Junseok Kim Wireless Networking Lab (WINLAB) Konkuk University, South Korea

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1 Junseok Kim Wireless Networking Lab (WINLAB) Konkuk University, South Korea 1

2 IEEE 802.x Standards for Wireless Local Area Network legacy clarified legacy a&b released released g released e released Amendments combined n released for Wireless Personal Area Network for Broadband Wireless Metropolitan Area Network 2

3 IEEE 802.x Standards for Wireless Local Area Network for Wireless Personal Area Network Task Group (TG) 1 (WPAN / Bluetooth) Released in 2002 Revised in 2005 / max. 1Mbps / 2.4GHz / freq. hopping (Bluetooth 2.0+EDR supports 3Mbps) TG 2 (Coexistence) TG 3 (high rate WPAN) Released in 2003 / max. 55Mbps / 2.4GHz / no spreading code TG 4 (low rate WPAN / ZigBee) Released in 2003 / max. 250kbps / 2.4GHz / DSSS 3

4 Home Network with IEEE Standards Not determined

5 CSMA-CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Avoidance R S ACK R ACK S R ACK ACK S1 silent... S2 silent... 5

6 CSMA-CA (Cont.) Collision Avoidance S1 R collision No ACK S2 silent... S1 R S2 collision 6

7 CSMA-CA (Cont.) RTS-CTS handshaking S1 R collision No ACK S2 silent... S1 RTS RTS R No CTS collision CTS ACK S2 RTS silent... 7

8 CSMA-CA (Cont.) Hidden node Hidden node collision silent CTS RTS CTS 8

9 CSMA-CA (Cont.) Random back-off (BO) BO 10 slot BO 7 slot 0 NAV NAV 1 CTS BO 6 slot ACK BO 3 slot CTS BO 3 slot 2 RTS RTS BO 8 slot BO 5 slot 3 NAV NAV DIFS 3slots BO = uniform(0, CW) * slottime 9

10 1023 CSMA-CA (Cont.) CW Contention Window (CW) *Window: An interval of time during which an activity can or must take place

11 802.11e enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) Enhancement of distributed contention function (DCF) in legacy AIFS[i] DIFS PIFS SIFS Contention Window Access Class CWmin CWmax AIFSN TXOP limit BACKGROUND acwmin (=15) acwmax (=1023) 7 0 BEST EFFORT acwmin acwmax 3 0 VIDEO (acwmin+1)/2-1 acwmin ms VOICE (acwmin+1)/4-1 (acwmin+1)/ ms 11

12 802.11e (Cont.) Block ACK Setup Data & Block ACK Tear Down Originator ADDBA Request ACK QoS Data MPDU QoS Data MPDU... QoS Data MPDU QoS Data MPDU BlockAck Request ACK DELBA Request time Recipient ACK ADDBA Response ACK BlockAck Response ACK time Other STAs NAV 12

13 802.11n Data rate is up to 600Mbps g s max. data rate is 54Mbps freq g n time 13

14 802.11g vs n g 64QAM: 6bits (=log 2 64) per one symbol OFDM: 48 sub-carriers * 6 = 288bits 3/4FEC: 288 * 3/4 = 216bits 4us symbol duration: 216/4 = 54Mbps n 64QAM: 6bits OFDM: 108 sub-carriers * 6 = 648bits 5/6FEC: 648 * 5/6 = 540bits 4 sets of TX/RX antennas: 540 * 4 = 2160bits 3.6us symbol duration: 2160/3.6 = 600Mbps 14

15 Do not Confuse Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is neither Bluetooth, ZigBee, WiFi, or any IEEE Standard PAN LAN MAN

16 IEEE Standard for Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) For wireless connectivity with fixed, portable, and moving devices within a personal operating space hops/sec across 79 frequencies Class 1: +20 dbm (100 mw), meters Class 2: +4 dbm (2.5 mw), 20 meters Class 3: 0 dbm (1 mw), 10 meters 625us max. length 3-slot packet 5-slot packet. f k f k+1 f k+2 f k+3 f k+4 f k+5 f k+6 f k+7 f k+8 f k+9 f k+10 f k+11 f k+12 f k+13 f k+14 f k+15 f 7 k

17 (Cont.) Master establishes a piconet with up-to 7 slaves Master determines piconet s frequency hopping pattern M M S1 S1. S6 S7 either S1 S1. S6 S7 SCATTERNET PICONET 17

18 IEEE Standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN) For communication devices using low data rate low power low complicate short range radio Do not Confuse is not ZigBee ZigBee is not WSN 18

19 Low Power Most LR-WPAN devices operates with small batteries Turn off the radio periodically to save the energy ACK ACK R Power On R Power On Power Off Energy Efficiency < S Power On S Power On Power Off 19

20 Super-frame Structure Most LR-WPAN devices operates with small batteries beacon beacon CONTENTION ACCESS PERIOD CONTENTION FREE PERIOD INACTIVE active Super-frame 20

21 ZigBee vs. Bluetooth ZigBee defines network, security, application layers Application Framework ZigBee Device Object Applications Application Support Sublayer APS Security Management Security Manage. APS Message Broker Network Layer NWK Message MAC PHY Routing Manage. Reflector Management Network Manage. ZigBee Audio Profiles TCP/IP Service Discovery Protocol RFCOMM Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol Host Controller Interface Link Manager (managing slaves, connections, power...) Baseband Controller (timing, framing, flow control...) RF (Radio transceiver) Bluetooth 21

22 Home Network with IEEE Standards Not determined

23 Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Large Ad-hoc Network consists of numerous sensors (which have RF transmitter) 23

24 WSN applications But, very few commercial success. Why? In addition, research interests on WSN decline. Home Networking Structure Health Monitoring Disaster Monitoring low power MCU low capacity Memory low power low rate Transceiver 24

25 Maybe. It s Future direction A few leading research centers started these kinds of projects More features (e.g. camera, GPS) Integrated & Cognitive Wireless Connection Powerful MCU Future WSN device? Pedestrian navigation Location-based services Intelligent Transportation Systems Smart shopping assistant Entertainment integration Environment Monitoring in City by iphones 25

26 Research topics on WPAN and WSN Application Transport Network MAC PHY Monitoring system Localization Coverage Congestion control Fast recovery Routing Topology control Transmit power control Duty cycle Multi rate / multi channel Channel Modeling TOA based localization RSSI based localization GPS-free localization Energy-aware routing Traffic-aware routing Data aggregation Geographical routing Network connectivity Increase network capacity Reduce energy consumption Traffic-aware duty cycle Power-aware duty cycle Link quality estimation Interference impact

27 27

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