# Algorithms and Data Structures

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1 Algorithms and Data Structures (Search) Trees Ulf Leser

2 Source: whmsoft.net/ Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

3 Content of this Lecture Trees Search Trees Short Analysis Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

4 Motivation A tree is a list in which every element may have more than one successor Traversing such lists has degrees-of-freedom we may choose the next element from the set of all successors Wonderful structure to represent Partitions of sets and their characteristics Order between elements of a set Common parts of elements Trees are everywhere in computer science Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

5 Already Seen? Example Divide-and-conquer call stack in max-subarray Also: Merge-Sort, QuickSort Solution 11 Solutions 7, 4 rmax/lmax: 7, Solutions 3, 4, 4, 2 rmax/lmax: 3, 4, 1, 0 Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester Data A Tree XML depth-first vs breadth-first traversal The data items of an XML database form a tree <customers> <customer> <last_name> Müller </last_name> <first_name> Peter </last_name> <age> 2 </age> </customer> <customer> <last_name> Meier </last_name> <first_name> Stefanie </last_name> <age> 27 </age> </customer> </customers> last_name Müller customer first_name Peter age 2 customers last_name Meier customer first_name Stefanie age 27 Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester 2011

6 Already Seen? Full Decision Tree Decision trees for proving the lower bound for sorting S[i3]<S[j3]? S[i2]<S[j2]? S[i4]<S[j4]? S[i1]<S[j1]? S[i]<S[j]? S[i6]<S[j6]? S[i7]<S[j7]? Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester Heaps Heaps for priority queues Definition A heap is a labeled binary tree for which the following holds Form-constraint (FC): The tree is complete except the last layer I.e.: Every node has exactly two children Heap-constraint (HC): The value of any node is smaller than that of its children 3 Layer Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4 (last) Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

7 Machine Learning Want to go to a football game? Might be canceled depends on the whether Let s learn from examples Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

8 Decision Trees Temperature sunny Outlook overcast Temperature rainy Temperature hot mild Windy Humidity high true false No No Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

9 Many Applications The decision tree partitions the set of all possible situations based on predefined characteristics (attributes) Challenge: Which tree leads to the best decisions as soon as possible? Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

10 Suffix-Trees Recall the problem to find all occurrences of a (short) string P in a (long) string T Fastest way (O( P )): Suffix Trees Loot at all suffixes of T (there are T many) Construct a tree Every edge is labeled with a letter from T All edges emitting from a node are labeled differently Every path from root to a leaf is uniquely labeled All suffixes of T are represented as leaves Every occurrence of P must be the prefix of a suffix of T Thus, every occurrence of P must map to a path starting at the root of the suffix tree Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

11 Example S= BANANARAMA\$ 1 bananarama\$ 3 narama\$ 11 \$ na rama\$ 2 narama\$ 4 \$ 8 a 10 9 ma\$ na rama\$ rama\$ ma\$ rama\$ 6 7 Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

12 Searching in the Suffix Tree 2 narama\$ 10 9 ma\$ 4 8 rama\$ 6 7 P = na 11 bananarama\$ a rama\$ The suffix tree for T represents \$ all ma\$ 10 ma\$ 9 common prefixes 1 of suffixes of T as a na bananarama\$ 3 8 rama\$ unique path. narama\$ 6 narama\$ 2 rama\$ 11 rama\$ \$ na 4 Challenge: Construction of a suffix tree a rama\$ \$ ma\$ in linear time. na rama\$ P = an \$ na 1 rama\$ 7 3 narama\$ Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

13 Classifications Phylogenetic Trees Eukaryoten Tiere diverse Zwischenstufen Chraniata (Schädelknochen) Vertebraten (Wirbeltier) Viele Zwischenstufen Mammals (Säugetiere) Eutheria (Placenta) Primaten (Affen) Catarrhini Hominidae (Mensch, Schimpanse, Orang- Utan, Gorilla) Homo (erectus, sapiens...) Homo Sapiens Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

14 Tree Construction Phylogenetic Trees determine the most E likely order of speciation events. A: AGGTCTCGAGA AGTCTAC B: GTCCGTAGC_AGGTGTC_ C: AGGTGAGCGACCAGG TCA D: AT_TCAG_AG TCTAC E: _GGTCACCGACCAGGTCTA_ Challenge: Find the tree which assumes the least number of mutations (along an edge) D B D B A C E A C Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

15 Graphs Definition A graph G=(V, E) consists of a set of vertices (nodes) V and a set of edges (E VxV). A sequence of edges e 1, e 2,.., e n is called a path iff 1 i<n: e i =(v, v) and e i+1 =(v, v``); the length of this path is n A path (v 1,v 2 ), (v 2,v 3 ),, (v n-1,v n ) is acyclic iff all v i are different G is connected if every pair v i, v j is connected by at least one path G is undirected, if (v,v ) E (v,v) E. Otherwise it is directed Let G=(V, E) be a directed graph and let v,v V. Every edge (v,v ) E is called outgoing for v Every edge (v,v) E is called incoming for v Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

16 Trees as Graphs Definition A undirected, connected acyclic graph is called a undirected tree A directed acyclic graph in which every node has at most one incoming edge is called a directed tree Lemma In a undirected tree, there exists exactly one path between any pair of nodes Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

17 Rooted Trees Definition A directed tree with exactly one vertex v with no incoming edges is called a rooted tree; v is called the root of the tree From now on: Tree means a directed, rooted tree Lemma 1 In a rooted tree, there exists exactly one path between root and any other node Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

18 Terminology (mostly informal, not axiomatic) Definition. Let T be a tree. Then A node with no outgoing edge is a leaf; other nodes are inner nodes The depth of a node p is the length of the (only) path from root to p The height of T is the depth of its deepest leaf The order of T is the maximal number of children of its nodes Level i denotes all nodes with depth i T is ordered if children of all inner nodes are ordered Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

19 More Terminology Definition. Let T be a tree and v a node of T. Then All nodes adjacent to an outgoing edge of v are its children v is called the parent of all its children All nodes on the path from root to v are the ancestors of v All nodes reachable from v are its successors The rank of a node v is its number of children Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

20 Two More Definition. Let T be a directed tree of order k. T is complete if all its inner nodes have rank k and all leaves have the same depth In this lecture, we will mostly consider rooted ordered trees of order two Inner nodes have a left / right child Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

21 Recursive Definition of Trees We defined trees as graphs with certain constraints However, we will mostly traverse trees using recursive functions The relationship may become clearer when using a recursive definition of (binary) trees Definition A tree is a structure defined as follows: A single node is a tree with height 0 If T 1 and T 2 are trees, then the structure formed by a new node v and edges from v to T 1 and from v to T 2 is a tree with height max(height(t 1 ), height(t 2 ))+1 Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

22 Some Properties (without proofs) Lemma Let T=(V, E) be a tree of order k. Then V = E +1 If T is complete, T has k height(t) leaves If T is a complete binary tree, T has k height(t)+1-1 nodes If T is a binary tree with n leaves, then height(t) [floor(log(n)), n-1] Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

23 Content of this Lecture Trees Search Trees Definition Searching Inserting Deleting Short Analysis Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

24 Search Trees Definition A search tree T=(V,E) is a rooted binary tree for n= V different keys with key-labeled nodes such that v V label(v)>max(label(left_child(v)), label(successors(left_child(v))) label(v)<min(label(right_child(v)), label(successors(right_child(v))) Remarks We will use integer labels node ~ label of a node We only consider trees without duplicate keys (easy to fix) Search trees are used to manage and search a list of keys Operations: search, insert, delete Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

25 Complete Trees Conceptually, we pad search trees to full rank in all nodes padded leaves are usually neither drawn not implemented (NULL) A padded leaf represents the interval of values that would be below this node (but none of its values is a key) Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

26 What For? For a search tree T=(V,E), we will reach O(log( V )) for testing whether k T Compared to binsearch, search trees are a dynamically growing / shrinking data structure But need to store pointers Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

27 Searching Straight-forward Comparing the search key to the label of a node tells whether we have to look into the left or into the right subtree If there is no child left, k T Complexity In the worst case we need to traverse the longest path in T to show k T Thus: O( V ) Wait a bit func node search( T search_tree, k integer) { v := root(t); while v!=null do if label(v)>k then v := v.left_child(); else if label(v)<k then v := v.right_child(); else return v; end while; return null; } Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

28 Insertion func bool insert( T search_tree, k integer) { v := root(t); while v!=null do p := v; if label(v)>k then v := v.left_child(); else if label(v)<k then v := v.right_child(); else return false; end while; if label(p)>k then p.left_child := new node(k); else p.right_child := new node(k); end if; return true; } We search the new key k If k T, we do nothing If k T, the search must finish at a null pointer in a node p A right pointer if label(p)<k, otherwise a left pointer We replace the null with a pointer to a new node k This creates a new search tree which contains k Complexity: Same as search Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

29 Example Insert Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

30 Deletion Again, we first search k. If k T, we are done Assume k T. The following situations are possible k is stored in a leaf. Then simple remove this leaf k is stored in an inner node q with only one child. Then remove q and connect parent(q) to child(q) Clearly, the new structure still is a search tree and does not contain k k is stored in an inner node q with two children Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

31 Observations We cannot remove q, but we can replace the label of q with another label - and remove this node We need a node q which can 7 be removed and whose label k can replace k without hurting the search tree constraints SC label(k )>max(label(left_child(k )), label(successors(left_child(k ))) label(k )<min(label(right_child(k )), label(successors(right_child(k ))) Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

32 Observations Two candidates 12 Largest value in the left subtree (symmetric predecessor of k) Smallest value in the right subtree (symmetric successor of k) We can choose any of those Let s use the symmetric predecessor 7 This is either a leaf no problem Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

33 Observations Two candidates Largest value in the left subtree (symmetric predecessor of k) Smallest value in the right subtree (symmetric successor of k) We can choose any of those Let s use the symmetric predecessor 7 This is either a leaf Or an inner node; but since its label is larger than that of all other labels in the left subtree of q, it can only have a left child Thus it is a node with one child - can be removed Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

34 Example Remove Remove Remove Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

35 Enumeration One more operation: Print all keys from T in sorted order In which order do we traverse? Prefix, postfix, infix? Clearly, we must first print all left successors, then print a node, then print all right successors Thus, infix order Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

36 Content of this Lecture Trees Search Trees Definition Searching Inserting Deleting Short Analysis Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

37 Natural Tree A search tree created by inserting and deleting keys in arbitrary order is called a natural tree A natural tree T=(V,E) has height(t) [ V -1, log( V )] The concrete height for a set of keys depends on the order in which keys were inserted Example 11,9,10,,21,13,24,18,9,10,11,13,18,21, Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

38 Average Case Analysis We have seen that a natural tree with n nodes has a maximal height of n-1 Thus, searching will need O(n) comparisons in worst-case Nevertheless, natural trees are not bad on average The average case is O(log(n)) More precisely, a natural tree is on average only ~1.4 times larger than the optimal search tree (with height O(log(n)) We skip the proof (argue over all possible orders of inserting n keys), because balanced search trees (AVL trees) are O(log(n)) also in worst-case and are not much harder to implement Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

39 Example Source: cg.scs.carleton.ca/ Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester

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