# An Improved DCT Based Color Image Watermarking Scheme Xiangguang Xiong1, a

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2 watermarking schemes based on DCT, it has a better robustness performance under the same conditions. Proposed Watermarking Scheme Embedding Scheme. Step 1. Convert original RGB color image to YCbCr color space. The transformation is defined as Eq. (1). Y = R G B Cb = R 0.331G B Cr = R 0.419G 0.081B (1) Step 2. Select Y component of YCbCr color space and it is divided blocks sized 8 8. For each image block, 2D-DCT transform is applied on it. Step 3. Assume the watermarking embedding strength is K. Modify DCT (5, 2) and DCT (4, 3) coefficients to embed binary watermarking signal bits. If DCT (5, 2) >= DCT (4, 3) F=1 If DCT (5, 2) < DCT (4, 3) F=0 Dif = DCT (5, 2) - DCT (4, 3) If F = 0 && w = 0 If Dif < K DCT (4, 3) = DCT (4, 3) + (Dif + K) / 2 DCT (5, 2) = DCT (5, 2) - (Dif + K) / 2 If F = 1 && w = 1 If Dif < K DCT (4, 3) = DCT (4, 3) - (Dif + K) / 2 DCT (5, 2) = DCT (5, 2) + (Dif + K) / 2 If F = 1 && w = 0 DCT (4, 3) = DCT (4, 3) + (Dif + K) / 2 DCT (5, 2) = DCT (5, 2) - (Dif + K) / 2 If F = 0 && w = 1 DCT (4, 3) = DCT (4, 3) - (Dif + K) / 2 DCT (5, 2) = DCT (5, 2) + (Dif + K) / 2 Step 4. Perform inverse 2D-DCT transform on new DCT coefficients to obtain an embedded image block. When all blocks are embedded watermarking signal, the RGB watermarked image is obtained after inverse color transformation. The inverse color space transformation is defined as equation (2). R = 1.000Y 0.001Cb Cr G = 1.000Y 0.344Cb 0.714Cr B = 1.000Y Cb Cr (2) Extraction Scheme. Step 1. Convert RGB watermarked color image to YCbCr color space using Eq. (1). 147

3 Step 2. Select Y component of YCbCr color space and it is divided blocks sized 8 8. For each image block, 2D-DCT transform is performed. Step 3. The binary watermarking bits are extracted as below. If DCT (5, 2) > DCT (4, 3) w=1 If DCT (5, 2) < DCT (4, 3) w=0 Experimental Results In this section, in order to evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm, a binary image is used as original watermarking signal and is shown in Fig. 1. Four standard RGB color images sized are selected as original cover image, namely Airplane, Sailboat, Peppers and Lena, as shown in Fig. 2. In the experiment, for Yesilyurt s algorithm, the constant C is set to be 8. The embedding strength β in [11] is 2.5. The threshold K of the proposed scheme defined in Section 2 is set to be 16. Imperceptibility Test. In this paper, the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) is used to measure the distortion between the original image and the watermarked image, which is defined as follows. PSNR =10 log10 ( 2552 ) MSE (3) The mean square error (MSE) between the original image x and the watermarked image x ' is defined as: MSE = M M 1 ( xi, j xi', j ) 2 M M i =1 j =1 (4) where, M is width or height of cover image and is set to be 512 in this paper. Generally speaking, if the watermarking algorithm has high PSNR value, the visual quality of watermarked image is very good. Fig.1 Original binary watermarking image. The PSNR comparison results between each component of original RGB image and watermarked image are shown in Table 1. From Table 1, these results indicate that the proposed algorithm and other two schemes in [10] and [11] have good visual quality of watermarked image and satisfy the basic requirements of the invisible watermarking technology. The average PSNR are about 40 db. Fig. 2 Original images and watermarked images. 148

4 Robustness Against Various Attacks. For watermarking technology, the normalized cross-correlation (NC) is usually used to evaluate the similarity between the original watermarking image w and the extracted watermarking image w' in the literature, which is defined as Eq. (5). NC = N N 1 ( wi, j wi', j ) N N i =1 j =1 (5) where, N is width or height of binary watermarking image and is set to be 64 in this paper, symbol represents XOR operation. Generally speaking, if it has high NC, the algorithm has better robustness against attacks. Table 1. PSNR comparisons between proposed algorithm and other algorithms in [10] and [11]. Images Proposed algorithm s PSNR (db) R G B Airplane Lena Peppers Sailboat Ref.[10] s PSNR (db) R G B Ref.[11] s PSNR (db) R G B Robustness Comparisons with Similar Algorithms. In order to further evaluate the robustness performance of the proposed algorithm against different attacks such as common image processing, we compared our algorithm with similar color image watermarking algorithms based on DCT in [10] and [11]. The comparison results between visual quality (PSNR) and robustness performance (NC) after various common image processing attacks under the same conditions are shown in Table 2. It can be easily seen that three algorithms have almost same PSNR values after various attack due to the PSNR values of watermarked image without attack are also almost same, but the proposed scheme has better robustness performance than other two algorithms in [10] and [11] against most image processing attacks in Table 2. In conclusion, the proposed algorithm has obtained a better trade-off between the imperceptivity of watermarked image and the robustness of extracted watermarking image. Compared with similar embedding algorithms based on DCT in [10] and [11], the proposed algorithm has better robustness performance under the same conditions. Conclusions An improved blind watermarking algorithm for color image based on discrete cosine transform is proposed in this paper. The algorithm embeds only one bit watermarking signal in each block by cha nging one pair selected middle-frequency sub-band coefficient s relationship. Experimental results s how that this algorithm is simple and has good transparency and robustness against common image processing attacks, such as added noise, filtering, JPEG compression and so on. The comparison of proposed algorithm with similar algorithms based on DCT in [10] and [11] show that this algorithm has better performance. To further enhance proposed algorithm s security, one simple and feasible s olution is that the watermarking signal is encrypted by chaos signal and Arnold scrambling or the em bedding position is selected randomly based on secret key. Acknowledgment The author would like to thank the Joint Foundation of Department of Science and Technology of Guizhou Province and Guizhou Normal University for supporting this paper under Grant No. Qian-Ke-He LH Zi [2014]

5 Table 2. PSNR and NC comparisons between proposed scheme and other schemes in [10] and [11]. Images Airplane Lena Peppers Sailboat Attacks Proposed algorithm M. Yesilyurt [10] B. Xie [11] PSNR (db) NC PSNR (db) NC PSNR (db) NC References [1] H. Zhao, F. Wang, Z. Chen, J. Liu, A robust audio watermarking algorithm based on SVD-DWT, Electron. Electr. Eng. 20(1) (2014) [2] L. E. Coria, M. R. Pickering, P. Nasiopoulos, R. K. Ward, A video watermarking scheme based on the dual-tree complex wavelet transform, IEEE T. Inform. Forensics Secur. 3(3) (2008) [3] V. Saxena, J. P. Gupta, A novel collusion attack resistant watermarking scheme for color images, IAENG Int. J. Comput. Sci. 34(2) (2007) [4] S. D. Jadhav, A. S. Bhalchandra, Blind source separation based color image-adaptive watermarking, in Proc. of the IEEE 5th International Conference on Image and Graphics, 2009, [5] M. Barni, F. Bartolini, A. Piva, Multichannel watermarking of color images, IEEE T. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 12(3) (2002)

6 [6] Y. Bei, D. Yang, M. Liu, L. Zhu, A multi-channel watermarking scheme based on HSV and DCT-DWT, in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Automation Engineering, 2011, [7] S. K. Singh, S. K. D. Agarwal, A. Gambhir, S. Kumar, Colour space entropy based lossy and lossless colour image compression system, Int. J. Comput. Sci. Netw. Secur. 9(3) (2009) [8] S. Feng, D. Lin, S. C. Shie, J. Y. Guo, Improving the robustness of DCT based image watermarking against JPEG compression, Comput. Stand. Interface, 32(1-2) (2010) [9] M. Kaurand, P. Kaur, Robust watermarking into the color models based on the synchronization template, in Proc. of the International Conference on Information and Multimedia Technology, 2009, [10]M. Yesilyurt, Y. Yalman, A. T. Ozcerit, A new DCT based watermarking method using luminance component, Electron. Electr. Eng. 19(4) (2013) [11]B. Xie, A blind watermarking algorithm based on color space conversion in DCT domain, in Proc. of 2011 International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems Engineering, 2011, 1-3. [12]Q. C. Zhong, Q. X. Zhu, A DCT domain color watermarking scheme based on chaos and multilayer Arnold transformation, in Proc. of International Conference on Networking and Digital Society, 2009, [13]T. Zhang, Y. Du, A digital watermarking algorithm for color images based on DCT, in Proc. of International Conference on Information Engineering and Computer Science, 2009, 1-4. [14]N. Ahmidi, R. Safabakhsh, A novel DCT-based approach for secure color image watermarking, in Proc. of International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing, 2 (2004) [15]Y. Zhou, J. Liu, Blind watermarking algorithm based on DCT for color images, in Proc. of 2nd International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, 2009, 1-3. [16]A. Al-Gindy, H. Al-Ahmad, R. Qahwaji, A. Tawfik, Watermarking of colour images in the DCT domain using Y channel, in Proc. of IEEE/ACS International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications, 2009, [17]Y. Fu, H. Wang, Secure spread image watermarking scheme in 3D-DCT domain, in Proc. of 2nd International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, 2009, 1-4. [18]S. L. Jia, A novel blind color images watermarking based on SVD, Optik, 125(12) (2014)

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