# Repetition 1st lecture

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1 Repetition 1st lecture Human Senses in Relation to Technical Parameters Multimedia - what is it? Human senses (overview) Historical remarks Color models RGB Y, Cr, Cb Data rates Text, Graphic Picture, Audio, Video

2 Overview Focus MuMeSy

3 History 1980: Media and Computer technique separate Record Transmit Play Computer 1 Network Computer 2

4 History (5) 2000: Complete digital processing Computer 1 Network Computer 2 => Technical basis for a Multimedia-communication

5 Color spectrum Red, Blue, Green (Spectrum)

6 Colors RGB curves to generate all colors 0,05B + 0,06G 0,09R ~ 500nm source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Sin theon Fraser University, Canada

7 Color models (RGB) color cube (diagonal: complementary colors) R:(FF,00,00) complement (difference to (FF,FF,FF)) (FF,FF,00) G:(00,FF,00) (FF,00,FF) B:(00,00,FF) 3 x 8 = 24 Bit 2^24 = colors True Color (just to remember : Human can differ: !) => 3 x 6 = 18 Bit => 2^18 = (00,FF,FF)

8 color models (RGB CMY) Monitor: Addition Printer: Subtraction RGB CMY to a dark area light is added Light colors Prism from a white area light is subtracted Corpus colors also in photography

9 Transformation RGB => YCbCr Y = 0.299R G B U = α (B Y) Cb = (B - Y) / V = β (R Y) Cr = (R - Y) / YUV used in PAL (α β depends on implementation) CbCr used in JPEG and MPEG H.-D. Wuttke 2007

10 Examples of Graphic - Formats Vector Graphic - PS, EPS, WMF geometrical figures, exact calculation to a needed resolution Raster Graphic - BMP, GIF, JPEG, PNG fixed number of pixels (ppi) reproduction via interpolation (dpi) Problem: Mac-design (Vector) => PC (GIF)

11 Summary Color: Resolution: overlapping of colors RGB additive CMY subtractive Y Cb Cr Luminance + 2 Crominance compromise between quality and required memory ppi dpi picture in memory in-/output device

12 Information ways CPU Memory Keyboard/ Mouse BUS - System Network external memory and interfaces Graphic / Video / Audio

13 Continuous Media Movement Audio- and Movie encoding (MPEG1) (Moving Audio rate: between kbit/s Picture Experts constant data rate: Bit/s Group) 1,77 MBit/s Remark: M in Relation to Hz : (10 6 ) M in Relation to Byte: ( 2 20 ) M in Relation to Bit: k in Relation to Hz: (10 3 ) k in Relation to Byte: ( 2 10 ) k in Relation to Bit: M 3 : Multi-Media-Mogelfaktor

14 Day 2: October 3, 16:00-19:15 Compression Methods Lossless Compression Entropy encoding Source encoding Hybrid Compression Lossy Compression JPEG encoding

15 Compression classes Quelle: Steinmetz, Ralf: Multimedia-Technologie: Einführung and Grundlagen, Springer, Verlag

16 Entropy encoding compression algorithms RLC Huffman Adaptive Huffman encoding Arithmetic encoding LZW

17 Entropy vs. Source Entropy Ignoring the kind of data Removing of repetitions Statistical basis Lossless and exact reproducible Low compression Source Properties of the source and/ or drain are important (e.g. Human senses as drain) Lossless possible Lossy if high compression (MP3)

18 RLC: Run Length Code Special sign (in the example #) outside of the Alphabet shows that the next sign is a number, followed by the sign that has to be repeated e.g. eaaaabaaabb 11 signs e#4abaaabb 10 signs Makes sense only for many equal signs

19 Huffman- encoding Information of a sign (entropy H) is indirect proportional to the probability of its occurrence and its code length Seldom signs: higher information => longer code words their absence is more difficult to reconstruct => entropy H ~ length of the code => algorithm?

20 Huffman- encoding Formula: (Shannon) n signs with probabilities p i Information source S: generates binary signs S i p i: probability that S i occurs in S entropy H(S) = - i p i ld(p i ) i= 1... n

21 Huffman- encoding Entropy H(S) = - i p i ld(p i ) i= 1... n e.g. picture with an homogenous grey-part with 8-Bit-code: i= n=256 grey values, each grey value has the same probability p i = 1/256 => ld(p i ) = ld(1/256) = ld(1)-ld(256) = -8 H(S) = - (1/256 * (-8) /256 *(-8) ) = * 1/256 *(-8) = 8 => ld(1/p i ) is the ideal number of bits for encoding

23 Shannon- Fano algorithm 2. Divide iteratively into two sets so that the sum in each of them is nearly the same Symbol A B C D E Anzahl Bit (0 1) Bit (0 1) Bit (0 1) 3. Encoding: A B C D E

24 Calculation of the needed Bits Symbol S Number S: 39 ld(1/p i ) Code Sum Bits: 89 A *) B C D E source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Sin theon Fraser University, Canada *) p(a)=15/39 => ld(39/15)=1,38 Relative to a 3-bit-encoding: 3bit/S x 39S = 117bit-89bit= 28 bits

25 Huffman- algorithm Bottom-Up 1. Start with an open list. [A,B,C,D,E] Keep it always sorted by the number of occurrences Symbol A B C D E Number of occurrences source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Sin theon Fraser University, Canada

26 Huffman- algorithm 2. Take always the two elements with the lowest the occurrence and calculate their Sum s, [A(15),B(7),C(6),D(6),E(5)] [A(15),B(7),C(6),D(6),E(5)], s =11 replace them by a new element (knode) Wi(s) (W1(11)) in the list: [A(15),B(7),C(6),W1(11)] and sort: [A(15),W1(11),B(7),C(6)] further: [A(15),W1(11),B(7),C(6)] [A(15),W1(11),W2(13)] [A(15),W2(13),W1(11)] [A(15),W3(24)] [W3(24),A(15)] [W4(39)] until 1 element left over => binary tree E(5) D(6) C(6) B(7) W1(11) 1 W3(24) 1 W2(13) W4(39) A(15) source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Sin theon Fraser University, Canada 0 0 0

27 Calculation of the needed Bits, entropy Symbol number 39 log 2 (1/p i ) code Sum of Bits 87 A B C D E Relative to a 3-bit-encoding: 87 to 3 x 39 = 117: 30 bits source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Sin theon Fraser University, Canada

28 Huffman - encoding entropy H(S) = - i p i ld(p i ) i= 1... n entropy of the sequence of signs (p(a)=15/39, p(b)=7/39...) (15 x x x x x 2.96) / 39 = / 39 = 2.19 (ideal value for encoding) Bits / signs for the Huffman encoding: 87 / 39 = 2.23 ~ entropy 2,19!

29 Encoding properties + Optimal encoding (entropy) + prefix unique + => no separator necessary - Code table must be known - => to be transmitted together with message, - Overhead - Not suitable for live video or audio => Adaptive Huffman encoding

30 Adaptive Huffman - encoding Idea: same Initial-Table same actualization routine for encoder and decoder Actualization routine update model : count the occurrence update the Huffman- tree, if necessary (if the Huffman-tree is not valid => swapping) => encoding of a sign is changing!

31 Adaptive Huffman - encoding ENCODER Initialize_model(); while ((c = getc(input))!=eof) { encode (c, output); update_model (c); } DECODER Initialize_model(); while ((c = decode(input))!= eof) { putc (c, output); update_model (c); }

32 Adaptive Huffman - encoding After 17 signs: A(1),B(2),C(2),D(2),E(10) encoding A: source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Sin theon Fraser University, Canada

33 Adaptive Huffman - encoding After next 2 A: A(3),B(2),C(2),D(2),E(10) encoding A: source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Sin theon Fraser University, Canada

34 Adaptive Huffman - encoding after next two A: A(5),B(2),C(2),D(2),E(10) encoding A:

35 Encoding properties + Optimal encoding (entropy) + prefix unique + => no need of a separation sign, even if the codes of the signs have a different length + probability must not be known - Huge effort in encoding- / decoding - Increases with the number of signs - Exact synchronism is needed

36 Arithmetic encoding 1. Occurrences are normalized into an interval between First sign of the sequence defines the 1.interval, which again will be divided proportional to the occurrence of the signs 3. The second sign defines the part in between the former defined interval and so on. 4. End at the end of the sequence of signs 5. The number in the last interval, that has the lowest number of digits is the encoding

37 Arithmetic encoding

38 k Arithmetic encoding 0,7 0,5 0,1

39 Arithmetische encoding

40 Encoding properties + only one number for the whole string - occurrences must be known - => has to be sent with the message - Overhead - Not possible for live video or audio - Limited accuracy of floating point numbers in computers => limited Length

41 Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm (LZW) Sources: LZ77, LZ78 Terry A. Welch: "A Technique for High Performance Data Compression", IEEE Computer, Vol. 17, No. 6, 1984, pp Used in the compress-instruction of Unix und picture-compression-format TIFF Idea: successive build a dictionary

42 Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm (LZW) w k wk = actually processed actual sign (word) = actual sign = actual sign of w and k Initial dictionary : 8 Bit ASCII => 1. free encoding: 256

43 Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm (LZW) w = NIL; while ( read a character k ) { if wk exists in the dictionary w = wk; else add wk to the dictionary; output the code for w; w = k; }

44 Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm (LZW) ^WED^WE^WEE^WEB^WET w k Output Index Symbol NIL ^ ^ W ^ 256 ^W W E W 257 WE E D E 258 ED D ^ D 259 D^ ^ W ^W E ^WE E ^ E 261 E^ ^ W source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Sin theon Fraser University, Canada

45 w k Output Index Symbol ^ ^W W E Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm (LZW) ^WE E ^WEE E ^ E^ W E^W W E WE B WEB B ^ B 265 B^ ^ W ^W E ^WE T ^WET T EOF T

46 LZW Decompression Algorithm read a character k; output k; w = k; while ( read a character k ) /* k could be a character or a code. */ { entry = dictionary entry for k; output entry; add w + entry[0] to dictionary; w = entry; }

47 LZW Decompression Algorithm w k Output Index Symbol ^ ^ ^ W W 256 ^W W E E 257 WE E D D 258 ED D <256> ^W 259 D^ <256> E E 260 ^WE E <260> ^WE 261 E^ <260> <261> E^ 262 ^WEE <261> <257> WE 263 E^W <257> B B 264 WEB B <260> ^WE 265 B^ <260> T T 266 ^WET source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Sin theon Fraser University, Canada

48 Compression classes Quelle: Steinmetz, Ralf: Multimedia-Technologie: Einführung and Grundlagen, Springer, Verlag

49 Compression classes Quelle: Steinmetz, Ralf: Multimedia-Technologie: Einführung and Grundlagen, Springer, Verlag

50 Source encoding compression algorithms Where information is getting lost? Why can we accept this? Which side effects occur? Which advantages bring transformations? What are asymmetric algorithms?

51 DPCM Differential Pulse Code Modulation Prediction coding High compression rate by an optimal respect to the properties of the source / drain Specialized for each class of information (Audio, Video, Picture, Text)

52 DPCM source:

53 Transformation Examples

54 DCT Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT): Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform (IDCT): source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Sin theon Fraser University, Canada

55 FFT vs. DCT source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Sin theon Fraser University, Canada

56 Wavelet Examples Source: Amara Graph, Introduction to Wavelets

57 Sub sampling

58 JPEG -Steps 1. Color model transformation 2. Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) 3. Quantization 4. Zig-zag-scan 5. DPCM, RLE 6. Huffman

59 JPEG - Overview source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Simon Fraser University, Canada

60 Transformation RGB => YCbCr Y = 0.299R G B U = α (B Y) Cb = (B - Y) / V = β (R Y) Cr = (R - Y) / YUV used in PAL (α β depends on implementation) CbCr used in JPEG and MPEG

61 Components Y U V source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Simon Fraser University, Canada

62 Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) Basic functions for 8x8 constant 1/2 vertical cosine period 7/2 vertical cosine periods 1/2 horizontal cosine period source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Simon Fraser University, Canada

63 Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Simon Fraser University, Canada

64 DCT Factorized Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT): Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform (IDCT): source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Simon Fraser University, Canada

65 Vertical Line

66 Horizontal line

67 Corner

68 Quantization Luminance Quantization Table q(u, v) Chrominance Quantization Table q(u, v) Scalable for different levels of quality and compression rate source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Simon Fraser University, Canada

69 Zig Zag Scan most important values first most reduced values (many to 0 ) at the end as a sequence source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Simon Fraser University, Canada

70 DPCM RLC DC component is large and varied, often close to the previous value. Encode the difference from previous 8 x 8 blocks -- DPCM AC vector has lots of zeros in it RLC for those values special method: zeros are skipped and replaced by the number of zeros, other signs are non zeros

71 Huffman Entropy encoding of the whole result from former steps finished the algorithm. source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Simon Fraser University, Canada

72 Summary JPEG source: Ze-Nian Li : Script Multimedia Systems, Simon Fraser University, Canada

73 Compression classes Quelle: Steinmetz, Ralf: Multimedia-Technologie: Einführung and Grundlagen, Springer, Verlag

74 Day 2: October 3, 16:00-19:15 Compression Methods Lossless Compression Entropy encoding Source encoding Hybrid Compression Lossy Compression JPEG encoding Thanks again for your attention! Hope to see you next Thursday Oct. 9 th Room VI-201

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