Wireless Sensor Networks

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1 Wireless Sensor Networks Office Hours: Tuesday 3 5 Main Building, third floor Credits: 6

2 Standard Solutions Data-rate RFID 20 cm, kbps 100m, Mbps m, 750 kbps m, 250 kbps IEEE Range 2

3 The IEEE

4 IEEE Main Features Thought for low-cost, low-rate, low-power consumption wireless communications Used for Low Rate W-PAN composed of battery charged devices Standard de-facto for WSNs It defines the PHY and MAC Layers protocols

5 Protocol Stack Architecture / 1

6 Protocol Stack Architecture / 2 Application Objects End Manufacturer Application Layer Network Layer Zigbee Alliance MAC Layer IEEE Physical Layer

7 Protocol Stack Architecture / 3

8 IEEE / 1 IEEE , 2006, 2011 IEEE a Different PHY (UWB) IEEE c Alternative PHY to support Chinese bands IEEE e MAC Enhancements for Industrial Applications - Time Synchronized Channel Hopping (TSCH) MAC protocol, IEEE f Active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) IEEE g Smart Utility Networks (SUN) - PHY amendment (OFDM)

9 IEEE / 2 IEEE j Medical Body Area Networks IEEE k Low Energy Critical Infrastructure Monitoring (LECIM) IEEE m Operations in TV White Space IEEE n China Medical Band IEEE p Positive Train Control (PTC) IEEE q Ultra Low Power (ULP) Alternative PHY to support Japanese bands

10 The IEEE PHY 10

11 Protocol Stack Time Synchronization Energy Management Localization Application Layer Network Layer MAC Layer PHY Layer

12 Outline PHY a (UWB)

13 Outline PHY a (UWB)

14 PHY Layer PHY is responsible for: Activation and deactivation of the radio transceiver Data Transmission and Reception Channel Frequency selection ED within the current channel CCA for CSMA/CA PAN Formation (Handouts 5) MAC Layer (Handouts 4)

15 IEEE Bands PHY Frequency Band Channels Chip rate parameters Modulation Bit rate parameters Symbol rate From bits to symbols 800/915 MHz MHz MHz 0 From 1 to kchip/s 600 kchip/s BPSK BPSK 20 kb/s 40 kb/s 20 kbaud 40 kbaud Binary Binary 2.4 GHz GHz From 11 to Mchip/s O-QPSK 250 kb/s 62.5 kbaud 16-ary Orthogonal 16 channels, 5 MHz each 80 MHz 2.45 GHz ISM Band MHz frequency

16 IEEE PHY PHY Frequency Band Channels Chip rate parameters Modulation Bit rate parameters Symbol rate From bits to symbols 800/915 MHz MHz MHz 0 From 1 to kchip/s 600 kchip/s BPSK BPSK 20 kb/s 40 kb/s 20 kbaud 40 kbaud Binary Binary 2.4 GHz GHz From 11 to Mchip/s O-QPSK 250 kb/s 62.5 kbaud 16-ary Orthogonal

17 IEEE PHY - Modulation MSK Modulation

18 IEEE PHY

19 IEEE PHY Hamming distance between each pair of 32-chip sequences Probability of error on a symbol when n chips are wrong (n errors on chips)

20 IEEE PHY - Performance

21 IEEE PHY - Performance db

22 IEEE PHY - Band 80 MHz 2.45 GHz ISM Band 5 MHz frequency 5 MHz 3 MHz

23 IEEE Data Packet n bytes Preamble (4) SFD (1) FLI (1) MHR (3 + (4 to 20)) FCS (2) Start of Frame Delimiter Frame Length MAC Header Data Payload Frame Check Sequence PHY Payload (PSDU) Max 127 bytes PHY Layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU)

24 Outline PHY a (UWB)

25 Alternative PHYs Since 2004, the IEEE a task group has been working on an alternative PHY layer to allow both high-rate data transmission and accurate ranging capability. Two optional PHY layers have been proposed: - chirp spread spectrum (CSS) and - ultra wideband (UWB). Only the latter unites transmission capacity and acute radar resolution. For the former, visit

26 IR-UWB According to Federal Communications Commission (FCC), a UWB system is defined as any radio system that has a fractional bandwidth equal to or greater than 0.20 or has a UWB bandwidth equal to or greater than 500 MHz.

27 IR-UWB

28 IR-UWB Time-hopping sequence In the example above: [..., 2, 8, 4,...] One time-hopping sequence/user

29 Wireless Sensor Networks

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