# Prepared By: Graeme Hilson. U3A Nunawading

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1 0 Prepared By: Graeme Hilson U3A Nunawading

2 1 CONTENTS This Course Page 3 Reference Material Page 3 Introduction page 3 Microsoft Excel Page 3 What is a Spreadsheet Page 4 Excel Screen Page 4 Using the Fill Handle Page 5 Creating a simple Spreadsheet Page 5 Text (Labels) Page 5 Numbers (Values) Page 5 Formulae Page 5 Sum Formula Page 6 Auto Sum Feature Page 6 Saving the Spreadsheet Page 6 Exiting the Excel Program Page 6 Why use Cell References Page 6 Some Useful Formulae Page 7 Free Hand Formula Page 8 Mathematical Operators Page 8 Comparison Operators Page 8 Editing Spreadsheet Entries Page 8 Turning Figures into Money Page 9 Adding Decimal Formats Page 9 Currency, Percentage and Comma Page 9 Align Labels and Values Page 9 Relative Cell Reference Page 10 Absolute Cell Reference Page 10

3 2 Contents (Cont) Mixed Cell References Page 10 Inserting and Deleting Columns and Rows Page 10 Adjusting Column Width and Row Height Page 11 ##### Symbols Page 11 Working with Files Page 11 Tab Scroll Page 11 Inserting a New Sheet Page 11 Deleting a Sheet Page 12 Rename a Sheet Page 12 Move a Sheet Page 12 Colour Code Tabs Page 12 Cell Comments Page 12 Adding a Cell Comment Page 13 Viewing a Comment Page 13 Editing a Comment Page 13 Removing a Comment Page 13 Linking Data from one Sheet to Another Page 13 Creating a Database Page 14 Planning a Database Page 14 Entering Data into a Database Page 15 Editing a Database Page 15 Sorting Data in a Database Page 15 Undoing a Sort Page 15 Filtering a Sort Page 16 Un-Filtering a List Page 16 Preparing a Sheet for Printing Page 17

4 3 This Course This 6 week course is for the student who wants to quickly learn the fundamental principles of Microsoft Excel or for the student who wants to brush up what they may have forgotten. Students attending this course should have a sound knowledge of how to work with files and folders and be able to save and retrieve files to and from both the computer hard drive and a USB stick. Reference Material Many books and publications have been written detailing the various features and capabilities of Microsoft Excel. The problem with many of these books is that they are far too wordy and sometimes difficult to use as a quick reference guide. One that stands apart from the many available can be found in a series of books under the heading of In Easy Steps, Excel If you can t find this book in bookshops it can be purchased online and posted to you for less than \$35. The advantage of this series of books is that they use few words and lots of pictures to illustrate the various features of Excel. Students are strongly urged to purchase this publication as a good reference resource for the future. Introduction In the early days of computers, spreadsheets were used by accountants and bookkeepers in large organisations and businesses. In more recent years, home computer users have begun to see the value of spreadsheets as a financial and budgeting tool within the home. Microsoft Excel Excel is one of the programs usually found in the Microsoft Office Suite of software along with Word, PowerPoint, Outlook and Publisher. Excel utilises all the Microsoft operational features. Like other Microsoft programs, it is a selectand-do process. That is to say, you first of all SELECT an item and then DO something to that item, such as entering data, copying to a new location, or formatting as in changing text to italic text or deleting items from the spreadsheet. Like other Microsoft programs, there is usually more than one way of performing most functions in Excel. As you gain experience using Excel you will work out which method suits you best. But remember, there are sometimes two, three or four different ways to perform some features. Microsoft Excel is a powerful electronic spreadsheet program. Unlike Microsoft Word, it is not usually used for writing letters and documents. It has many advanced features that make numerical data entry and manipulation much easier, quicker and more accurate. Excel allows you to design the layout and presentation of data using a range of unique formatting tools. It provides all the editing tools you have become accustomed with in other Microsoft programs.

5 4 Formulae can be added to the spreadsheet to determine simple additions and subtractions right through to complex scientific calculations. However, the success and usefulness of your spreadsheet will depend on the accuracy and attention to layout and design principles. What is a Spreadsheet? A spreadsheet is a type of document that is used for storing and manipulating data. It is primarily used for entering numbers (values) and using formulae to create documents like profit & loss statements, sales records or share registers. A spreadsheet or Sheet is a rectangular document divided into grids designed into a series of columns and rows. In Excel 2010, a sheet has 16,384 columns and 1,048,576 rows. The intersection of each column and row is called a Cell. Each intersection is given a cell address, for example C4 which is the intersection of Column C and Row 4. Data (either alpha or numeric) is placed into the cells. If this idea reminds you of a road map, then you are getting the idea of how Excel Spreadsheets are designed. Excel Screen When the Excel program is opened, it will open as a new (blank) workbook (file) and display a new sheet (sheet1), ready for you to commence entering information. Quick Access Tool Bar Min/Restore/Max Close Menu Tabs Menu Ribbons Title Bar Columns Address Bar Active Cell Rows Input/Formula Bar Sheet Tabs Scroll Bars

6 5 Notice the various elements of the Excel screen as shown above. Try to familiarise yourself with these elements. The Excel screen is actually made up of two windows. The first and larger window is referred to as the Excel Application Window and is titled Book 1 Microsoft Excel. The second and smaller window is referred to as the worksheet window. Note that when you click on a cell the relevant column and row are highlighted in yellow and the active cell address appears in the address bar. Using the Fill Handle Excel has a number of features which simplify and save time when entering data into a spreadsheet. At the bottom right hand corner of each current or active cell, is a small black box. This is referred to as a Fill Handle as it fills in the gaps using the cells contents as an example of the data required. This procedure is done using the mouse. As you pass the mouse pointer over the active cell and across this box or fill handle the mouse pointer changes shape to a small black cross. Holding down the left mouse button and moving across the adjacent cells will cause Excel to start entering data into the new cell addresses based on the information in the active cell. Creating a Simple Spreadsheet Spreadsheets are created using a combination of text, numbers and formulae. When data is keyed into a cell on a spreadsheet, Excel can determine the difference between text, numbers or formula. Which data type you enter will determine how Excel will treat your entry. Text (Labels) Text is more commonly used to explain the data entries on the spreadsheet. Text is added in the form of a label, which can be either a column label or heading, a row label or heading or spreadsheet title. When text is placed into a cell, by default it will be placed at the left-hand side of the cell. Numbers (Values) A number is a figure which has numeric value such as 10 (ten) or 5 (five). Whenever a number is added to a cell, Excel will recognise that it is a number and place it to the right-hand side of the cell. Excel will also read entries which commence with + or as a numeric value. All numbers entered in a spreadsheet are referred to as values. Formulae Formulae are really mathematical expressions. They indicate to Excel how you would like the numeric entry to be treated. This might be a simply addition or multiplication. You will notice when working with Excel that you will rarely type in a formula like This is because Excel is really only interested in the cell that the numbers are in, not the number itself. Therefore, the formula would be written something like this: =D4 + G6.

7 6 If you look at this latter formula, you will notice that the formula starts with an = (equals) symbol. All Excel formulae will start with an = sign so that Excel can differentiate between the formula and all other data you are working with. You will also notice that when you refer to a cell in a formula you must give the column letter and the row number when the data is entered. Hence D4 means the cell at the intersection of column D and row 4. Sum Formula The most commonly used formula use in Excel is the SUM formula and will be written as follows: =SUM(D4:D24) where D4:D24 is the cell range to be added up. Auto Sum Feature Saving the Spreadsheet The AUTO SUM feature saves time in-putting the SUM formula for this most frequently used formula. Care must be taken in using this feature as blank cells in a range are assumed to be the end of the range and therefore the range does not extend beyond the blank cell. The range can be extended manually by dragging (holding the left mouse button down) beyond blank cells. Excel does not save your work as you go so it is important to remember to progressively save your work whilst creating, adding to or modifying the spreadsheet. You can save your spreadsheet to the documents folder on your hard drive or to an external drive (USB) in the same way that you save any other document. Exiting the Excel Program When you have finished using the Excel program, never turn the computer off without closing the Excel program and returning to the Windows desktop. To exit from the program use the following steps. Left click on File menu and select Save As Save the document in the usual way unless you have no need to refer to it again If you are not going to save the document, left click on File and left click on Exit Alternatively, left click on the Red cross in the top right hand corner Why use Cell References? It was mentioned earlier that Excel is not really interested in the data content of a cell when working with formulae. You have been using cell references or addresses such as B1..B5 when using the SUM formula rather than the values in the cells you are adding up. The question why use cell references in a formula can be answered in part, by Excels remarkable ability to re-calculate a formula. The moment Excel realises a value has changed in one of the cell references used in the formula, it automatically re-calculates the answer for you.

8 7 A = The sum is written to the spreadsheet by typing in the actual values found in each cell. Excel s answer is 302. A = If you change the value in A2 to 46, the answer is still 302 which is now wrong. It should be 303. A =A1+A2+A3 Because this table used only cell references in the formula, the formula did not limit Excel s ability to re-calculate the answer when the entry in A2 was changed. Typing fixed values in the formula of the other tables prevented Excel from making adjustments to the answer when the entry in A2 changed. This resulted in an incorrect answer. Some Useful Formulae SUM MIN MAX AVERAGE COUNT COUNTIF IF Today Now Gives the sum of a given cell range. =SUM(D1:D8) Gives the minimum number in a given cell range. =MIN(A1:F15) Gives the maximum number in a given cell range. =MAX(A1:F15) Gives the average of numbers in a given cell range. =AVERAGE(A1:F15) Gives the number of cells in a given range which have something in them. =COUNT(A1:A10) Gives the number of cells in a given range which meet a given criteria. =COUNTIF(B4:B12, Yes ) Gives a True or False response to a given criteria. =IF(D3<50, Fail, Pass ) Gives todays date. =TODAY() Gives todays date and current time. =NOW()

9 8 Free Hand Formula Often you will need to apply a formula to a spreadsheet that uses basic mathematical operators like subtraction, multiplication and division. The SUM formula will not be suitable in these cases. It is much quicker to apply a freehand formula where you can tell Excel which cell references (positions) you wish to include and which operators you need in the calculation. Take note of the symbols you use for each function: Mathematical Operators +(plus) -(minus) *(asterisk) /(forward slash) used for addition used for subtraction used for multiplication used for division % used for percentage Comparison Operators = Equal to <> Not equal to > Greater than >= Greater than or equal to < Less than <= Less than or equal to In addition, two wild card symbols can also be used? Represents a single character (eg. P?) * Represents a group of multiple characters Editing Spreadsheet Entries Excel contains the usual Microsoft tools for editing. You can use the tools on the Home tab to change the font type, size, bold, italic, underline etc. Simply highlight the cell or cells concerned and click on the relevant editing command(s). When you have cells highlighted or marked, the information in them is quite vulnerable. An accidental pressing of the space bar or any other key on the keyboard will overwrite the information in the cells. Should you accidently overwrite the information, do not despair, simply left click the UNDO tool on the Quick Access tool bar.

10 9 Turning Figures into Money If you are creating a spreadsheet with a large number of cells containing money values, it is not necessary to type the \$ symbol in front of the value in each cell. Also it is not necessary to type zeros after a decimal point. When all entries have been completed, highlight the cells concerned and use the Number area on the Home tab to format all the cells values as required. Adding Decimal Formats If you wish to add or reduce the number of decimal places in numeric data, the Excel Number area of the Home ribbon provides two handy tools. Look at the icons shown below. This tool will increase the number of decimal places. This tool will reduce the number of places. Simply highlight (mark) the cells to be formatted and left click on the appropriate feature button. Currency, Percentage and Comma Currency, percentage and comma symbols are frequently used with numeric values stored on a spreadsheet. Each of these are available adjacent to the decimal symbols and can be applied using the same method. Align Labels and Values Once your text or values is highlighted or marked, you are able to change the appearance and position of the information to improve its presentation. This procedure is referred to as Formatting. If you wish to change the position of the information in the cell you add an alignment format. There are three (3) basic alignment formats available in the Paragraph area of the home ribbon:- Left alignment, centre alignment and Right alignment. Which alignment format you choose will depend on the nature of the information. To apply one of these formatting features, highlight (mark) the cells concerned, then left click on the relevant alignment button. You can align a label as you type rather than waiting to do it later. Simply click the desired alignment feature before you type the data entry. You may also mark out a range of blank cells and attach an alignment format to it in readiness to enter a range of labels or values. This will reduce the amount of time you spend later improving the presentation of your work.

11 10 Relative Cell Reference A relative cell reference is the address of a cell relative to the cell the reference is in. For example, a reference cell B1 in B3, tells Excel to look at the cell two cells above itself (B3). Most of the references you use in Excel will be Relative cell references. NOTE: Relative cell references change when copied to other cells. Absolute Cell Reference An absolute cell reference is the exact location of a cell. To enter an absolute cell reference, type a dollar sign (\$) in front of the column and row number of the reference. An absolute cell reference to B1, for example, would be written as \$B\$1. NOTE: Absolute cell references do not change when copied to other cells. Mixed Cell References In a mixed cell reference, either the column or row reference is absolute while the other remains relative. Thus you can use cell references like \$B1 or B\$1. Use this when a column reference must remain constant but a row reference changes or vice versa. Inserting and Deleting Columns and Rows Once you have begun to design your spreadsheets, it is not uncommon to find that you need to insert another column or row after the spreadsheet has been set up. Rows and columns can be added or deleted from the spreadsheet as needed. In the example on the left, if another column needs to be inserted between column D and E, right click on the letter E column and left click on Insert. A new column E is inserted and all other columns are renamed. Insert new rows by right clicking on the row number and left clicking on Insert. Excel automatically corrects any formulae that may be present by adjusting the column letters and row numbers accordingly. New Rows New Column When deleting columns or rows you will need to be careful that you do not accidently delete important or necessary data entries.

12 11 Adjusting Row Height and Column Width Sometimes when data is input into cells it will spill over indicating that the column is not wide enough. The width of the column can be adjusted by placing the mouse pointer over the thin line between the column letters. When the mouse pointer changes to a double headed arrow, either double left click on the line to automatically adjust the column width to fit the text or hold the left mouse button down on the thin line and drag to the right to suit. The same procedure can be used to increase the height of rows. ##### Symbols When you add formatting elements to values you may find that the data disappears only to be replaced by a series of hash symbols. Do not despair, this simply means that the width of the column needs to be increased so that Excel can display the newly formatted value correctly. Simply adjust the column width as describe above. Working with Files In Excel, each document is called a Workbook. When you open a new Workbook it will be titled BOOK 1 until you save it as another name. If you open two workbooks before saving as a different name, the second workbook would be titled BOOK 2, and so on. Each workbook can consist of multiple pages known as sheet 1 and sheet 2 etc. You can have more than 3 sheets but, by default, 3 sheets are included with each new workbook. The multiple sheet capability allows you to keep related spreadsheets together in the one workbook and under the one file name. To move from one sheet to another, simply left click on the sheet tab you want. The active sheet will be shown in white. Tab Scroll If the sheet you want is not shown, use the tab scroll buttons at the left of the sheet tabs to scroll through the sheet tabs. To display more or fewer sheet tabs, drag the tab split box to increase or decrease the size of the sheet tab area. NOTE: As you change the size of the sheet tab area, you will also change the size of the bottom scroll bar for the workbook window. This is a compromise that you have to make. Inserting a New Sheet Left click on the Insert Worksheet tab at the right of sheet 3 tab A new sheet is now inserted and labelled as Sheet 4. Repeat the above steps for each new sheet you require

13 12 Deleting a Sheet Right click on the sheet tab you want to delete Left click on Delete The chosen sheet will now be removed NOTE: Once deleted, the sheet is gone, even the UNDO command will not bring it back. Rename a Sheet Right click on sheet tab Left click on Rename The sheet tab becomes highlighted Type over with the new sheet name and press Enter Sheet tab now shows the new sheet name Move a Sheet Sometimes you may want to re-arrange the order sheets appear on the sheet toolbar. To do this simply:- Right click on the sheet tab you want to move Left click on Move or Copy Select the sheet you wish to place the sheet before The sheet order has now changed Colour Code Tabs You can colour code sheet tabs for easy recognition. The colour is visible when the tab is not active. When the sheet is active, a coloured line will appear under the sheet name. To add colours simply:- Right click on the chosen tab Hover the mouse over Tab Colour Left click on the selected colour Click on another sheet tab The original is now coloured Cell Comments Excel allows you to add comments to any cell. You can use comments to provide background information on a particular cell which you don t necessarily want to display on the spreadsheet. Cell comments are not shown when the spreadsheet is printed.

14 13 Adding a Cell Comment Right click the cell in which you want to add a comment Left click on Insert Comment A comment box will now appear for you to enter the comment Left click outside the comment box The comment box now disappears as the comment has been saved to that cell. Note that a red triangle appears in the top right hand corner of the cell to indicate that this cell contains a comment. Viewing a Comment To view a comment, move the mouse pointer over the cell containing the comment and Hey Presto, the comment box appears showing the comment you previously inserted. Editing a Comment You can edit a comment if need be. To do this:- Right click on the cell with the comment Left click on Edit Comment The comment box is now displayed Left click in the text box and edit as required Left click outside the comment box Removing Comments Right click on the cell with the comments Left click on Clear Comments The comments and the red triangle indicator are now deleted Linking Data from One Sheet to Another It is possible to link data on one sheet to another sheet. For example, you may have a list of figures on one sheet with a total and want to have the total appear on another sheet as a summary. Left click on the cell where you want the data to appear, say on sheet 2 Type = in the cell Click on the sheet tab where the data you want is, say sheet 1 Left click on the cell containing the data Click on the original sheet tab (sheet 2) Hey Presto, the data appears in the summary cell The method described can also be used to link data from different workbooks as well as different sheets of the same workbook.

15 14 Creating a Data Base A data base is a tool for storing, organising, sorting and retrieving information. If for example you wanted to save the names and addresses of all the people on your Christmas card list, you would create a data base for storing such information as last name, first name, etc for each person on your list. There are a number of rules which must be observed when entering information into your database. They are:- Each piece of information must be entered into a separate cell called a field All the fields for one person on the list make up a record All the fields for each person must be in the same row Fields are always in columns and records are always in rows Excel treats the database operations as a separate list of data. This data acts like any other worksheet data, until you select a command from the Data Ribbon. Only then does Excel recognise the list as a database. Field Names: You must enter Field Names in each column of the first row of the database. For example, Last name would be typed in A1, first Name in B1, street in C1 etc. DO NOT skip a row between the field names and the first record. Records: Each record must be in a separate row, with no empty rows between records. The cells in a given column must contain information of the same type. For example, the post code field (column) must only contain post codes for each record. Record Numbering: It is a good idea to add a column that numbers each record. If the records are subsequently sorted incorrectly, you can restore the database to its original order by sorting on the number column field. Planning a Database Before you create a database, you should ask yourself the following questions:- What fields make up an individual record? If you are creating the database to replace an existing system (card index system, information sheet or address list), use that format to determine which fields you need. What field is referred to most often? This field should be placed in the first column. What is the longest entry in each column? You use this information to adjust the width of each column.

16 15 Entering Data into a Database To create a database, enter data into the cells as you would enter data on any worksheet. As you enter the data, follow these guidelines:- It is best to enter Field Names in the top row of the database Type field entries into each cell in a single row to create a record. It is best not to leave blank cells as this may cause problems later when sorting Keep all the records on one worksheet. You cannot have a database that spans several worksheets or files. Editing a Database You can add to, delete or edit records directly on the database spreadsheet in the same manner you do with any other spreadsheet. Sorting Data in a Database To sort a database, you must first decide which field you want to sort on. For example, an address database could be sorted by Name, or by City or Post Code. Alternatively, it could be sorted by Name, City and Post Code. Each of these sort fields is considered to be a KEY. You can use up to three (3) keys when sorting your database. The first key in the above example would be Name, then City and then Post Code. You can sort a database in ascending or descending order. Ascending order is from beginning to end. Eg. from A to Z or from 1 to 10. Descending order is backwards. Eg. from Z to A or from 10 to 1. When you select (highlight) the database range to sort, DO NOT include the header (Field Names). If you select the column heading row in the sort range it will be sorted with the other rows and may not remain on the top (row 1). To sort your database:- Select the cell range to be sorted Select the Data Ribbon Select the Ascending or Descending Undoing a Sort If your sorting operation does not go to plan, you can undo the sort by using the UNDO button in the Quick Access tool bar. To sort even more safely, you should save a copy of the database before sorting. That way, if anything goes wrong, you can close the file without saving and re-open the original file. Another way is to do a sort on the number field if you have one.

17 16 Filtering a Sort You can narrow down a sort even further by using the Filter feature which allows you to display only a select group of records in a database. For example, if your address book list had a field for Christmas cards to be sent, you could display only those people who are to receive a Christmas card. Select (highlight) the entire database On the Data Ribbon, left click on Filter. Excel now displays a drop down arrow button on each cell in the header row Click on the arrow head for the field you want to use to filter the list. A drop down list of all the entries in this field now appears Untick the entries you do not want to include. That is, leave a tick against the entry name you want to include in the filter Left click on OK The database will now only show the records that have the selected entry in the sort field. Un-Filtering a List To return the database to the full list:- Again left click on Filter on the Data Ribbon Put a tick in the box (left click) next to Select All Left click on OK The database will now return to the pre-filtered state.

18 17 Preparing a Sheet for Printing In practice, not all spreadsheets you create will be printed out on paper. However, if you are going to print a sheet or sheets there are a number of things you will have to do before doing so. It is important to remember that what you see on screen may not be what it will look like on paper. Print Preview in the Quick access Tool Bar You can use the Print Preview button in the Quick Access Tool Bar in the top left corner of the screen or File then Print to take a quick look at what your sheet will look like and if that s fine, then press the Print button. If it is not how you want it to look, you will need to consider some of these items. Do you want it to be Portrait or Landscape? Do you want the Grid Lines showing? Do you want the column headings (A,B,C etc.) and Row numbers to be shown? What sort of margins do you want on the page? Do you want it to appear central on the page? Do you want Headers/Footers or page numbers? If the sheet has multiple pages, which is page 2, across or down? These and other factors can be set in the Page Layout Ribbon. Left click on the arrow in the bottom right hand corner of the Page Setup area on the Page Layout Ribbon and the following Dialog Box will appear. The above items and others can be set under the four tabs in the Page setup Dialog Box. You can preview your changes as you go by left clicking on the Print Preview Button. Print Preview Button

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