goals monitoring, fault tolerance, auto-recovery (thousands of low-cost machines) handle appends efficiently (no random writes & sequential reads)

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1 Google File System

2 goals monitoring, fault tolerance, auto-recovery (thousands of low-cost machines) focus on multi-gb files handle appends efficiently (no random writes & sequential reads) co-design GFS and the applications (atomic append operation)

3 operations supported classic operations create, read, write, delete, open, close new operations snapshot quick&low cost picture of a file(dir) record append multiple clients appending simultaneously, no sync required

4 terminology chunk fixed-size piece of file chunk server holds chunks master coordinates chunk servers chunk handle ID of a chunk (64 bit, globally unique)

5 cluster architecture Application GFS client (file name, chunk index) (chunk handle, chunk locations) GFS master File namespace /foo/bar chunk 2ef0 Leg Instructions to chunkserver (chunk handle, byte range) chunk data Chunkserver state GFS chunkserver GFS chunkserver Linux file system Linux file system

6 the master maintains all the metadata controls system-wide activities chunk lease management (replication, (re)placement) garbage collection of orphaned chunks chunk migration HeartBeat with chunk servers (collect state, check they re ok) deals with all clients for metadata operations possible issues?!

7 avoiding master bottleneck clients get only chunkserver pointers from master Application GFS client (file name, chunk index) (chunk handle, chunk locations) GFS master File namespace /foo/bar chunk 2ef0 retrieve data directly from chunkservers (master just gives the directions to where ) (chunk handle, byte range) chunk data Instructions to chunkserver Chunkserver state GFS chunkserver GFS chunkserver Linux file system Linux file system cache the direction info for efficiency

8 chunks properties in GFS: size = 64 MB Application GFS client (file name, chunk index) (chunk handle, chunk locations) GFS master File namespace /foo/bar chunk 2ef0 ID size = 64 bit plain linux file on server advantages of large chunks: (chunk handle, byte range) chunk data Instructions to chunkserver Chunkserver state GFS chunkserver GFS chunkserver Linux file system Linux file system reduce client-master interaction (large files, sequential access) reduce nw overhead (successive ops on the same large chunk) reduce metadata size on master ==> in-memory metadata is possible disadvantages of large chunks: internal fragmentation 1-chunk files turn chunk servers into hotspots (higher replication factor for small-files)

9 metadata stuff kept in master s main memory only: namespace file < > chunks mapping chunk location info Application GFS client (file name, chunk index) (chunk handle, chunk locations) GFS master File namespace /foo/bar chunk 2ef0 operation logs: stored reliably on master s disk replicated on multiple machines give logical timeline to operations on metadata necessary to re-build file-system state checkpoints to speed-up recovery (chunk handle, byte range) chunk data Instructions to chunkserver Chunkserver state GFS chunkserver GFS chunkserver Linux file system Linux file system

10 reading

11 writing

12 writing

13 Thank you!

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