Mobile Communications

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1 Mobile Communications Wireless Personal Area Networks Manuel P. Ricardo Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto 1

2 IEEE Standards 2

3 IEEE Wireless PAN (Sensor Networks) 3

4 Information Current Standard» available at IEEE site get IEEE standards» IEEE IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks--part 15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR- WPANs)» Read : Section 4 - General Description 4

5 Introduction Low Rate WPAN (LR-WPAN )» simple, low-cost communications network» wireless connectivity» applications with limited power and low throughput requirements Characteristics of an LR-WPAN» Over-the-air data rates of 250 kbit/s, 100kbit/s, 40 kbit/s, 20 kbit/s» 64-bit addresses or allocated 16-bit short addresses» Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA-CA)» Low power consumption» Energy Detection (ED); Link quality indication (LQI)» Radio channels 16 channels in the 2450 MHz band 30 channels in the 915 MHz band 3 channels in the 868 MHz band 5

6 Types of Devices Two types» FFD - full-function device Can operate in 3 modes: PAN coordinator, coordinator, device FFD can talk to RFDs or other FFDs» RFD - reduced-function device intended for applications that are very simple (light switch, passive infrared sensor) RFD can talk only to an FFD WPAN shall include at least one FFD operating as the PAN coordinator 6

7 Topologies, Identifiers Topologies» star topology communication between devices and PAN coordinator» peer-to-peer topology devices may communicate directly; needs PAN coordinator Identifiers» Each device has a unique 64-bit address; short 16-bit addresses may be used» Each PAN has an identifier 7

8 Multi-Cluster Tree Operating in the same RF channel 8

9 Architecture Physical layer (PHY)» activation and deactivation of the radio transceiver» ED, LQI, channel selection, clear channel assessment» transmitting and receiving data» The radio operates at the following unlicensed bands MHz (Europe) MHz (worldwide) MAC sublayer» beacon management» channel access» frame validation, frame acknowledgement» association and disassociation» hooks for implementing application-appropriate security mechanisms 9

10 Superframe Structure Superframe format» defined by the PAN coordinator» bounded by beacons» can have active and inactive portions Beacons used to» synchronize attached devices» identify the PAN» describe superframe structure Superframe may have 2 periods» Contention access period Devices use slotted CSMA/CA mechanism» Contention-free period (CFP) Guaranteed timeslots (GTS) for devices If coordinator desires no superframe it turns off beacon transmissions» Unslotted CSMA/CA is used 10

11 Slotted MAC NB number of backoffs CW contention window BE backoff exponent macbatlifeext device using battery Backoff period 20 symbols 11

12 Data Transfer to a Coordinator 12

13 Data Transfer from a Coordinator 13

14 Data Frame 14

15 Acknowledgment and Comand Frames MAC commands Association request and response Disassociation notification Data request Orphan notification Beacon request (in non-beacon enabled networks) GTS request Coordinator realignment PAN ID conflict notification 15

16 Beacon Frame 16

17 ZigBee Stack Architecture Slide 17 17

18 Contiki Operating System Open source operating system for the Internet of Things Designed for microcontrollers with small amounts of memory 2 kbytes of RAM and 40 kbytes of ROM Provides IP communication, both for IPv4 and IPv6; uip stack Sockets for applications Supports 6LowPAN header compression and IETF RPL IPv6 routing, and the IETF CoAP application layer protocol Cooja simulator available Simulated code can be deployed 18

19 6LowPAN Problem» IEEE frame size is short: 127 bytes» IPv6 datagram Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU): at least 1280 bytes IPv6 addresses: 128 bits» Datagram in sensor networks may transport only few bytes of information Example: temperature reading 6LowPAN» Compresses IPv6 and UDP headers for low power devices Details of 6LowPAN operation available in» IETF RFC Compression Format for IPv6 Datagrams over IEEE Based Networks 19

20 Compression of IPv6 Header Assumptions made» Version is 6» Traffic Class and Flow Label are both zero;» Payload Length can be inferred from lower layers» Hop Limit set to a well-known value by the source» IPv6 addresses reuse IEEE Addresses TF Traffic Class, Flow Label 00 4 Bytes: ECN + DSCP + 4-bit Pad + Flow Label 01 3 Bytes: ECN + 2-bit Pad + Flow Label, DSCP elided 10 1 Byte: ECN + DSCP, Flow Label elided 11 Traffic Class and Flow Label elided NH Next Header 0 Full 8 bits for Next Header are carried in-line 1 The Next Header field is compressed HLIM Hop Limit Uncompressed (00), 1, 64, 255 CID Context Identifier Extension No context identifier (0), context identifier introduced after DAM field S(D)AC Source (Destination) Address Compression SAC/ DAC S(D)AM Source (Destination) Address Mode SAM/ DAM Address bits. The full address is carried bits. The first 64-bits of the address are elided bits. The first 112 bits of the address are elided bits. The address is fully elided. The first 64 bits of the address are the link-local prefix padded with zeros The UNSPECIFIED address, :: bits. Address derived from context and the 64 bits carried bits. Address derived from context and the 16 bits carried bits. Address derived using context M Multicast compression Destination address is (1) /is not (0) a multicast address Version Traffic Class Flow Label Payload Lengtht Next Header Hop Limit SourceAddr (4 words) DestinationAddr (4 words) Options (variable number) Data Original IPv6 Header 20

21 Compression of IPv6 Extension Headers / Compression of UDP Header Compression of IPv6 Extension Header 1110 IPv6 Ext Header ID (EID) NH Uncompressed fields Next Header EDI Header 0 Hop-by-Hop 1 Routing 2 Fragment 3 Destination 4 Mobility 5 Reserved 6 Reserved 7 IPv6 Header Compression of UDP Header C P C Checksum omitted (1) P Port address compression bit used 01 1 st 8-bit dest port omitted 10 1 st 8-bit src port omitted 11 1 st 12-bit src+dst ports omitted 21

22 RPL Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks Low-power and Lossy Networks consist of constrained nodes» processing, memory, and energy These routers are interconnected by links characterized by» High packet loss ratio and low birtrate Support multiple traffic patterns» point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, multipoint-to-point In common situations nodes aim to send information to sink RPL» "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks," IETF RFC

23 RPL Terminology A network may run multiple instances of RPL concurrently RPL operation demands bidirectional links DAG Directed Acyclic Graph Directed graph having the property that all edges are oriented so that no cycles exist Edges contained in paths oriented toward and terminating at one or more root nodes DAG DAG root Node within the DAG that has no outgoing edge DODAG Destination-Oriented DAG DAG rooted at a single DAG root Objective Function Rank DODAG ID DODAG Version Parent Sub-DODAG Storing Non-Storing Aims to minimize energy, latency, Distance from root using specified objective IPv6 address of the root Current version of the DODAG. Every time a new DODAG is computed with the same root, its version is incremented Immediate successor towards the root Sub-tree rooted at this node Nodes keep routing tables for sub- DODAG Nodes know only parent. Do not keep a routing table. DAG root DODAG rank=1 rank=2 23

24 RPL Control Messages DIO: DODAG Information Object» Generated downward to announce an RPL instance» Allows other nodes to discover an RPL instance and join it DIS: DODAG Information Solicitation» Link-Local multicast request for DIO (neighbor discovery)» Do you know of any DODAGs? DAO: Destination Advertisement Object» From child to parents or to root» Can I join you as a child on DODAG #x? DAO Ack» Yes, you can DIS old new new old DIS DIO DAO DAO-Ack 24

25 DODAG Formation Example 1. A multicasts DIOs 1. A is member of DODAG with Rank 0 2. B, C, D, E hear and determine that their rank (distance) is 1, 1, 3, 4, respectively from A 3. B, C, D, E send DAOs to A 4. A accepts all 5. B and C multicast DIOs 6. D hears those and determines that its distance from B and C is 1, 2 7. E hears both B, C and determines that its distance from B and C is 2, 1 8. D sends a DAO to B 1. E sends a DAO to C 9. B sends a DAO-Ack to D 1. C sends a DAO-Ack to E 25

26 RPL Data Forwarding Case 1: To the root (n-to-1)» Packet addressed to root; each node in path delivers packet to its parent Case 2: X to Y» 2A: Storing: Every node has a forwarding table Packet forward up from X to a parent common to X and Y Then, packet forwarded down from common parent to Y» 2B: Non-storing: no forwarding tables except at root Packet forward up from X to DODAG root Root puts a source route on packet and forwards packet down to Y Case 3: Broadcast from the root (1-to-n)» 3A: Storing: every nod knows their children Broadcast to children» 3B: Non-Storing: every node knows only parents but not children Root puts a source route for each leaf and forwards 26

27 Homework Review slides and use them to guide your lectures Read from Jelena Misic, and Vojislav B. Misic, Wireless Personal Area Networks Performance Interconnections and Security with IEEE » Chap. 2 Read RFC 6282, Compression Format for IPv6 Datagrams over IEEE Based Networks Read RFC 6550, RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks Answer questions at moodle 27

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