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1 Google File System 2

2 goals monitoring, fault tolerance, auto-recovery (thousands of low-cost machines) focus on multi-gb files handle appends efficiently (no random writes & sequential reads) co-design GFS and the applications (atomic append operation)

3 operations supported classic operations create, read, write, delete, open, close new operations snapshot quick&low cost picture of a file(dir) record append multiple clients appending simultaneously, no sync required

4 terminology chunk fixed-size piece of file chunk server holds chunks master coordinates chunk servers chunk handle ID of a chunk (4 bit, globally unique)

5 cluster architecture Application GFS client (file name, chunk index) (chunk handle, chunk locations) GFS master File namespace /foo/bar chunk 2ef0 Leg Instructions to chunkserver (chunk handle, byte range) chunk data Chunkserver state GFS chunkserver GFS chunkserver Linux file system Linux file system

6 consistency atomic namespace mutations (master & op log) file region states: (un)defined, (un)consistent data mutations: writes or record appends applications & consistency: write-on-create & append-only checkpointing (incremental on defined states) self-validating self-identifying records Application GFS client (file name, chunk index) (chunk handle, chunk locations) (chunk handle, byte range) chunk data GFS master /foo/bar File namespace chunk 2ef0 Instructions to chunkserver Chunkserver state GFS chunkserver GFS chunkserver Linux file system Linux file system

7 mutations & leases mutation on all replicas primary: deciding mutation order selected by the master (chunk lease) lease lasts 0 secs can be extended on request lease-messages piggybacked on heartbeat messages

8 write data flow 1. client asks for primary & replicas 2. master sends info, client caches it 4 Client 3 step 1 2 Master 3. client sends data to all replicas 4. client sends write request to primary 5. primary forwards mutation order + write request to secondaries. ack to primary about write complete 7 Replica A Primary Replica Replica B 5 Legend: Control Data 7. primary ack to client (errors too)

9 data vs control flow two different flows: control (through primary) 4 Client 3 step 1 2 Master data (chain of chunkservers) Replica A data flow: next hop is the closest chunkserver closeness determined by IP 7 Primary Replica Replica B 5 Legend: Control Data data forwarded as they come

10 record appends the client specifies data only (no offset) GFS picks offset and sends it to client 4 Client 3 step 1 2 Master data flow: 1. client sends data to replicas of last chunk 2. client sends request to primary 7 Replica A Primary Replica 5 Legend: 3. primary checks chunk availability (pads it if necessary) Replica B Control Data 4. primary writes, tells replicas to write to the same offset, & acks the client

11 if record append fails A. client retries 4 Client 3 step 1 2 Master B. replicas could have different data in the chunk Replica A C. client is ack-ed ok only if record written at same offset everywhere 7 Primary Replica 5 Legend: D. the above regions are defined (and consistent) Replica B Control Data

12 snapshot (of a file) master duties master revokes leases on chunk 4 Client 3 step 1 2 Master master logs the op duplicates the in-memory metadata for the file (reference count >1) actual copying (of chunk C) when client needs to write on C reference count indicator 7 Replica A Primary Replica Replica B 5 Legend: Control Data triggers creation of copy C (new chunk handle) on all replicas client will modify chunk C

13 snapshot (of a file) master duties master revokes leases on chunk master logs the op duplicates the in-memory metadata for the file 4 Client 3 step 1 2 Master (reference count >1) actual copying (of chunk C) Replica A when client needs to write on C reference count indicator 7 Primary Replica 5 Legend: triggers creation of copy C (new chunk handle) on all replicas client will modify chunk C Replica B Control Data properties: copy-on-write (optimizes snapshots & disk usage) copy-on-same-replica (optimizes network bandwidth usage)

14 namespace & locking master does many things (ops) possibly in parallel namespace locks used to operate on files namespace tables: paths to metadata prefix compression (why?) every node read/write lock e.g. to deal with /d1/d2/ /dn/leaf will: read-lock /d1, /d1/d2,, /d1/../dn read/write lock /d1/d2/ /dn/leaf

15 namespace & locking e.g. to deal with /d1/d2/ /dn/leaf will: read-lock /d1, /d1/d2,, /d1/../dn read/write lock /d1/d2/ /dn/leaf properties: no directories concept, only files read-lock on dir name is sufficient for writing file concurrent mutations within same dir read lock on dir name write lock on file name locks acquired in consistent total order level in the path & lexicograph

16 (re)placement distribute replicas over machines distribute replicas over racks new replicas on under-utilised chunk servers (equalize disk utilization) limit number of recent creations for a chunkserver replicate when nr of missing replicas is big (2 is better than 1) give priority to live files

17 deleting file renamed by master (name changes including delete timestamp) within 3 days can go back to normal after 3 days metadata is actually deleted orphan chunks (not reachable from files) are handled later on heartbeat messages include list of chunk IDs master sends back list of orphan chunks (not pointed by files in inmemory metadata)

18 fault-tolerance high availability 3-way replication of chunks master + servers restartable in few secs (fast recovery) shadow masters integrity checksum every 4K block

19 Thank you!

goals monitoring, fault tolerance, auto-recovery (thousands of low-cost machines) handle appends efficiently (no random writes & sequential reads)

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