# Index Terms Backbone Networks Optimization, Resilience, Virtual Private Network, Traffic Demands and Traffic Flows

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5 International Journal of Computer Science and Telecommunications [Volume 2, Issue 8, November 2011] 16 TABLE 2 DIFFERENT NETWORK SCHEMES AND MODELS The unit costs of capacity are shown in Table 3. TABLE 3 UNIT COSTS OF CAPACITY 3. Network contains 12 links as shown in Fig. 1 and there are 39 traffic demands in the network. 4. A sequential approach is used, where calculated required capacities of the upper network layer represent the volume of traffic demands on the lower network layer. The resulting costs per individual network layer,, and total costs in the different models of a two-layer IP/MPLS over DWDM network are given in Appendix B. Computational results were obtained by using the programming tool AIMMS 3.10 with LGO 1.0 to for solving non-linear programming problem (Appendix A) and CPLEX 12.2 for solving Mixed Integer Programming (Appendix B). VI. DISCUSSION Coefficient represents conduction between the necessary interfaces on an individual network layer into the unit cost of capacity on an individual network layer. Coefficient ρ represents the ratio between the cost of DWDM and IP/MPLS interface. represents the number of links in the network and the number of traffic demands. Depending on the selected network model and inter-relationship between the number of links in the network and the number of traffic demands, we determine that the unit cost of capacity varies. This fact must always be taken into account when determining the unit cost of capacity. Fig.2 shows the total unit costs of capacity for different network models and different numbers of traffic demands. As a sample, one can see that in the case of network model 1.1 the unit cost of capacity may be the lowest, comparable with other models, or even the highest. Coefficients ρ and are set as ρ 2 and ω 100. The computational results for the test network are based on the following assumptions: 1. Ten different available budget are considered for the construction of the two-layer IP/MPLS over DWDM network. 2. Proportional fairness for capacity allocation on the IP/MPLS network layer. Unit cost of capacity [U] 4,5 4 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 Total cost of unit of capacity for different network models Model 1.1 Model 1.2 Model 1.3 Model 2.1 Model 3.1 Model 3.2 E=12, D=7 0,7 1,1 1,1 1,2 0,72 0,72 E=12, D=12 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 0,72 0,72 E=12, D=39 3,9 1,74 1,74 1,2 0,72 0,72 Fig. 2. Total cost of unit of capacity for different network models The results shown in Appendix B reveal that the cheapest network model is model 3.1 with traffic restoration on the IP/MPLS network layer and realised VPN on the IP/MPLS network layer. On the DWDM network layer, point-to-point unprotected optical paths are realised. The deficiency of this network model is the possible long convergence time in the case of a network failure. Due to this limitation, this network model cannot apply to backbone networks. The most expensive network model is model 1.1 with a hot standby path protection scheme on the DWDM network layer and VPN on the DWDM network. This result is somewhat expected since it requires a lot of resources on the DWDM network layer, whereby network resources are more expensive than those on the IP/MPLS network layer. According to network model 1.1, the cost is significantly lower in models 1.2 and 1.3. In these two models, rather than the protection of an individual optical path the protection of an individual link is implemented. Virtual private networks are also realised at the DWDM network level. Model 1.3 is cheaper than model 1.2 since in model 1.3 a shared link protection scheme is implemented. A limitation of model 1.3 compared to model 1.2 is that in the case of multiple simultaneous failures in the network protection capacities only receive the connection that first discovers the failure. The most promising network model is 3.2. This model applies a hot standby path protection scheme and the realisation of virtual private networks on the IP/MPLS network layer. On the DWDM network layer point-to-point optical paths with no protection are realised. This network model provides fast resilience in the case of network failure at an acceptable network cost and simulates a two-layer IP/MPLS over DWDM network with a fast reroute protection scheme on the IP/MPLS network layer. VII. CONCLUSION In terms of cost and performances, for the optimal backbone network we propose a two-layer IP/MPLS over DWDM network with implemented virtual private networks and a fast reroute protection scheme on the IP/MPLS network. The DWDM network layer acts in this case as a pure transport layer which provides wide capacities with a configuration of optical paths between adjacent DWDM network elements. Such a network is modelled as Model 3.2.

6 Marko Rožman 17 VIII. APPENDICES Appendix A B d h H ,3 0,5 10,00 10,00 20,64 29,24 33,01 35,27 40,43 46,29 102,84 300, ,3 0,4 10,00 10,00 25,18 37,08 41,10 44,02 51,11 57,33 127,60 150, ,3 0,3 10,00 10,00 33,90 51,05 56,19 60,65 69,19 74,25 169,44 200, ,3 0,375 10,00 29,78 30,00 39,80 44,10 47,01 54,66 60,72 138,02 215, ,3 0,45 5,00 26,88 23,75 32,65 36,52 39,24 45,20 51,67 114,64 400, ,3 0,425 10,00 10,00 24,10 34,70 38,65 43,76 48,03 54,35 120,90 540, ,3 0,25 10,00 10,00 34,20 56,50 63,98 69,24 78,53 92,73 204,59 113, ,3 0,35 10,00 31,02 29,54 43,00 47,50 50,55 58,75 63,93 146,50 327, ,3 0,475 10,00 10,00 21,72 30,77 34,67 37,02 42,78 49,29 108,40 10, ,3 0,535 10,00 10,00 19,23 29,20 30,96 32,85 37,85 44,33 96,02 120, ,3 0,275 6,09 38,96 32,75 52,90 59,39 120,00 74,00 71,71 120,00 120, ,3 0,325 10,00 33,26 31,52 46,80 51,28 54,75 63,54 69,28 158,06 147, ,3 0,6 10,00 10,00 16,97 25,64 27,74 29,49 33,74 39,87 84,91 121, ,3 0,675 10,00 10,00 14,95 10,00 24,67 26,17 30,35 35,46 76,38 106, ,3 0,675 10,00 10,00 14,95 10,00 24,50 26,18 30,30 35,46 76,39 250, ,3 0,7 5,00 17,38 15,48 22,24 23,67 25,16 29,39 34,11 73,73 98, ,3 0,975 10,00 10,00 10,00 10,00 10,00 17,62 20,64 22,62 50,38 700, ,3 0,7 10,00 10,00 14,41 10,00 23,70 25,78 29,63 34,11 72,86 98, ,3 0,575 10,00 10,00 17,78 27,16 28,90 30,94 35,21 41,50 88,78 75, ,3 0,7 5,00 17,22 15,48 22,24 23,67 25,16 29,39 34,11 73,81 320, ,3 0,6 10,00 10,00 16,97 24,84 27,74 29,49 33,79 39,87 84,91 76, ,3 0,675 10,00 10,00 15,77 10,00 24,50 26,27 30,34 35,48 76,38 178, ,3 0,875 5,00 14,23 12,89 17,74 18,60 19,43 24,04 26,06 58,31 63, ,3 1,000 10,00 10,00 10,00 10,00 10,00 17,82 20,03 22,40 51,32 66, ,3 0,95 10,00 10,00 10,00 10,00 10,00 18,85 21,92 24,21 54,19 65, ,3 0,925 5,00 12,49 11,66 16,02 18,06 18,24 22,71 24,26 55,66 67, ,3 0,675 10,00 10,00 14,95 10,00 24,46 26,29 30,30 35,45 75,12 84, ,3 0,525 10,00 10,00 19,62 27,98 31,51 33,58 38,58 45,09 96,80 10, ,3 0,675 5,00 16,69 15,77 22,83 24,61 26,17 30,32 35,46 76,51 400, ,3 0,925 10,00 10,00 11,49 10,00 10,00 19,37 22,70 24,18 55,61 289, ,3 0,4 10,00 10,00 25,17 37,02 41,20 43,95 51,11 57,33 129,37 479, ,3 0,675 10,00 10,00 14,95 10,00 24,41 26,46 30,34 35,43 76,42 148, ,3 0,3 5,00 33,14 36,14 49,58 55,14 45,02 69,75 74,19 171,22 118, ,3 0,275 10,00 10,00 34,95 52,93 59,44 64,78 74,97 75,14 185,36 340, ,3 0,7 10,00 10,00 14,41 10,00 10,00 22,96 29,53 34,17 72,86 10, ,3 0,875 10,00 10,00 11,97 10,00 10,00 20,40 24,01 25,72 58,32 10, ,3 0,525 10,00 10,00 19,62 28,05 31,35 33,62 38,46 45,09 98,22 120, ,3 0,4 10,00 10,00 25,37 37,04 41,21 44,00 51,11 57,33 120,00 120, ,3 0,3 5,00 39,08 34,56 50,25 55,82 59,60 69,36 74,19 171,24 108,30

7 International Journal of Computer Science and Telecommunications [Volume 2, Issue 8, November 2011] 18 Appendix B B Model ,25 690,18 919, , , , , , , , ,2 7825, , , , , , , , ,12 F 5162, , , , , , , , , ,58 Model ,25 690,18 919, , , , , , , , , , , ,6 6839, , , , , ,71 F 2684, , , , , , , , , ,17 Model ,25 690,18 919, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,66 Model ,46 212,36 283,08 356,11 427,45 498,59 567,48 637, , , , , , ,6 6839, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,00 Model ,01 313,10 429,48 576,12 666,65 772,55 860,23 954, , ,83 378,02 626,19 858, , , , , , , ,67 567,04 939, , , , , , , , ,50 Model ,65 588,32 801, , , , , , , ,55 705, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,64 REFERENCES [1] Bertsekas et al. D., Gallager R. Data Networks, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, [2] Black U. Optical Networks, (3 rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, [3] De Ghein L. IP/MPLS Fundamentals, Cisco Press, Indianapolis, [4] Doyle J., & Carrol J. Routing TCP/I,. Cisco Press, Indianapolis, [5] Fumagalli A., & Valcarenghi L. IP Restoration vs. WDM Protection: Is There an Optimal Choice?, [6] Gumaste A. DWDM Network Design and Engineering Solutions. Cisco Press, Indianapolis, [7] Krauss O. DWDM and Optical Network, Publicis Corporate Publishing Cop., Erlangen, [8] Pioro M., Deepankar M. Routing, Flow, and Capacity Design in Communication and Computer Networks, Morgan Kaufman Publishers, Kansas City, [9] Stern T. E., Ellinas G., & Bala K. Multiwavelength Optical Networks, (2 nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Marko Rožman received the BS degree in telecommunications and MS degree in informatics from University in Ljubljana, Slovenia in 1992 and 2005, respectively. He is currently employed in mobile communications operator Simobil as Head of transport network department. He is currently working toward PhD in informatics from University in Ljubljana, Slovenia. His current research interests include backbone networks optimization especially for IP/MPLS and DWDM networks.

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