1 Unit 10 Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (1)
2 Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (2) Mobile and the Future GG F F GG F F AA EE DD AA EE DD BB BB HH CC HH CC
3 Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (3) Mobile Networks (Unit 10) Router Programming (Unit 8) Routing Protocols (Unit 9) IP Addressing/Subnets (Unit 6) TCP/Socket Programming (Unit 7) Switches/VLANs (Unit 5) Net Elements (Unit 2) Net Types (Unit 3) Net Design (Unit 4) Introduction (Unit 1)
4 Towards the Future? Move towards totally distributed systems. Move towards mobility, and wireless connections. Move towards integration of voice and video over the Internet. Move towards a layered Internet, with high-speed cores, and lower-speeds moved away from the central hub of the Internet. Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (4)
5 From centralised to decentralised to Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (5) GG F F GG F F AA EE DD AA EE DD BB BB GG CC G G CC Centralised Causes to many Problems as the network Is dependent on node E Decentralised Less dependent on node E
6 to distributed Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (6) GG F F GG F F AA EE DD AA EE DD BB BB HH CC HH CC Distributed More fully distributed
7 Towards ASs Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (7) AOL 4 customers AS AS AS Layer3 AS --AOL AOL Layer3 Napier Napier HW HW UMIST UMIST AS AS - - SuperJanet AS AS - - BT BT Internet core AS AS US US Military Military Possible routing through an AS The Internet
8 Layered approach to the Internet Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (8) Low/medium speed mobile Devices (<1Mbps) Host Connection (1Mbps-10Mbps) Organisational High-speed connection Organisational mobile access (10/100Mbps) backbone Internet (GPRS) (>1Gbps) Core/Backbone (>10Gbps)
9 OC-/STM- connections Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (9) OC-standard SDH Equivalent Mbps OC OC-3 STM OC-9 STM OC-12 STM OC-18 STM OC-36 STM OC-48 STM OC-96 STM OC-192 STM
10 Wireless connections which technology? Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (10) Mobile phone technology. This integrates with the GSM network. Wireless (IEEE ). This normally integrated with a fixed network. Bluetooth. This normally allows networking between non-computer-type devices, such as mobile phones, hi-fi s, and so on. Infra-red. This technology is too slow and has a limited range for most applications. Line-of-sight optics. This allows for easy connections between buildings, and involves a laser directing it beam to a receiver. It is typically used around cities and gives speeds of several Gbps.
11 Mobile phones Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (11) Advantages: Wide coverage. Wide availability of connection devices. Disadvantages: Costly, as connections as costed on a per second basis with GSM - or on a per byte basis with GPRS. Relatively slow. In its fastest form (3G) it is still limited to several Mbps. Limited display, and user interaction.
12 Wireless networks (IEEE ) Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (12) Advantages: Fast rates of over 54Mbps can be achieved, and the technology is scaleable, with means increasing rates in the future. Inexpensive. Most wireless networks simply integrate with existing networks, and do not require a great deal of investment. Extension of standard Ethernet technology. This makes it easy to integrate with existing networks. Disadvantages: Coverage is still limited. The bandwidth is shared with all the nodes in the wireless domain, thus performance reduces with an increase in the amount of nodes in the domain. Current protocols, such as TCP, as not well matched to wireless networks, as the TCP algorithm thinks that there is congestion when too many data segments are lost (with often happens in wireless networks). Lack of security. Wireless networks can use encryption, but many networks do not even use it, and use a default ID. Also, in its basic form, the encryption can be easily cracked.
13 Bluetooth Advantages: Bluetooth is a good local wireless technology, which can connect to different types of devices. Disadvantages: Has a limited range. This limited range obviously has the advantage that connections can be constrained within a confined area. Limited support. Many manufactures have by-passed Bluetooth in favour of the higher rates and wider coverage of wireless networks (IEEE b). Does not quite integrate with standard networks. Relatively slow. Currently, up to 1Mbps. Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (13)
14 Mobile phone technology Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (14) First generation (1G). First generation mobile phones (1G) had very low transmission rates (typically just a few KB/s), Second generation (2G and 2.5G). These are devices improved this to give several hundred KB/s. Third generation (3G). These devices give almost workstation network bandwidths (several MBps), which allows for full multimedia transmissions.
15 Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (15) POTS POTS (Plain (Plain Old Old Telephone Telephone System) System) GSM GSM network GSM GSM gateway Internet
16 Practical Example of Cells Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (16) Example of masts in the Scottish Borders. It can be seen that each mast is identified with a different Cell-ID. These Have a different broadcast frequency and channel (BCCH). No two adjacent cells have the same BCCH.
17 WAP Gateway Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (17) Client WAP Microbrowser Encoded Request (URL) HTTP Gateway (Proxy) Feature enhancements Request (URL) Application server (HTTP) Content Encoded content Content
18 WML and WAP Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (18) <?xml version="1.0" encoding= ISO ?> <!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.1//EN" " <wml> <card id="card1"> <do type="accept" label="next"> <go href="#card2"/> </do> <p> Select <b>next</b> to go to the next card. </p> </card> <card id="card2"> <p> This is the second card </p> </card> </wml>
19 IEEE Wireless IEEE a a deals with communications available in the 5GHz frequency, and has a maximum data rate of 54 Mbps. IEEE b b, or Wi-Fi, is the standard that is most commonly used in wireless LAN communications. It has a maximum bandwidth of 11Mbps, at a frequency of 2.4GHz. IEEE c c is a group set up to deal with bridging operations when developing access points. IEEE f f is concerned with standardising access point roaming.which is involved in making sure that interoperability between access points is guaranteed. IEEE g (Proposed) g is a proposed standard that hopes to provide 54Mbps maximum bandwidth over a 2.4GHz connection, the same frequency as the popular b standard. Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (19)
20 IEEE b Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (20) Operating Channels: 11 for N. America, 14 Japan, 13 Europe (ETSI), 2 Spain, 4 France Operating Frequency: GHz (North America), GHz (Japan), GHz (Europe ETSI), GHz (Spain), GHz (France) Data Rate: 1, 2, 5.5 or 11Mbps Media Access Protocol: CSMA/CA, Compliant Range: 11Mbps: 140m (460 feet) 5.5Mbps: 200m (656 feet) 2Mbps: 270m (885 feet) 1Mbps: 400m (1311 feet) RF Technology: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Modulation: CCK (11Mps, 5.5Mbps), DQPSK (2Mbps), DBPSK (1Mbps)
21 Wireless access point Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (21) A wireless access point (AP) allow several wireless clients to connect to a single device.
22 Wireless adaptor Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (22) Wireless (IEEE b) Connection. And possibly a Bluetooth connection
23 IEEE b settings Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (23)
24 Infrastructure network Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (24) Server Ethernet backbone Access point Access point LAN01 LAN02
25 SSID Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (25) SSID = group 1 SSID = group 1 SSID = group 1 SSID = group 1 Access point Ethernet
26 Ad-hoc network Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (26) Ad-hoc wireless LAN 1 Ad-hoc wireless LAN 2 Channel is identical such as channel = 3 Channel = 5
27 Span of network Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (27) Ad-hoc Radius of coverage =2L L L Access point Infrastructure L
28 Network settings Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (28) Authentication algorithm. This sets whether the adapter uses an open system (where other nodes can listen to the communications), or uses encryption (using either a WEP key, or a shared key). Channel. If an ad-hoc network is used, then the nodes which communicate must use the same channel. Fragmentation threshold. This can be used to split large data frames into smaller fragments. The value can range from 64 to 1500 bytes. This is used to improve the efficiency when there is a high amount of traffic on the wireless network, as smaller frames make more efficient usage of the network. Network type. This can either be set to an infrastructure network (which use access points, or wireless hubs) or Ad-hoc, which allows nodes to interconnect without the need for an access point.
29 Network settings (cont.) Preamble mode. This can either be set to Long (which is the default) or short. A long preamble allows for interoperatively with 1Mbps and 2Mbps DSSS specifications. The shorter allows for faster operations (as the preamble is kept to a minimum) and can be used where the transmission parameters must be maximized, and that there are no interoperatablity problems. RTS/CTS threshold. The RTS Threshold prevents the Hidden Node problem, where two wireless nodes are within range of the same access point, but are not within range of each other. As they do not know that they both exist on the network, they may try to communicate with the access point at the same time. When they do, their data frames may collide when arriving simultaneously at the Access Point, which causes a loss of data frames from the nodes. The RTS threshold tries to overcome this by enabling the handshaking signals of Ready To Send (RTS) and Clear To Send (CTS). When a node wishes to communicate with the access point it sends a RTS signal to the access point. Once the access point defines that it can then communicate, the access point sends a CTS message. The node can then send its data. Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (29)
30 Problems with wireless environments Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (30) Multipath radio wave propagation. Radio wave propagate outwards in all directions, and will thus hit obstacles, which causes multiple paths for the radio wave. These waves thus add/subtract to signal, and can cause distortion on the wave. Radio data frames collide. Two or more radio devices can be transmitting a data frame at the same time using the same radio frequency. The data frames may thus collide and cause errors in the data frames. Out-of-range threshold. Wireless devices which are at the boundary of the wireless domain can suffer from problems with signal strength as the data frames is being transmitted. This will typically occur when a device is moving around the threshold of the domain, as weak signal strengths are more affected by noise than strong ones. Noisy environment. Many types of electrical equipment can generate high-frequency radio waves, which might interfere with the transmitted data frame.
31 Multiple paths for the wireless signal Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (31)
32 CSMA/CA and PCF Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (32) IEEE can use two mechanisms for shared access: CSMA/CA. CSMA/CA is, like standard Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) a contention-based protocol, but uses collision avoidance rather than collision detection. It would be impossible to use collision detection as a radio wave is always either sending or receiving and can never do both at the same time. The nodes will thus not be able to listen on the channel while they are transmitting. Point Coordination Function (PCF). This is an optional priority-based protocol, which provides contention-free frame transfer for transmission of time-critical data, such as real-time video or audio. With this, the point coordinator (PC) operates in the wireless access point and identifies the devices which are allowed to transmit at any given time. Each PC then, with the contention-free (CF) period, the PC polls each of the enabled PCF to determine if they wish to transmit data frames. No other device is allowed to transmit while a another node is being polled. Thus, PCF will be contention-free and enables devices to transmit data frames synchronously, with defined time delays between data frame transmissions.
33 CSMA/CD Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (33) Listen for no activity 1 ACK ACK time-out 2 2 Node has gone. Data frame has collided with another Data frame corrupted with noise.
34 IEEE data frame Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (34) Frame control Duration/ ID Address 1 Address 2 Address 3 Sequence control Address 4 Frame body FCS 2 Bytes Frame control. This contains control information. Duration/ID. This contains information on how long the data frame will last. Address fields. This contains different types of address, such as an individual address of group addresses. The two main types of group addresses are broadcast and multicast. Sequence control. This identifies the sequence number of the data frames, and allows the recipient to check for missing or duplicate data frames. Frame body. This part contains the actual data. The maximum amount is 2312 bytes, but most implementations use up to 1500 bytes. FCS (Frame Check Sequence). This is a strong error detection code.
35 Spread Spectrum and Frequency Hopping To avoid interference in the band, radio LANs (RLANs) use either Frequency Hopping or Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum techniques (FHSS & DSSS). These two methods avoid or lower the potential for interference within the band as shown in the next slide. Spread spectrum technologies work by spreading the actual signal over a wider bandwidth for transmission. Using these methods provides resilience from narrow band interference and also reduces interference to other sources using the ISM band. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum technology works by splitting the ISM band into 79 1MHz channels. Data is transmitted in a sequence over the available channels, spreading the signal across the band according to a hopping pattern, which has been determined between the wireless devices. Each channel can only be occupied for a limited period of time before the system has to hop. Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (35)
36 Spread Spectrum and Frequency Hopping Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (36) Military systems have been using Spread Spectrum and Frequency Hopping for many years. This is to: Avoid jamming on a certain channel. Avoid noise on a certain channel. Confuse the enemy as the transmitting frequency moves in a way that only the sender and receiver known. Imagine having to move the dial of your radio receiver, each minute to a certain frequency in a give way. Such as Radio 1 is broadcast on 909MHz from 12:00, then 915MHz until 12:01, then 900MHz unit 12:02, and so on.
37 Author: W.Buchanan. Mobile Computing and A Model of the Internet (37) FHSS Ch01 Ch02 Ch03 Ch74 Ch75 DSSS Non overlapping channels 1MHz CH1-22MHz CH7-22MHz CH13-22MHz 2400MHz CH2-22MHz MHz
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