# Video Compression Standards (II) A/Prof. Jian Zhang

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1 Video Compression Standards (II) A/Prof. Jian Zhang NICTA & CSE UNSW COMP9519 Multimedia Systems S

2 Tutorial 2 : Image/video Coding Techniques

3 Basic Transform coding Tutorial 2 Discrete Cosine Transform For a 2-D input block U, the transform coefficients can be found as T Y = CUC T The inverse transform can be found as Y = CUC The NxN discrete cosine transform matrix C=c(k,n) is defined as: c( k, n) = 1 N for k = 0 and 0 n N 1, 2 π (2n + 1) k cos N 2N for1 k N 1and 0 n N 1. COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 3 J Zhang

4 Basic Transform coding Tutorial 2 The distribution of 2-D DCT Coefficients Ref: H. Wu COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 4 J Zhang

5 JPEG DCT-Based Encoding Tutorial 2 COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 5 J Zhang

6 Coding of DCT Coefficients (DC) Tutorial 2 DC coefficient is coded differentially as (size, amplitude). There are 12 size categories COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 6 J Zhang

7 Coding of DCT Coefficients (AC) Tutorial 2 AC coefficients are re-arranged to a sequence of (run, level) pairs through a zigzag scanning process Level is further divided into (Size Categories, Amplitude). Run and size are then combined and coded as a single event (2D VLC) An 8-bit code RRRRSSSS is used to represent the nonzero coefficients The SSSS is defined as size categories from 1 to 11 The RRRR is defined as run-length of zeros in the zig-zag scan or number of zeros before a nonzero coefficient The composite value of RRRRSSSS is then Huffman coded Ex: 1) RRRRSSSS= represents 15 run 0 coef. and followed by a 0 coef. 2) Multiple symbols used for run-length of 0 coef. exceeds 15 3) RRRRSSSS= represents end-of-block (EOB) COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 7 J Zhang

8 Coding of DCT Coefficients (AC) Tutorial 2 Zig-Zag scan 11 COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 8 J Zhang

9 Inter-frame Encoder Tutorial 2 Encoder Transmission or Storage Media Decoder Reconstructed frame x (n) Frame x(n) + - Error image e(n) Q Q -1 Q -1 Dequantised error image e (n) + + z -1 Dequantised error image e (n) + + Reconstructed frame x(n-1) ^ Reconstructed frame x(n-1) ^ z -1 Reconstructed frame x (n) Step 1: Calculate the difference between the current and previous frames; Step 2: Qantise and encode the difference image. Step 3: Add the dequantised (residual) image to the previous frame to reconstruct the current frame of image. COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 9 J Zhang

10 Block Based Motion Estimation Tutorial 2 Block base search Motion Vector x16 -- Macroblock COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 10 J Zhang

11 Block Based Motion Estimation Tutorial 2 Block base search Reconstructed Frame Motion Vector 16 W=Search Range 16 W W 16 W Search Window Position of Current Block 16x16 -- Macroblock COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 11 J Zhang

12 Block Based Motion Estimation Tutorial 2 Block base search Reconstructed Frame Motion Compensated Frame Motion Vector 16 W=Search Range 16 W W 16 W Search Window Position of Current Block Motion Compensated MB 16x16 -- Macroblock COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 12 J Zhang

13 Digital Video Coding (DVC) Structure Hybrid MC/DPCM/DCT Tutorial 2 Rate Control Model Codec = encoder/decoder COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 13 J Zhang

14 4.1 Digital Video Coding (DVC) Standards MPEG-2 Scalability Scalable video coding means the ability to achieve more than one video resolution or quality simultaneously. Scalable Encoder Enhanced Layer Base Layer 2-Layer Scalable Decoder Full (scale) decoded sequence Single Layer Decoder Base-line decoded sequence COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 14 J Zhang

15 4.1 Digital Video Coding (DVC) Standards MPEG-2 Scalability Spatial Scalability A spatially scalable coder operates by filtering and decimating a video sequence to a smaller size prior to coding. An up-sampled version of this coded base layer representation is then available as a predicator for the enhanced layer As prediction is performed in the spatial domain, the coding at the base layer can take any other standards including (MPEG-1 or H.261). This is an important feature to address compatibility in layered codec COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 15 J Zhang

16 4.1 Digital Video Coding (DVC) Standards MPEG-2 Scalability Spatial Scalability Spatial Scalability Codec COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 16 J Zhang

17 4.1 Digital Video Coding (DVC) Standards MPEG-2 Scalability Spatial Scalability Types Progress to progress Progress to interlaced Interlaced to progress Interlaced to interlaced Enhanced Layer Enhanced Layer Enhanced Layer Enhanced Layer Base Layer Base Layer Base Layer Base Layer COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 17 J Zhang

18 4.1 Digital Video Coding (DVC) Standards MPEG-2 Scalability 16x16 16x16 Spatiotemporal weighted Prediction in Spa-Scal.+ Pred 8x8 2 layer spatially scalable coder COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 18 J Zhang

19 4.1 Digital Video Coding (DVC) Standards MPEG-2 Scalability Spatiotemporal weighted Prediction COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 19 J Zhang

20 4.1 Digital Video Coding (DVC) Standards MPEG-2 Scalability Data partitioning Data partitioning permits a video bitstream to be divided into two separate bitstreams The BL contains the more info. including address and control info. as well as lower order DCT coef. The HL contains the rest info. of the bitstream The syntax elements in BL are indicated by proprity breakpoint (PBP) Some syntax elements in BL are redundant in HL to facilitate error recovery It has the advantage to introduce almost no additional overhead The disadvantage of this scheme: considerable drift occurs if only the BL is available to a decoder. COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 20 J Zhang

21 4.1 Digital Video Coding (DVC) Standards MPEG-2 Scalability Data partitioning Motion Compensated DCT Decoder COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 21 J Zhang

22 4.1 Digital Video Coding (DVC) Standards MPEG-2 Scalability Data partitioning bitstream example (PBP = 64) COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 22 J Zhang

23 4.1 Digital Video Coding (DVC) Standards MPEG-2 Scalability Data partitioning Priority Break Point Definition All data at sequence, GOP, Pic and slice layers PBP=65 plus MB data to MB type PBP=66 plus data to MB motion Vectors j PBP=67 plus MB data from CBP to DC (or 1 st nonzero) Coeff. PBP=0 plus to first coeff. Following DC to first nonzero coeff after the first coeff. in the scan order PBP=0 plus up to first non-zero coeff after the 2 nd coeff in the scan order PBP=0 plus to first non-zero coeff after the jth coeff in the scan order COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 23 J Zhang

24 4.2 MPEG-4 visual standard Video Coding and Communication MPEG-4 standard: video part -- content based video coding scheme To enable all these content-based functionalities, MPEG-4 relies on a revolutionary, content based representation of audiovisual objects. As opposed to classical rectangular video (eg: MPEG1/2), MPEG-4 treats a scene as a composition of several objects that are separately encoded and decoded The scalability at the object or content level enables to distribute the available bit-rate among the objects in the scene Visually, more important objects are allocated more bits. Encoded once and automatically played out at different rates with acceptable quality for the communication environment and bandwidth at hand. COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 24 J Zhang

25 4.2 MPEG-4 Visual Standard Access and manipulation of arbitrarily shaped images Ref: Thomas Sikora Object Based MPEG-4 Video Verification Model 1. In MPEG-4, scenes are composed of different objects to enable contentbased functionalities. 2. Flexible coding of video objects 3. Coding of a Video Object Plane (VOP) Layer COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 25 J Zhang

26 4.2 MPEG-4 Visual Standard Video Object Planes (VOP s) Ref: Thomas Sikora Original Binary Segmentation Mask The binary segmentation Mask is to extract the back/fore-ground layers Ref: MPEG-4 AKIYO testing video sequence COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 26 J Zhang

27 4.2 MPEG-4 Visual Standard Decomposition into VOP s Ref: Thomas Sikora Background Layer VOP Foreground Layer VOP The overlapping VOP s brining the opportunity to do the manipulation of Scene content COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 27 J Zhang

28 4.2 MPEG-4 Visual Standard Video Object Plane layered coding Arbitrary VOP Shape MPEG-4 VOP-coder Motion (MV) Ref: Thomas Sikora Texture DCT Similar to H.263 bitstream Rectangular VOP Motion (MV) Similar to H.263 Texture DCT bitstream COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 28 J Zhang

29 4.2 MPEG-4 Visual Standard DCT-Based Approach for Coding VOP s Ref: Thomas Sikora Block diagram of the basic MPEG-4 hybrid DPCM/transform codec structure COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 29 J Zhang

30 4.2 MPEG-4 Visual Standard Coding of a Video Object Plane Ref: Thomas Sikora COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 30 J Zhang

31 4.2 MPEG-4 Visual Standard Background Padding for Motion Compensation Padded background Ref: Thomas Sikora Previous Frame Current Frame COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 31 J Zhang

32 4.2 MPEG-4 Visual Standard One Typical Example -- Sprite Coding 1. A non-changing background only has to be transmitted once 2. Only foreground objects transmitted and re- Inserted at the decoder 3. Object are much smaller than full video COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 32 J Zhang

33 4.3 Introduction to H.264 Video Coding Standard It started from the ITU-T H.26L Project (Long term) It aims to improve the coding efficiency up to 50% compared to MPEG-4 video coding standard In Dec. 2001, MPEG and ITU-T experts set up joint video team (JVT) to focus on this new standard. The final version of the standard has been approved by ITU-T H.264 video coding standard or MPEG-4 Part 10. The new technical approaches: An Adaptive deblocking loop filter to remove the artifacts Multiple frame for ME/MC Predication in Intra mode Integer transform Optimized rate control strategy (my opinion) COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 33 J Zhang

34 4.3 Video Codec Structure of H.264 MB of Input Image Signal - Decoder Coder Control Transform/ Quantizer Deq./Inv. Transform Control Data Quant. Transf. coeffs Entropy Coding Intra/Inter 0 Intra_Frame Prediction Motion Comp. Predication Deblocking Filter Bitstream Output Motion Estimator Motion Data COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 34 J Zhang

35 4.3 Video Codec Structure of H.264 (H.26L TML-8 Design Part 1 of 4) Hybrid of DPCM/MC/Trans coding as in Prior standards. Common elements include: 16x16 macroblocks Conventional sampling of chrominance and association of luminance and chrominance data Block motion displacement Motion vectors over picture boundaries Variable block-size motion Block transforms (not DCT, wavelets or fractals) Scalar quantization (weighted) COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 35 J Zhang

36 4.3 H.264: Motion Compensation Accuracy MB of Input Image Signal - Decoder Coder Control Transform/ Quantizer Deq./Inv. Transform Control Data Quant. Transf. coeffs Entropy Coding Intra/Inter 0 Intra_Frame Prediction Motion Comp. Predication Deblocking Filter Mode 1 0 Mode Mode Bitstream Output Mode Motion Estimator Motion Data Mode Mode Mode /4 (QCIF) or 1/8 (CIF) pel COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 36 J Zhang

37 4.3 H.264: Multiple Reference Frames MB of Input Image Signal - Decoder Coder Control Transform/ Quantizer Deq./Inv. Transform Control Data Quant. Transf. coeffs Entropy Coding Intra/Inter 0 Intra_Frame Prediction Motion Comp. Predication Deblocking Filter Bitstream Output Motion Estimator Multiple Reference Motion Frames for Data Motion Compensation Motion Data COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 37 J Zhang

38 4.3 H.264: Multiple Reference Frames Motion Compensation: Multiple reference pictures (per H Annex U) B picture prediction weighting New SP transition pictures for sequence switching Various block sizes and shapes for motion compensation (7 segmentations of the macroblock: 16x16, 16x8, 8x16, 8x8, 8x4, 4x8, 4x4) 1/4 sample (sort of per MPEG-4) and 1/8 sample accuracy motion COMP9519 Multimedia Systems Lecture 4 Slide 38 J Zhang

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