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2 Claude Shannon ( ) C. Shannon, A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits, Trans. Of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, v. 57 (1938) (based on his Magister Degree Thesis, MIT) C. Shannon, A Mathematical Theory of Communication, Bell System Technical Journal, 27 (1948), No. 3, pp , No. 4, pp

3 CLASSIFICATION OF IMAGE COMPRESSION METHODS Linear transforms Predictive transforms: - Recursive - Multiresolution (image pyramid) decomposition and sub-sampling Element-wise quantization: - Nonuniform homogeneous - Zonal - Adaptive Orthogonal Transforms Frame-wise: - DFT - DCT - Walsh -Haar Block-wise: - DCT Binary statistical coding - Zig-zag scanning 2-D data - Variable length coding - Rare symbol coding (Run length coding; coding coordinate of rare symbols) Coded binary stream Hybrid predictive and orthogonal transforms Combined decorrelation/quantization: - DPCM with feedback - LZW coding - Adaptive discretization - Vector quantization Classification of digital image data compression methods

4 Variable length statistical coding An example of Huffman coding of 8 symbols A B C D E F G H P(A)= P(B)= P(C)= P(D)= P(E)= P(F)= Iteration st nd d th th th - P(G)= P(H)= P(GH)=.1 1 P(FGH)=.24 1 P(EFGH)=.55 1 P(DEFGH)=.12 1 P(CDEFGH)=.24 1 P(BCDEFGH)=.51 7-th 1 Binary code Entropy H= Average number of bits per symbol: Coding of rare symbols: Run-length coding Coding of co-ordinates of rare symbols Coding by tracing connected components of patterns of rare symbols

5 Input signal Predictor Nonuniform quantizer Statistical encoder Compressed coded signal Bolck diagram of DPCM coding Compressed signal Statistical decoder Nonuniform de-quantizer Decompressed signal Block diagram of DPCM decoding Predictor Input signal Nonuniform quantizer Nonuniform de-quantizer Statistical encoder Predictor Block diagram of DPCM encoding with feedback Past samples c 1 =-.2 c 2 =-.3 c 1 =-.2 c 2 =-.3 Current pixel Future samples 2-D prediction for row-column scanning method

6 6 Prediction error statistics Input image histogram Histogram of horizontal differences 1 Input image; std= Horizontal differences; std= Histogram of vertical differences Histogram of 2-D prediction error 1 Vertical differences; std= D prediction error; std= Input image histogram Histogram of horizontal differences 1 Input image; std= Horizontal differences; std= Histogram of vertical differences Histogram of 2-D prediction error 1 Vertical differences; std= D prediction error; std=

7 Examples of DPCM image coding with P-th low of quantization of the prediction error Initial image DPCM_1D coded image; Q=7,mxm=1; P=.6; Std of the restoration error Histogram of abs. value of the quantized prediction error; Entropy= Histogram of abs. value of the quantized prediction error. Entropy =2.5 DPCM_1D coded image; DPCM_1D coded image; Q=7,mxm=1; P=.6; Perr=.5;Std of the restoration error 13.5 DPCM: optimisation of the quantization dynamic range and nonlinearity index P

8 DPCM1D Dpcm2D-coded image, mxm=75, Q=7; P=.5.7 Histogram of abs. value of the quantized prediction error; Entropy= Reconstruction error: StDev=4.9; PSNR=34.3 db Histogram of the prediction error abs. value, Entropy 1.88 Dpcm2D-coded image, mxm=75, Q=7; P=.5 Channel impulse noise Perr=.75 Impulse noise: Reconstruction error; StDev=1.75

9 DPCM2D Initial image.7 Dpcm2D-coded image, mxm=75, Q=7; P=.5 Histogram of the quant. predict. error abs. value; Entropy= Reconstruction error: StDev=4.2;PSNR=35.6 db Histogram of the prediction error abs. value, Entropy 1.79 Dpcm2D-coded image, mxm=75, Q=7; P=.5 Channel impulse noise Perr=.75 Impulse noise: Reconstruction error; StDev=13.7

10 DPCM2D Initial image Dpcm2D-reconstructed image, mxm=5;q=5; P=.5; Histogram of the quant. predict. error abs. value; Entropy= Reconstruction error; StDev=3.2 Histogram of abs. Value of the reconstruction error Entropy 1 bpp

11 TRANSFORM BLOCK CODING Deviding image into nonoverlapping blocks Input image Computing orthogonal transform of blocks Transform coefficient quantization Converting 2-D array of coefficient s into 1-D sequence by means of Zigzag scanning Entropy coding Output binary string Principle of image transform coding Bit allocation table for DCT coding and average DCT power spectra of images Table of quantization Bit allocation table for DCT 16x16 block coding Lenna image and its average 16x16- DCT power spectrum

12 Examples of image DCT block coding with zonal quantization DCT image coding: Input image DCT image coding: Input image Restored image, SzW=8; SzMask=5; Q=4; P=.2 Restored image, SzW=8; SzMask=5;Q=8; P=.2 Restored image, SzW=8; SzMask=5;Q=4; P=.2 Restoration error; Std=1.6; PSNR=27.6 db; BPP=.7 Restoration error; StdErr=2.5; PSNR=4.2 db BPP=.94 Restoration error; StdErr=5; PSNR=34.2; BPP=.7

13 JPEG CODING STANDARD (after A.M. Tekalp, Digital Video Processing, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1995): B/W images: Image is subdivided into 8x8 blocks; DC component is subtracted. 2-D DCT of each block is computed. The DCT coefficients are threshold coded using a quantization table and then reordered into 1-D sequence using zigzag scanning The nonzero AC quantized coefficients are Huffman coded; zero coefficients are run length coded. DC coefficient of each block is DPCM coded relative to the DCT coefficient of the previous block Signal Transformation Unit - DCT Quantizer Coefficient to Symbol Map Entropy Coder Lossy Coded data Tables 8x8 blocks of Input Image Quantization Table Coding Coding Tables Lossy Coded Data Tables Coding Tables Decoding Quantization Table Decoded Image Lossy Coded Data Entropy Decoder Coefficient to Symbol Map Inverse Quantizer IDCT Bit-Stream Block-diagrams of JPEG image coding and decoding

14 Intensity quantization table for 8x8 blocks and zig-zag scanning in JPEG coding Quantization rule: ˆ α r = round ( α r / w ~ r ), where Q 1 is a quality factor w ~ r = floor[ ( wr ScFactor + 5) 1] and 1, Q = 1 ScFactor = 2 2 * Q, 5 Q 99 5 Q, 1 Q 5 JPEG coding of colour images: R-G-B components are transformed into Luminance-Chrominance space Y- Cr-Cb: Y =. 3R +. 6G +. 1B Cr = ( B Y + 1) 2 Cb = ( R Y +.8) 1. 6 Chrominance channels are subsampled by 2 in both directions. Obtained Y, Cr and Cb components are JPEG coded individually

15 Multiresolution/pyramid/subband decomposition coding Input Quantization Output Low- Pass filter & down sampling Interpolation Interpolation Quantization Low- Pass filter & down sampling Interpolation Interpolation Quantization Low- Pass filter & down sampling Interpolation Quantization Interpolation ENCODER DECODER

16 VIDEO CODING with MOTION COMPENSATION 16pels 16pels INTRAFRAME CODING: DCT block coding INTERFAME CODING: - Evaluation of block motion vector; -Transmission of either motion vector or DCT coded block depending on the degree of the prediction mismatch Search area for determination of displacement of the block

17 Redundancy of stereoscopic images Original full resolution stereo pair Same stereo images, in which right image is 5x5 smoothed Color stereo pair in which left image is fully color and contrast saturated.

18 Anaglyph enhancement by means of blurring image red component Conventional anaglyph Enhanced anaglyph

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