Principles of Wireless Sensor Networks

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1 Principles of Wireless Sensor Networks Lecture 6 Stockholm, February 6, 2012 Carlo Fischione Royal Institute of Technology - KTH Stockholm, Sweden

2 Course content Part 1 Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Lec 1: Introduction Lec 2: Programming Lec 3: Sensor modelling Lec 4: Physical layer Lec 5: Mac layer Lec 6: Routing Part 2 Ø Ø Ø Ø Lec 7: Estimation Lec 8: Detection Lec 9: Positioning and localization Lec 10: Time synchronization Part 3 Ø Lec 11: Networked control systems 1 Ø Lec 12: Networked control systems 2 Ø Ø Lec 13: Security Lec 14: Summary

3 Previous lecture Process Controller Application Presentation Session Transport Routing MAC Phy When a node gets the right to transmit? What it the mechanism to get such a right?

4 Today s lecture Application Presentation Session Transport Routing MAC Process Controller Phy How messages are routed?

5 Today s learning goals What are the basic routing options? How to compute the shortest path? Which routing is used in standard protocols?

6 Outline Classification of routing protocols for WSNs The shortest path routing Routing algorithms in standardized protocol stacks

7 Routing protocols Derive a mechanism that allows a packet sent from an arbitrary node to arrive at some destination node Ø Routing: Construct data structures (e.g., tables) that contain information how a given destination can be reached Ø Forwarding: Consult these data structures to forward a given packet to its next hop Challenges Nodes may move around, neighborhood relations change

8 Routing protocols classification When the routing protocol operate? 1. Proactive: routing protocol always tries to keep its routing tables upto-date, active before tables are actually needed 2. On demand: route is only determined when actually needed 3. Hybrid: combine these behaviors

9 A proactive protocol Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV) Based on Bellman Ford procedure (see later on) Periodically send full route updates On topology change, send incremental route updates Unstable route updates are delayed Add aging information to route information propagated by distance vector exchanges; helps to avoid routing loops

10 An on demand protocol Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV) Popular routing protocol on sensor networks Nodes maintain routing tables instead of source routing Nodes remember from where a packet came and populate routing tables with that information Route discovery procedure by special packets

11 Hybrid protocols Let s see an example of hybrid protocols

12 Geographic routing Routing tables contain information to which next hop a packet should be forwarded Implicitly infer this information from physical placement of nodes Position of current node, current neighbors, destination known send to a neighbor in the right direction as next hop Options 1. Send to any node in a given area geocasting 2. Use position information to aid in routing position-based routing

13 Problem: dead ends Simple strategies might send a packet into a dead end

14 But how routes are actually chosen? We have seen a general classification of routing In practice, on what the decision to select next hop is based?

15 Many options for decision 1. Maximum total available battery capacity Path metric: Sum of battery levels 3 A Example: A-C-F-H 2. Minimum battery cost routing Path metric: Sum of reciprocal battery levels Example: A-D-H 3. Conditional max-min battery capacity routing Only take battery level into account when below a given level D 3 3 B 1 E 1 H G C F Minimize variance in power levels 5. Minimum total transmission power

16 Many options for routing Is there a basic way to model all these options? Yes, the shortest path problem

17 Outline Classification of routing protocols for WSNs The shortest path routing Routing algorithms for standardized protocol stack

18 Some definitions source destination number of nodes set of nodes set of arcs network routing cost on the link What is the shortest (minimum cost) path from source to destination?

19 The shortest path problem source destination binary variable. It can be also real, but remarkably if problem feasible, the unique optimal solution is binary The optimal solution gives the shorstest path source-destination

20 Applications of the shortest path problem The solution to this problem is very general and can be applied to 1. Routing over WSNs, used in WirelessHART, RPL, Dynamic programming 3. Project management 4. The paragraphing problem In the following, we see the basic algorithm to solve the problem

21 Generic shortest paths algorithm The solution of the problem can be achieved by combinatorial algorithms that don t use optimization theory We consider now a generic algorithm based on node labeling, the Generic shortest path algorithm The algorithm is the foundation of other more advanced algorithms widely used for routing such as 1. Bellman-Ford method 2. Dijkstra method

22 Complementary slackness conditions for the shortest path problem A label associated to a node

23 Generic shortest path algorithm: the idea Complementary Slackness conditions (CS) is the foundation of the generic shortest path algorithm Some initial vector of labels is assigned The arcs that violate the CS condition are selected and their labels redefined so that This is continued until the CS condition is satisfied for all arcs

24 Iterations of the algorithm Let initially be Node removal rule gives Dijkstra method or Bellman-Ford method

25 An example

26 Convergence of the algorithm (a)

27 Convergence of the algorithm (b) The Bellman-Ford equation

28 Convergence of the algorithm (c) (d)

29 Outline Classification of routing protocols for WSNs The shortest path routing Routing algorithms for standardized protocol stacks

30 ZigBee, ZigBee covers the networking and application layers on top of IEEE Nodes: 1. IEEE nodes 2. ZigBee coordinator: starts the network 3. ZigBee router Networks: star, tree, mesh Routing 1. No transport protocol for end-to-end reliability (only hop-byhop). 2. Tree routing: packets are sent to the coordinator, and then to the destination. 3. Mesh routing: AODV protocol for route discovery

31 ISA SP-100, Standard for non critical process applications tolerating delays up to 100ms. It is based on IEEE plus a new data link layer and adaptation layer between MAC and data link Frequency hopping

32 WirelessHART, Released in September 2007 as part of HART 7 specifications An open communication standard designed for process measurements and control applications strict timing requirements security concerns

33 WirelessHART network Field device, attached to the plant process Handheld, a portable computer to configure devices, run diagnostic and perform calibrations Gateway, that connect host applications to field devices Network manager, responsible for configuring the network, scheduling and managing communication

34 WirelessHART network Topology: Star, Cluster, Mesh Central network manager: maintains up-to-date routes and communication schedules for the network Basic functionalities: 1. Timer 2. Network wide synchronization 3. Communication security 4. Reliable mesh networking 5. Central network management

35 A Five Layers Architecture

36 Layers Physical layer: Ø similar to IEEE Ø GHz, 26 channels, 250 Kbps per channel Data link layer: Ø Network wide synchronization (a fundamental functionality) Ø TDMA with strict 10ms time slots Ø Periodical superfames Ø Channel blacklisting: the network administrator removes the channels with high interference. Ø Pseudorandom change of the channel for robustness to fading Ø TDMA security: industry-standard AES-128 ciphers and keys

37 WirelessHART MAC

38 WirelessHART Routing Graph Routing: Graph: collection of paths that connect network nodes Graph s paths are created by the network manager and downloaded to each node To send a packet, the source node writes a specific graph ID (determined by the destination) in the network header All network devices on the way to the destination must be preconfigured with graph information that specifies the neighbors to which the packets may be forwarded Source Routing: Supplement of the graph routing aiming at network diagnostics To send a packet to destination, the source node includes in the header an ordered list of devices through which the packet must travel As the packet is routed, each routing device utilizes the next network device address in the list to determine the next hop until the destination device is reached

39 ROLL: Routing over Low Power Lossy Networks ROLL is a Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force RPL, routing protocols for low power and lossy networks in Industrial and home automation, healthcare, smart grids Network assumption Ø many embedded nodes with limited power, memory, and processing Ø Interconnection by a variety of links, such as EEE , Bluetooth, Low Power WiFi, wired or other low power Powerline Communications Ø End-to-end IP-based solution to avoid the problem of oninteroperable networks interconnected by protocol translation gateways and proxies

40 Summary We have studied routing protocols The basic mechanism of routing is the shortest path optimization problem These mechanisms are included in existing WSN standards such as ZigBee, ISA100, WirelessHart, and RPL

41 Next lecture We move to the essential signal processing aspects of sensor networks Ø Estimation

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