid. Upon detecting a broken link, a node will send a RERR to any neighbors that had been using the node as the next hop for the route. After receiving the RERR, each node deletes the invalid route from its route table. If a route to the destination is still required, the source node will reinitiate the route discovery process. RERR packets are not sent if the route timeout expires, as all intermediate routers will have timed out as well. Figure 4: Destination Node has been separated from the network. Page 11

12 Sequence Numbers AODV uses sequence numbers to avoid routing loops and to measure the freshness of route information. Prior to broadcasting RREQ, RREP, and RERR packets, AODV must increment its sequence number. Each route maintains a sequence number, with higher sequence numbers indicating fresher routes. When multiple routes are available to a destination node, the route with the greatest sequence number is used. Packets with lower sequence numbers are ignored and dropped. Stationary Wireless Infrastructure While many mobile ad hoc networks do not rely on any stationary infrastructure, many applications require the use of towers/repeaters to extend the range of the wireless network. While using stationary infrastructure provides a more cellularlike wireless network, this type of infrastructure can create issues that MANET protocols do not typically take into account. Figure 5 displays a network in which two towers are used to extend the range of the wireless network. The towers have a strong signal between them at all times. All application data from the mobile vehicles is sent to the wired network connected to the NovaRoam at Tower A. In Figure 5, the vehicle has a solid connection to Tower A. In this case, routing works great and data flows as if on a wired network. Page 12

13 Figure 5: Wireless network using multiple towers to extend range Tower B Tower A Internet Hub Router In Figure 6, the vehicle has moved away from Tower A. At some point, the signal to Tower A has become too weak for application data to successfully traverse the network. The signal between the vehicle and Tower A is barely strong enough for the AODV control messages to reach Tower A. If enough control messages are received between the vehicle and the tower, Tower A may remain listed as a viable route to the network to which it is connected. The vehicle now has a strong link to Tower B, which in turn has a strong link to Tower A. So why doesn t the route switch over to use Tower B as an intermediate node to Tower A? Tower A will remain listed as a viable gateway to the network as long as the vehicle receives the minimum amount of control messages required to keep a route in the route table. Once the vehicle gets completely out of range from Tower A, Tower B will become the intermediate node. This issue is commonly known as Gray Zone. Page 13

14 Figure 6: Vehicle has weak link to Tower A and strong link to Tower B Tower B Tower A Internet Hub Router To combat the Gray Zone issue, the NovaRoam implementation of AODV accounts for control packet signal strength information when making routing decisions. Embedded within each control packet is a signal strength measurement. NovaRoam has a user-definable signal strength threshold for control packets. If the control packet signal strength from Tower A falls below the user-defined threshold, the vehicle s direct route to Tower A will be dropped, forcing the vehicle data to find a new route. As a result, the vehicle would route data to Tower A by using Tower B as an intermediate node. Even though this creates an extra hop for the route, the route is more efficient since the signal remains strong. Page 14

15 About NovaRoam The NovaRoam Mobile Router is a wireless device capable of long communication ranges and high data rates. Its unique embedded Mobile Ad hoc Networking capabilities allow the NovaRoam to be used in the most dynamic environments. Available in Enterprise and Tactical configurations, NovaRoam can be used for most any application where wireless data connectivity is critical. Customized versions are also available. Please see for additional information. Page 15

16 Glossary AODV Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector IETF Internet Engineering Task Force MANET Mobile Ad hoc Network RERR Route Error RREP Route Reply RREQ Route Request Page 16

17 Page 17

18 Nova Engineering, Inc. 5 Circle Freeway Drive Cincinnati, OH USA NOVA (6682) FAX Part #: Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) with AODV Revision: Version Nova Engineering, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Page 18

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