1 An Oracle White Paper October 2013 Deploying and Developing Oracle Application Express with Oracle Database 12c
2 Disclaimer The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. The development, release, and timing of any features or functionality described for Oracle s products remains at the sole discretion of Oracle.
3 Executive Overview... 2 Introduction... 2 Default Installation... 3 Creating a New PDB from Seed... 4 Copying a PDB to another CDB... 4 Upgrading from an Earlier Database Release... 5 Incompatible Versions when Copying / Moving... 5 Installation Options... 5 Container Scripts... 6 Uninstalling Common Application Express... 7 Copying / Moving PDBs between Non-Default Installations... 7 New Features for Application Express Developers... 8 Varchar2 32K... 8 Default Default On Null... 9 Identity Column... 9 Invisible Column Data Redaction Conclusion... 11
4 Executive Overview This paper outlines the different ways in which Oracle Application Express can be installed into Oracle Database 12c Multitenant. This paper also covers some of the key new Oracle Database 12c features that are important for Application Express developers to learn about and how they are handled within Oracle Application Express. Introduction Oracle Application Express (APEX) is the native Web application development framework for the Oracle Database. Since its inception in 2004 as a feature of Oracle Database 10g, Oracle Application Express has seen tremendous uptake, with hundreds of thousands of downloads, and thousands of customers with secure, scalable web applications deployed into production. Oracle Application Express is a standard component of the Oracle Database. Oracle Application Express Release is installed by default in Oracle Database 12c. Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) introduces the Multitenant Architecture. This database architecture has a multitenant container database (CDB) that includes a root container, CDB$ROOT, a seed database, PDB$SEED, and multiple pluggable databases (PDBs). Each pluggable database is equivalent to a separate database instance in Oracle Database release 11g. The root container, CDB$ROOT, holds common objects that are accessible to every PDB utilizing metadata links or object links. The seed database, PDB$SEED, is used when creating a new PDB to seed the new database. The key benefit of the Oracle Database 12c multitenant architecture is that the database resources, such as CPU and memory, can be shared across all of the PDBs. This architecture also enables many databases to be treated as one for tasks such as upgrades or patches, and backups. 2
5 Figure 1 - Oracle Database 12c Multitenant Oracle Application Express Release 4.2 is the earliest release that can be configured with Oracle Database 12c. When choosing to install Oracle Database 12c using the Oracle Database 12c multitenant architecture, Oracle Application Express is installed as a common database option by default. You may also choose to uninstall Application Express from the root container and then install a local Application Express, Release or later, individually into one or more PDBs. Default Installation When configuring multitenant architecture, Oracle Application Express is installed in the root container database by default. In such an installation the root container, CDB$ROOT, includes the APEX_ schema to store the common database objects for the Application Express engine such as packages, functions, procedures and views. The seed database, PDB$SEED, and each PDB also includes the APEX_ schema to store the tables that are part of the Application Express engine. As such there are multiple copies of the Application Express engine tables and only single copies of the Application Express engine packages, functions, procedures and views. Each PDB will have the APEX_ schema and have its own copy of the Application Express engine's tables so that it can hold the meta-data for the Application Express applications defined within that PDB. The common database objects are accessed using meta-data links. 3
6 Figure 2 - Default Application Express Installation To access Application Express you must configure a Web listener. If utilizing Oracle APEX Listener or above as your Web listener then you can configure the listener to connect to CDB$ROOT. You can then address each PDB by appending its name after /apex in the URL. For all other Web listeners you must configure the listener for *each* PDB. When configuring these Web listener(s) a unique port must be specified for each PDB. If using the Oracle HTTP Server with mod_plsql you can define multiple Database Access Descriptors (DADs). If utilizing the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway (EPG) you will need to configure EPG in each PDB. Application Express *can not* be configured directly against the root container, CDB$ROOT, or the seed database, PDB$SEED, only the Web listener can be defined against CDB$ROOT when using APEX Listener or above. Creating a New PDB from Seed You can create a new PDB by copying PDB$SEED. Given that PDB$SEED includes the APEX_ schema the new PDB will also have this schema which contains the Application Express tables. When the PDB is created the meta-data links back to the common database objects will also be created. To utilize Application Express within this new PDB you must also configure a Web listener. Copying a PDB to another CDB If both the source CDB database and target CDB database utilize the default installation, whereby Application Express is installed in the root container, then you can readily copy or move a PDB between the CDBs. When the PDB is installed into the target CDB then the meta-data links will automatically be re-created. The only configuration step required is to define the Web listener. 4
7 Upgrading from an Earlier Database Release There are no special steps required when upgrading Oracle Database 11gR2, or earlier, to Oracle Database 12c Multitenant when Application Express is utilized in the original database. Part of the standard upgrade procedure is to run the noncdb_to_pdb.sql script once the new PDB has been plugged into a CDB. This script will recreate the objects in the APEX_ schema, within the new PDB, as meta-data links to CDB$ROOT. Note that when the original database is upgraded to Oracle Database 12.1 then Application Express will be upgraded to Release unless that version or later of Application Express is already installed. Incompatible Versions when Copying / Moving When copying or moving a PDB from one CDB to another CDB then it is important to review the release of Application Express in both the source CDB and target CDB. If the Application Express release is higher in the source CDB then you will need to patch or upgrade the target CDB to the same release before copying the PDB to that CDB. Otherwise, you will not be able to run Application Express within the new PDB as the underlying common objects will be incompatible. If the Application Express release is lower in the source CDB than that installed in the target CDB, then you have two options. The first option is to patch or upgrade the release in the source CDB to that running in the target CDB. All of the PDBs in the source CDB will now be running this later release of Application Express. Alternatively, you can copy or move the PDB to the target CDB and then log into the new PDB and run catcon.pl commands as specified in the Application Express Installation Guide. Installation Options Oracle Application Express is unique amongst Oracle Database 12c options in that it can be uninstalled from the root container, CDB$ROOT, unlike other options. This capability allows you to re-install runtime only Application Express into the root container. Alternatively, once Application Express is removed from the root container you can manually install different versions of Application Express, Release or above, into each PDB. 5
8 Having a common Oracle Application Express installation in the root container ensures every PDB is running the same version and patch level of Oracle Application Express. As such supporting multiple PDBs is simplified. This also offers ease of administration by enabling centralized management of Oracle Application Express infrastructure tasks, such as upgrading and patching. The other alternative is to uninstall Application Express from CDB$ROOT, PDB$SEED, and all other PDBs, and then install Application Express locally into each PDB. The advantage of a local Oracle Application Express is that you can run different versions of Application Express in each PDB. However, the disadvantage of choosing this option is that each local Oracle Application Express installation must be maintained separately. To perform an upgrade or patch for Application Express you would need to log into each PDB and perform the necessary steps and then log into the next PDB and repeat the same steps. As the number of PDBs grows this will add significantly to the management overhead compared to a common installation of Application Express. Container Scripts Figure 3 - Uninstalling from Root and Installing Different Versions Oracle Application Express , and later, include a number of new container scripts (*_con.sql). These scripts are specifically engineered to run within the root container, CDB$ROOT. When you need to perform actions on the common installation of Application Express, such as uninstalling, installing, patching, and so forth, you will need to log into CDB$ROOT using SYS as SYSDBA and utilize the appropriate container script, for example apexremov_con.sql. If you try and run container scripts from within a PDB the script will fail. If you have uninstalled Application Express from the root container then you can log into a specific PDB and utilize the standard scripts, such as apexins.sql. However, if you have 6
9 not removed Application Express from the root container and try to run a standard script from within a PDB then the script will fail. Similarly if you try and run standard scripts from within the root container they will also fail. In an Oracle Database 12c non-cdb (stand-alone) configuration and in Oracle Database 11gR2, or earlier, you will still use the standard scripts, for example apexremov.sql. Uninstalling Common Application Express Post-installation of Oracle Database 12c Multitenant you can log into the root container and run apxremov_con.sql. This will remove Application Express from the root container, the PDB Seed and all PDBs within the CDB. It is very important to understand that this will also remove all of the Application Express meta-data (application definitions) stored within all of the PDBs. Therefore, Oracle strongly recommends that this script only be run when initially configuring the CDB, and before starting any Application Express development, to ensure applications are not inadvertently deleted. As of the writing of this paper Database Bug # prevents you from installing Application Express directly into a PDB. Once a patch for this bug is available and has been applied, and assuming Application Express has been removed from the root container, you can log into any PDB and run apexins.sql or apxrtins.sql to install Application Express directly into that specific PDB. Please note a Web listener will need to be configured for this PDB. Changing to a Runtime Only Installation In production and test environments Oracle recommends that you install runtime only Application Express to harden the environment and minimize the attack surface. In order to achieve this within Oracle Database 12c Multitenant you are recommended to remove the Application Express development environment, by logging into CDB$ROOT using SYS as SYSDBA and running apxdevrm_con.sql. This step should be performed before installing applications into any of the PDBs. Copying / Moving PDBs between Non-Default Installations A major complication introduced by having the different Application Express installation alternatives, in the root container or individually in PDBs, is manifested when copying or moving PDBs between different CDBs with different configurations. Different steps are required depending on where Application Express is installed in the source and target 7
10 CDBs. With all of the different scenarios you will need to configure the Web listener once the PDB is in the target CDB. If Application Express is not installed in the root container of the source and target CDBs then you can simply copy or move the PDB between the CDBs. However, if Application Express is installed directly into a PDB that is being copied or moved to a CDB where Application Express is installed in the root container then after moving the PDB you will need to log into that PDB in the target CDB and run apex_to_common.sql. This script will remove the common objects within the PDB s APEX_ schema and create the meta-data links to the APEX_ schema within the root container. If you removed Application Express from the source CDB and have not installed Application Express directly into the PDB, and you plan to copy or move this PDB to a target CDB which has Application Express in the root container then you will need to perform additional steps. First you will need to log into the PDB, while it is still in the source CDB, and install Application Express directly by running apexins.sql or apxrtins.sql as appropriate. After copying or moving the PDB log into the PDB, within the target CDB, and run the apex_to_common.sql script. In the scenario where you wish to copy or move a PDB from a source CDB with Application Express installed in the root container to a target CDB where Application Express is not in the root container you will need to contact Oracle Support. Once the PDB is copied or moved to the target CDB the meta-data links can not be created as there is no corresponding Application Express within the root container. Oracle Support will supply you with a version specific apex_to_local.sql script to run in the PDB, within the target CDB, which will remove the meta-data links and create the necessary database objects locally. New Features for Application Express Developers Apart from the new installation scenarios related to Oracle Database 12c Multitenant there are a number of other new features in Oracle Database 12c that are important to Application Express developers. The features listed below are those which will have the greatest impact on Application Express developers, some of which necessitated special handling within Application Express. Varchar2 32K 8
11 Oracle Database 12c now allows the maximum size of Varchar2 columns to be specified as 32,767 bytes/characters. To enable this feature the DBA needs to set the max_string_size parameter to EXTENDED and bounce the database. Once specified the DBA can not set this parameter back to the default STANDARD. Once set developers can define larger columns in their tables and then they simply set the maximum size for the corresponding items, generally text areas, in their applications. If you are using Application Express collections then you should run the collection_member_resize.sql script which will change the c001 to c050 columns within the collection tables to Varchar2(32676). Default Default On Null When you specify this new column definition clause then it will alter how values are inserted into that column. If a column with DEFAULT specified is not included in an insert statement then the default clause will be utilized. If you specify a value explicitly then the DEFAULT clause will not be utilized. However, if you specify DEFAULT ON NULL then the default clause will also be utilized when the column is specified in the insert statement but evaluates to null. The key value for developers is that it avoids the need for triggers and allows defaults to be added to columns even if the column itself is nullable. There are no specific changes within Application Express for this feature. Identity Column Instead of defining a sequence and using statements within triggers or processes to retrieve the next value prior to inserting a record, you can now define an IDENTITY clause directly on a column. This clause will automatically invoke the sequence generator when required. There are additional parameters: ALWAYS [Default] which will always use the sequence generator; DEFAULT which uses the sequence generator if the column is not specified; and, DEFAULT ON NULL which will also use the sequence generator if the explicitly defined value evaluates to null. Within Application Express the SQL Workshop has been enhanced to handle IDENTITY columns. Developers can specify the IDENTITY clause when defining columns in the Create Table Wizard, and the definition is shown in the Object Browser. Additionally, the Create Form and Create Report wizards have been enhanced to 9
12 incorporate the IDENTITY column. For example, when a form page is generated columns of type IDENTITY will be rendered as Display Only. Invisible Column You can include an INVISBLE clause when defining columns. This clause does not prevent access to a column but removes it from various SQL statements. For example, running SELECT * FROM will not display the INVISIBLE column(s). Similarly, using INSERT INTO x VALUES will not insert values into the INVISIBLE column(s). However, such columns can be included in SQL statements by explicitly specifying the column name. INVISIBLE columns are not listed in SQL Workshop > Object Browser or Query Builder. When using create wizards on a table with INVISIBLE columns then the invisible columns will not be included in the generated pages. After generating reports, developers can alter the report source and manually specify the columns if they want them displayed. Developers can also add such columns as items with a source of Database Column to generated forms. Data Redaction In previous Oracle Database releases it was possible to define Data Masking policies. These were used when copying data between databases, such as from production to test or development. This allowed data to be sanitized so that testers and developers could get the benefits of working with production data without exposing sensitive or Personally Identifiable Information(PII) data. Oracle Advanced Security Data Redaction is very different in that it operates directly on the production database. The main purpose of Data Redaction is to limit access to specific columns based on defined policies as the data is retrieved from the database. It provides selective, on-the-fly redaction of sensitive data in SQL query results prior to display by applications so that unauthorized users cannot view sensitive data. For example, in a call center application people within payroll processing need to be able access all of the employee columns. However, call center operators only need to see the last four digits of the Social Security Number (SSN), should not be able to read an employee s date of birth or PIN. 10
13 Data Redaction policies can be defined for all users or limited using an expression clause. Within the Data Redaction expression clause you can incorporate conditions relating to the current Application Express user by specifying v( APP_USER ) or nv( APP_USER ). These were included by the Advanced Security development team specifically to enhance the redaction capabilities within Application Express applications. Conclusion The Oracle Database 12c Multitenant Architecture introduces a completely new way for organizations to consolidate databases, provision new service, and move or copy databases. This architecture provides choices with respect to installing and managing your Application Express environment. However, there are also additional complexities introduced when moving and copying PDBs when there are different versions of Application Express involved. This paper strives to help you understand these choices so that you can determine the best strategy for your environment. 11
14 Deploying and Developing Oracle Application Express with Oracle Database 12c October 2013 Author: David Peake Contributing Authors: Jason Straub Oracle Corporation World Headquarters 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA U.S.A. Worldwide Inquiries: Phone: Fax: Copyright 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is provided for information purposes only and the contents hereof are subject to change without notice. This document is not warranted to be error-free, nor subject to any other warranties or conditions, whether expressed orally or implied in law, including implied warranties and conditions of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. We specifically disclaim any liability with respect to this document and no contractual obligations are formed either directly or indirectly by this document. This document may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without our prior written permission. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. AMD, Opteron, the AMD logo, and the AMD Opteron logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices. Intel and Intel Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. All SPARC trademarks are used under license and are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark licensed through X/Open Company, Ltd oracle.com
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