2 Devices in a Small Network Small Network A small network can comprise a few users, one router, one switch. A Typical Small Network Topology looks like this:
3 Device Selection Factors to be considered when selecting intermediate devices for a small network: Costs of devices depends on budget of company Number of ports needed Speed of device higher speed more expensive Expandability of devices Manageability of devices ease of maintenance and troubleshooting
4 Devices in a Small Network IP Addressing for a Small Network An IP addressing scheme should be planned, documented and maintained based on the type of devices receiving the address. Examples of devices that will be part of the IP design: End devices for users Servers and peripherals Hosts that are accessible from the Internet Intermediary devices Planned IP schemes help the administrator: Track devices and troubleshoot Control access to resources
5 Devices in a Small Network Redundancy in a Small Network Redundancy helps to eliminate single points of failure. Improves the reliability of the network. But incurs more costs Redundancy means having more equipment than needed, for standby use during emergencies. For instance, a company can have a server for operation, and another server on standby.
6 Devices in a Small Network Design Considerations for a Small Network The following should be included in the network design: Secure file and mail servers in a centralized location. Protection of location by physical and logical security measures. Redundancy
7 Protocols in a Small Network Common Applications in a Small Network Network-Aware Applications Software programs that are used to communicate over the network. Application Layer Services Programs that interface with the network and prepare the data for transfer.
8 Protocols in a Small Network Common Protocols in a Small Network
9 Protocols in a Small Network Common Protocols in a Small Network Network Protocols Define: Processes on either end of a communication session. Types of messages. Syntax of the messages. Meaning of informational fields. How messages are sent and the expected response. Interaction with the next lower layer.
10 Protocols in a Small Network Real-Time Applications for a Small Network Real-time applications require planning and dedicated services to ensure priority delivery of voice and video traffic. Infrastructure Needs to be evaluated to ensure it will support proposed real time applications. VoIP (Voice over IP) Is implemented in organizations that still use traditional telephones. IP telephony The IP phone itself performs voice-to-ip conversion. Real-time Video Protocols Use Time Transport Protocol (RTP) and Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP).
11 Growing to Larger Networks Scaling a Small Network Important considerations when growing to a larger network: Documentation Keep a record of the Physical and logical topology. Device inventory List of devices that use or comprise the network. Budget Itemized IT expense items, including the amount of money allocated to equipment purchase for that fiscal year. Traffic Analysis Protocols, applications, and services and their respective traffic requirements should be documented.
12 Growing to Larger Networks Protocol Analysis of a Small Network There are softwares for protocol analysis. Information gathered can be used to make decisions on how to manage traffic more efficiently. Network administrators can obtain information of employee application utilization. These information will be useful for tracking network utilization and traffic flow requirements.
13 Network Device Security Measures Threats to Network Security When network security is weak or non-existant, it can be attacked by external elements. Some threats are: Information Theft Data loss Data manipulation Identity theft Disruption of service
14 Four classes of physical threats are: Network Device Security Measures Physical Security Hardware threats Physical damage to servers, routers, switches, cabling plant, and workstations Environmental threats Temperature extremes (too hot or too cold) or humidity extremes (too wet or too dry) Electrical threats Voltage spikes, insufficient supply voltage (brownouts), unconditioned power (noise), and total power loss Maintenance threats Poor handling of key electrical components (electrostatic discharge), lack of critical spare parts, poor cabling, and poor labeling
15 Network Device Security Measures Types of Security Vulnerabilities Types of Security Weaknesses: Technological Configuration Security policy Vulnerabilities - Technology
16 Vulnerabilities and Network Attacks Viruses, Worms and Trojan Horses Virus Malicious software that is attached to another program to execute a particular unwanted function on a workstation. Trojan horse An entire application written to look like something else, when in fact it is an attack tool. Worms Worms are self-contained programs that attack a system and try to exploit a specific vulnerability in the target. The worm copies its program from the attacking host to the newly exploited system to begin the cycle again.
17 Vulnerabilities and Network Attacks Reconnaissance Attacks Internet queries Ping sweeps Port scans Packet sniffers
18 Vulnerabilities and Network Attacks Access Attacks Attackers can implement password hacking using brute-force attacks, trojan horse programs, packet sniffer and port redirection. (a brute-force attack consists of an attacker trying many words or phrases, with the hope of eventually guessing correctly.
19 Vulnerabilities and Network Attacks Denial of Service Attacks (DoS) DoS attacks prevent authorized personnel from using a service. It causes a system to use up its resources.
20 Mitigating Network Attacks Backup, Upgrade, Update, and Patch Antivirus software can detect most viruses and many Trojan horse applications and prevent them from spreading in the network. Keep current with the latest versions of antivirus software. Install updated security patches.
21 Mitigating Network Attacks Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA, or triple A ) Authentication Users and administrators must prove their identity. Authentication can be established using username and password combinations, challenge and response questions, token cards, and other methods. Authorization Determines which resources the user can access and the operations that the user is allowed to perform. Accounting Records what the user accessed, the amount of time the resource is accessed, and any changes made.
22 Mitigating Network Attacks Firewalls A Firewall resides between two or more networks. It controls traffic and helps prevent unauthorized access. Methods used are: Packet Filtering Application Filtering URL Filtering Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) Incoming packets must be legitimate responses to requests from internal hosts.
23 Mitigating Network Attacks Endpoint Security Common endpoints are laptops, desktops, servers, smart phones, and tablets. Employees must follow the companies documented security policies to secure their devices. Policies often include the use of anti-virus software and host intrusion prevention.
24 Securing Devices Introduction to Securing Devices Part of network security is securing devices, including end devices and intermediate devices. Default usernames and passwords should be changed immediately. Access to system resources should be restricted to only the individuals that are authorized to use those resources. Any unnecessary services and applications should be turned off and uninstalled, when possible. Update with security patches as they become available.
25 Securing Devices Passwords Weak and Strong Passwords
26 Securing Devices Basic Security Practices Encrypt passwords. Require minimum length passwords. Block brute force attacks. Use Banner Message. Set EXEC timeout. Enable SSH (secure shell) Securing Devices
27 Securing Devices Enable SSH
28 Ping Interpreting ICMP Messages! indicates receipt of an ICMP echo reply message. indicates a time expired while waiting for an ICMP echo reply message U an ICMP unreachable message was received
29 Ping Leveraging Extended Ping The Cisco IOS offers an "extended" mode of the ping command: R2# ping Protocol [ip]: Target IP address: Repeat count : Datagram size : Timeout in seconds : Extended commands [n]: y Source address or interface: Type of service :
30 Ping Network Baseline Baseline with ping
31 Ping Network Baseline (Cont.)
32 Tracert Interpreting Tracert Messages
33 Show Commands Common Show Commands Revisited The status of nearly every process or function of the router can be displayed using a show command. Frequently used show commands: show running-config show interfaces show arp show ip route show protocols show version
34 Show Commands Viewing Router Settings With Show Version Cisco IOS Version System Bootstrap Cisco IOS Image CPU and RAM Number and Type of Physical Interfaces Amount of NVRAM Amount of Flash Configuration Register
35 Show Commands Viewing Switch Settings With Show Version show version Command
36 Host and IOS Commands ipconfig Command Options ipconfig Displays ip address, subnet mask, default gateway. ipconfig /all Also displays MAC address. ipconfig /displaydns Displays all cached dns entries in a Windows system.
38 Host and IOS Commands show cdp neighbors Command Options show cdp neighbors command provides information about each directly connected CDP neighbor device.
39 Host and IOS Commands Using show ip interface brief Command show ip interface brief command-used to verify the status of all network interfaces on a router or a switch.
40 Router and Switch File Systems Router File Systems show file systems command Lists all of the available file systems on a Cisco 1941 route. The asterisk (*) indicates this is the current default file system.
41 Router and Switch File Systems Switch File Systems show file systems command Lists all of the available file systems on a Catalyst 2960 switch.
42 Backup and Restore Configuration Files Backup and Restore Using Text Files Saving to a Text File in Tera Term
43 Backup and Restore Configuration Files Backup and Restore Using TFTP Configuration files can be stored on a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server. copy running-config tftp Save running configuration to a tftp server. copy startup-config tftp Save startup configuration to a tftp server.
44 Backup and Restore Configuration Files Using USB Interfaces on a Cisco Router USB flash drive must be formatted in a FAT16 format. Can hold multiple copies of the Cisco IOS and multiple router configurations. Allows administrator to easily move configurations from router to router.
45 Backup and Restore Configuration Files Backup and Restore Using USB Backup to USB Drive
46 Multi-function Device Integrated Router Multi-function Device Incorporates a switch, router, and wireless access point. Provides routing, switching and wireless connectivity. Linksys wireless routers, are simple in design and used in home networks Cisco Integrated Services Router (ISR) product family offers a wide range of products, designed for small office to larger networks.
47 Integrated Router Wireless Capability Wireless Mode Most integrated wireless routers support b, g and n. Service Set Identifier (SSID) Case-sensitive, alpha-numeric name for your home wireless network. Wireless Channel RF spectrum can be divided up into channels. Linksys Wireless Settings
48 Change default values Integrated Router Basic Security of Wireless Disable SSID broadcasting Configure Encryption using WEP or WPA Wired Equivalency Protocol (WEP) - Uses pre-configured keys to encrypt and decrypt data. Every wireless device allowed to access the network must have the same WEP key entered. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Also uses encryption keys from 64 bits up to 256 bits. New keys are generated each time a connection is established with the AP; therefore, more secure.
49 Integrated Router Configuring the Integrated Router Step 1 - Access the router by cabling a computer to one of the router s LAN Ethernet ports. Step 2 - The connecting device will automatically obtain IP addressing information from Integrated Router. Step 3 - Change default username and password and the default Linksys IP address for security purposes. Initial Access to the Router
51 Integrated Router Configure a Wireless Client The wireless client configuration settings must match that of the wireless router. SSID Security Settings Channel Wireless client software can be integrated into the device operating system or stand alone, downloadable, wireless utility software.
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