Content. 1. Introduction. 2. The Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Algorithm. 3. Simulation and Results. 4. Future Work. 5.

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1 Rahem Abri

2 Content 1. Introduction 2. The Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Algorithm Path Discovery Reverse Path Setup Forward Path Setup Route Table Management Path Management Local Connectivity Management 3. Simulation and Results 4. Future Work 5. Conclusion 2/30

3 Introduction Types of wireless networks : Infrastructure network: A network with fixed and wired gateways. When a mobile unit goes out of range of one base station, it connects with new base station. Infrastructure less (ad hoc) networks: All nodes of these networks behave as routers and take part in discovery and maintenance of routes to other nodes. All nodes are mobile and can be connected dynamically in an arbitrary manner. No default router available. 3/30

4 Introduction Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) Host movement frequent Topology change frequent A B A B No cellular infrastructure. Multi-hop wireless links. Data must be routed via intermediate nodes. 4/30

5 Introduction Proactive protocols Traditional distributed shortest-path protocols Maintain routes between every host pair at all times Based on periodic updates; High routing overhead Example: DSDV (destination sequenced distance vector) Reactive protocols Determine route if and when needed Source initiates route discovery Example: AODV (Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector) Hybrid protocols Adaptive; Combination of proactive and reactive Example : ZRP (zone routing protocol) 5/30

6 Introduction Protocol Trade-offs Proactive protocols Always maintain routes Little or no delay for route determination Consume bandwidth to keep routes up-to-date Maintain routes which may never be used Reactive protocols Lower overhead since routes are determined on demand Significant delay in route determination Employ flooding (global search) Which approach achieves a better trade-off depends on the traffic and mobility patterns 6/30

7 The Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Algorithm A node dose not have to discover any route and maintain them. The node discover only when need to communicate or the node be an intermediate node. Local connectivity of mobile nodes : Each mobile node can become aware of the other nodes in its neighborhood by the use of local broadcast known as hello messages. The algorithm s primary objectives are : To broadcast discovery packets only when necessary AODV uses a broadcast route discovery mechanism, as is also used ( with modifications ) in the DSR algorithm. 7/30

8 Path Discovery The path discovery process is initiated whenever a source node needs to communicate with another node. Every node maintains two separate counters: A node sequence number and broadcast id The source node initiates path discovery by broadcasting a route request (RREQ) packets to its neighbors. the RREQ contains the fallowing fields: <source-addr, source-sequence-#, broadcast-id, dest-addr, dest-sequence-#, hop-cnt > Each neighbor either satisfies the RREQ by sending a route reply (RREP) back to the source. 8/30

9 Reverse Path Setup There are two sequence numbers included in a RREQ: The source sequence number and the last destination sequence number known to the source. As illustrated in figure 1, to setup a reverse path, a node records the address of the neighbor from Which it received the first copy of the RREQ. These reverse path route are maintained for at least enough time for the RREQ. 9/30

10 Forward Path Setup If intermediate node has a route entry for the desired destination, it determine whether the route is current by comparing the destination sequence number in its own route entry to the destination sequence number in the RREQ. Unicast a route reply packet RREP back to its neighbor from it received the RREQ. A RREP contain the fallowing information ; <source-addr, dest-addr, dest-sequence-#, hop-cnt, lifetime> Figure 2 represents the forward path setup as the RREP travels from D to S. 10/30

11 Route Table Management In addition of the source and destination sequence number, other useful information is also stored in the route table entry such as ; Route request expiration timer, route caching timeout, the address of actives neighbors. A neighbor is considered active, if it originates or relays at least one packet for that destination within the most recent active-timeout period. A mobile node maintains a route table entry for each destination of interest: Destination Next hop Number of hops(metric) Sequence number for the destination Active neighbors for this route Expiration time for the route table entry 11/30

12 Path Maintenance If the source node move during an active session, it can reinitiate the node discovery procedure to establish a new route to the destination. One the next hop become unreachable, the node upstream of the break propagates an unsolicited RREP with a fresh sequence number and hop count of to all active upstream neighbors. this process continues until all active nodes are notified. Upon receiving notification of a broken link, source nodes can restart the discovery process if they still require a route to the destination. 12/30

13 Local Connectivity Management Whenever a node receives a broadcast from a neighbor, it updates its local connectivity information to ensure that it includes this neighbor. It broadcast to its neighbors a hello message and neighbors that receive this packet update their local connectivity information to the node. There is one another metric for hello message, that is allowed-hello-loss. We have to determine the optimal allowed-hello-loss. 13/30

14 Route Requests in AODV Y Z A B H S C I E G F K J D M N L Represents a node that has received RREQ for D from S 14/30

15 Route Requests in AODV Broadcast transmission Y Z A B H S C I E G F K J D M N L Represents transmission of RREQ 15/30

16 Route Requests in AODV Y Z A B H S C I E G F K J D M N L Represents links on Reverse Path 16/30

17 Route Requests in AODV Y Z A B H S C I E G F K J D M N L Node C receives RREQ from G and H, but does not forward it again, because node C has already forwarded RREQ once 17/30

18 Route Requests in AODV Y Z A B H S C I E G F K J D M N L 18/30

19 Route Requests in AODV Y Z A B H S C I E G F K J D M N L Node D does not forward RREQ, because node D is the intended target of the RREQ 19/30

20 Route Requests in AODV Y Z A B H S C I E G F K J D M N L Forward links are setup when RREP travels along the reverse path Represents a link on the forward path 20/30

21 Simulations and Result Simulation Environment ; Our simulation run using network of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 nodes. Nodes are initially placed randomly within fixed size L*L area. Speed of nodes between 0.4 and 0.8 meter per second. A node attempts to transmit a packet max-retrans time before dropping the packet Each node creates a session to another node selected at random. The session created for each simulation are of homogeneous type; they are either small data S_DATA packet or voice data. The parameters for each of the session type are given in below table : 21/30

22 Simulations and Result Other parameters of simulation Each simulation is run for 600 seconds The room size for the 50 nodes and 100 nodes networks is 50m * 50m, for 500 nodes is 100m*100m and for 1000 nodes is 150m*150m. The below table gives the values of the essential parameters for AODV 22/30

23 Simulations and Result Our first objective is to show that AODV can find routes quickly and accurately. We compared good put in varying rreq-retries and allowed-hello-loss This figure shows the good put ratio for 50 and 100 nodes using the S_DATA session type. Given the remaining good put ratio for 50 and 100 nodes, we set the optimal rreq-retries value to 2. 23/30

24 Simulations and Result We simulated 50 and 100 nodes networks with rreq-retries = 2 and varied the allowed-hello-loss parameter. We chose allowed-hello-loss = 2 To be the optimal value. 24/30

25 Simulations and Result With the exception of rreq-retrise =0, the minimum route acquisition latency was attained for the combination rreq-retrise = 2 and allowed-hello-loss = 2 Route Acquisition Latency for varying rreq-retrise Route Acquisition Latency for varying allowed-hello-loss 25/30

26 Experimental result and discussion This below table gives the general result of our simulations for networks of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 nodes. The results were obtained using the S_DATA session type and setting rreq-retries = 2 and allowed-hello-loss = 2 26/30

27 Experimental result and discussion Simulations of the 50 and 100 node networks using the voice session type. This results of these simulations to gather with the comparable results from the S_DATA session type, are given in below table. 27/30

28 Current Status and Future Work Multicast We have already enhanced AODV to provide multicast capability. With an additional message type, MACT message. Intermediate Node Route Rebuilding Try to repair a broken link with active (intermediate) node before sending the link failure notification. Elimination of Hello Message Hello messages, while allowing nodes to learn about neighbor changes in a timely manner, create extra control overhead and increase bandwidth consumption. QoS AODV can enhance to provide basic QoS service. 28/30

29 Conclusion In summary : Nodes store only the route that are needed Need for broadcast is minimized Reduces memory requirements and needless duplications Quick response to link breakage in active routes Loop-free routes maintained by use of destination sequence numbers Scalable to large populations of nodes 29/30

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