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1 ZigBee/ David Sanchez Sanchez

2 Lecture Overview 1. Introduction and motivation to ZigBee 2. ZigBee/ specification 1. Definitions 2. MAC communication modes 3. Network components and topology 4. Protocol stack PHYs MAC

3 Lecture Overview 1. Introduction and motivation to ZigBee 2. ZigBee/ specification 1. Definitions 2. MAC communication modes 3. Network components and topology 4. Protocol stack PHYs MAC

4 ZigBee/ Applications security HVAC AMR lighting control access control BUILDING AUTOMATION CONSUMER ELECTRONICS TV VCR DVD/CD remote patient monitoring fitness monitoring PERSONAL HEALTH CARE ZigBee Wireless PC & PERIPHERALS mouse keyboard joystick asset mgt process control environmental energy mgt INDUSTRIAL CONTROL RESIDENTIAL/ LIGHT COMMERCIAL CONTROL security HVAC lighting control access control lawn & garden irrigation

5 Habitat Monitoring on Great Duck Island a pioneering sensor network application

6 Application-driven Requirements for Sensor/Control Networks Large networks (large number of devices and large coverage area) Autonomous network formation and management (easy network deploy) Reliable and self-healing operation for years without any operator intervention Very long battery life (years off of an AA cell) Very low infrastructure cost (low device & setup costs) Very low complexity and small size radio chips (device integration) Relaxed device data rate and latency Standardized protocols to allow multiple vendor devices interoperation Global standards (to allow worldwide device usage) Secure

7 Lecture Overview 1. Introduction and motivation to ZigBee 2. ZigBee/ specification 1. Definitions 2. MAC communication modes 3. Network components and topologies 4. Protocol stack PHYs MAC

8 Definitions and Device Functions WPAN Network formed of devices operating in the same frequency channel Unique PAN ID PAN Device A device containing an IEEE medium access control and physical interface to the wireless medium. PAN Coordinator Device responsible for network initial formation and maintenance. A PAN has exactly one PAN coordinator. Coordinator Device responsible for associating and disassociating devices into the PAN

9 IEEE MAC Communication Modes Centralized P2P

10 ZigBee/ Network: Star Topology PAN coordinator Devices communicate through PAN coordinator

11 ZigBee/ Network: Mesh Topology P2P link Enables flexible routing Improved reliability through redundant routes PAN coordinator Coordinator Devices in wireless range can communicate directly

12 ZigBee/ Network: Cluster-Tree Topology Organization of devices in clusters Hierarchical routing Extended network coverage PAN coordinator Coordinator Cluster

13 IEEE Device Classes Full function device (FFD) Any position within the network topology (PAN) coordinator capable May connect to any other device (FFD or RFD) Implements complete protocol stack Reduced function device (RFD) Limited to end-device Cannot become a (PAN) coordinator Can only connect to FFDs Reduced protocol stack PAN coordinator Full Function Device Reduced Function Device

14 ZigBee/ Stack Architecture

15 Architecture Upper Layers IEEE SSCS IEEE LLC, Type I IEEE MAC IEEE /915 MHz PHY IEEE MHz PHY

16 Frequency Bands,, Data Rates, Modulation+Spreading DSSS 868/915 MHz Higher range because of lower propagation losses Less crowded band 2.4 GHz Higher throughput, lower latency and duty cycle

17 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Transmitter Receiver Conversion to c Conversion Wireless b 1 c c n 1 c n i Pseudo-random PN-Sequence b Channel i Sequence of n chips to bit

18 Why DSSS for ? Advantages (only signals coherent to PN sequence are despread back) Reduced interference from interfering narrowband signals, adjacent channel signals, or other non-coherent signals in the same channel Low-cost signal filtering (just signal de-spreading, no need for complex filters) Reduced interference to other narrowband signals (coexistence) DSSS transceivers become cheaper over time (because digital circuits follow Moore s Law) Disadvantages Sacrifice spectrum utilization, i.e. increases bandwidth of transmitted signal significantly

19 Modulation and spreading functions - 868/915 MHz band - b i b i b i-1 15 chips transmitted in one symbol time

20 Modulation and spreading functions GHz band - In-Phase Q-Phase 32 chips in one symbol time (16 µs)...

21 PHY Packet Preamble Start of Packet Delimiter PHY Header PHY Service Data Unit (PSDU) 6 Bytes 127 Bytes ( kbps) ( kbps) (< kbps) (< kbps) Preamble (32 bits) Symbol synchronization Start of Packet Delimiter (8 bits) Frame synchronization PHY Header (8 bits) Specifies PSDU length PSDU (up to 127 bytes) Data field

22 Design of Radio Parameters Transmit Power Capable of at least -3 dbm (within instantaneous power capacity of inexpensive battery sources and capabilities of highly integrated low-cost system on a chip implementations) Maximum set by regulatory limits Required Minimum Receiver Sensitivity -85 dbm (2.4 GHz PHY) -92 dbm (868/915 MHz PHY) -> higher range at same Tx power Enables simple low-cost receiver design with little radio-frequency amplification (power use reduction) Features Clear channel assessment (the CS of CSMA) Received signal energy level and SNR detection (for use in application or network layers: e.g. dynamic channel selection algorithm, location service, bestroute selection )

23 Architecture Upper Layers IEEE SSCS IEEE LLC, Type I IEEE MAC IEEE /915 MHz PHY IEEE MHz PHY

24 MAC Overview PAN communication Optional superframe structure and beacon/non-beacon enabled synchronization Optional guaranteed time slots (GTS) CSMA-CA mechanisms MAC Data Transfer Models MAC services MAC frames (Security)

25 Recall MAC Communication Modes Centralized P2P

26 Optional Superframe Structure GTS 3 GTS 2 GTS 1 Contention Access Period Contention Free Period Slot ms * 2 n where 0 n 14 Network beacon Beacon extension period Contention Access Period Guaranteed Time Slot Regularly transmitted by coordinator in beacon-enabled WPAN. Contains WPAN ID, superframe structure description, and notification of pending messages for nodes. Space reserved for beacon growth due to pending node messages Access by any node using CSMA-CA For nodes requiring guaranteed bandwidth or low latency.

27 Un-slotted CSMA Procedure - non-beacon enabled networks - Un-slotted CSMA NB = 0, BE = macminbe Delay for random(2 BE - 1) unit backoff periods Ad hoc alignment of backoff slots (similar to CSMA/CA) Perform CCA Channel idle? Y N NB = NB+1, BE = min(be+1, amaxbe) N NB> macmaxcsmabackoffs? Y Failure Success

28 Slotted CSMA Procedure - beacon enabled networks - Slotted CSMA NB = 0, CW = 0 Delay for random(2 BE - 1) unit backoff periods Battery life extension? Y BE = lesser of (2, macminbe) Perform CCA on backoff period boundary N BE = macminbe Channel idle? Y N Locate backoff period boundary CW = 2, NB = NB+1, BE = min(be+1, amaxbe) CW = CW - 1 Back-off slots aligned with beacon N NB> macmaxcsmabackoffs? Y CW = 0? Y N Failure Success

29 Data Transfer to a Coordinator - beacon enabled star network - Coordinator MAC Network Device MAC Coordinator MAC Network Device MAC Beacon Beacon Data Slotted CSMA/CA Data GTS slot ACK (optional) ACK (optional) Data must be sent within CAP

30 Data Transfer from a Coordinator - beacon enabled star network - Coordinator MAC Beacon Network Device MAC Data pending flag in beacon Data Request Slotted CSMA/CA GTS slot Coordinator removes data pending flag from beacon ACK (optional) Data Frame ACK Why not allowing the coordinator to directly send data without previous data request?

31 Data Transfer to a Coordinator - non-beacon enabled star network - Coordinator MAC Network Device MAC Data Data Unslotted CSMA/CA ACK (optional)

32 Data Transfer from a Coordinator - non-beacon enabled star network - Coordinator MAC Network Device MAC Data Data Request Unslotted CSMA/CA ACK If data pending Data Frame ACK

33 Giving also the coordinator a rest Optional Superframe Structure II Inactive Period 15ms * 2 SO where 0 SO 14 15ms * 2 BO where SO BO 14 SO = Superframe order BO = Beacon order For low-duty cycle devices and coordinator battery extension

34 P2P Data Transfer If devices receive constantly Other kinds of synchronization are possible, although not specified Network Device MAC Network Device MAC Data Data Unslotted CSMA/CA ACK (optional)

35 (the usual) ) MAC services MAC data service MAC management service

36 Management Service Access to the PAN Information Base Association / disassociation GTS allocation Message pending Node notification Network scanning/start Network synchronization/search

37 MAC frame types Beacon frames Data frames Acknowledgement frames MAC command frame

38 General MAC Frame Format Octets:2 1 0/2 0/2/8 0/2 0/2/8 variable 2 Destination Source Destination Source Frame Frame Sequence PAN PAN Frame address address check control number identifier identifier payload sequence Addressing fields MAC header MAC payload MAC footer Bits: Dest. Source Sequrity Frame Frame type Ack. Req. Intra PAN Reserved addressing Reserved addressing enabled pending mode mode Frame control field

39 Beacon Frame Format Octets:2 1 4 or 10 2 variable variable variable 2 Frame control Beacon sequence number MAC header Source address information Superframe specification GTS fields Pending address fields MAC payload Beacon payload Frame check sequence MAC footer Bits: Beacon Superframe Final CAP Battery life PAN Association Reserved order order slot extension coordinator permit

40 MAC Command Frame Octets:2 1 4 to 20 1 variable 2 Frame control Data sequence number Address information Command type Command payload Frame check sequence MAC header MAC payload MAC footer Command Frame Types Association request Association response Disassociation notification Data request PAN ID conflict notification Orphan Notification Beacon request Coordinator realignment GTS request

41 Data Frame Format Octets:2 1 4 to 20 variable 2 Data Frame Frame Address sequence Data payload check control information number sequence MAC MAC header MAC Payload footer Acknowledgement Frame Format Octets:2 1 2 Data Frame Frame sequence check control number sequence MAC MAC header footer

42 References IEEE standard ZigBee specification

43 Multi-PAN Cluster-Tree Topology PAN coordinator Coordinator Full Function Device Reduced Function Device Network is formed out of multiple PANs It s possible but I didn t find supporting procedures in ZigBee specification (e.g. for a bridge device to synchronize PHY in two PANs) standard does support inter-pan addressing. MAC Layer View NWK Layer View Just one ZigBee coordinator Overall coordination Network start and network address assignation ZigBee router role Cluster coordination and synchronization Assigns network addresses ZigBee coordinator ZigBee router ZigBee end devices Cluster

44 ZigBee Node Functions - at network layer - ZigBee coordinator (a PAN coordinator an FFD) Starts new network Assigns network addresses to new nodes ZigBee router (a coordinator an FFD) Routes messages of other network nodes Supports device associations ZigBee end device (any other FFD or RFD) The rest of nodes participating in ZigBee network

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