Protocol Layers, Security Sec: Application Layer: Sec 2.1 Prof Lina Battestilli Fall 2017

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1 CSC 401 Data and Computer Communications Networks Protocol Layers, Security Sec: Application Layer: Sec 2.1 Prof Lina Battestilli Fall 2017

2 Outline Computer Networks and the Internet (Ch 1) 1.1 What is the Internet? 1.2 network edge end systems, access networks, links 1.3 network core circuit switching, packet switching, network structure 1.4 delay, loss, throughput in networks 1.5 protocol layers, service models 1.6 networks under attack: security 1.7 history NCSU CSC401 Lina Battestilli 12

3 Network security Field of network security: 1. how bad guys can attack computer networks 2. how we can defend networks against attacks 3. how to design architectures that are immune to attacks Internet NOT originally designed with (much) security in mind original vision: a group of mutually trusting users attached to a transparent network Internet protocol designers playing catch-up security considerations in all layers!

4 Malware into hosts via Internet malware can get in host from: virus: self-replicating infection by receiving/executing object (e.g., attachment) worm: self-replicating infection by passively receiving object that gets itself executed spyware malware can record keystrokes, web sites visited, upload info to collection site

5 Malware creating Botnets DDoS Attacks Denial of Service (DoS): attackers make resources (server, bandwidth) unavailable to legitimate traffic by overwhelming resource with bogus traffic 1. select target 2. break into hosts around the network 3. send packets to target from compromised hosts target

6 Bad guys can sniff packets packet sniffing : broadcast media (shared Ethernet, wireless) promiscuous network interface reads/records all packets (e.g., including passwords!) passing by A C src:b dest:a payload B Wireshark is a packet-sniffer!

7 Bad guys can use fake addresses IP spoofing: send packet with false source address A C src:b dest:a payload B lots more on security ( Chapter 8)

8 Outline Computer Networks and the Internet (Ch 1) 1.1 What is the Internet? 1.2 network edge end systems, access networks, links 1.3 network core circuit switching, packet switching, network structure 1.4 delay, loss, throughput in networks 1.5 protocol layers, service models 1.6 networks under attack: security 1.7 history NCSU CSC401 Lina Battestilli 18

9 NCSU CSC401 Lina Battestilli 19

10 Ch 1 Summary covered a ton of material! Internet overview what s a protocol? network edge, core, access network packet-switching versus circuit-switching Internet structure performance: loss, delay, throughput layering, service models security history you now have: context, overview, feel of networking more depth, detail to follow!

11 Outline Application Layer (ch 2) 2.1 principles of network applications 2.2 Web and HTTP 2.3 FTP 2.4 electronic mail SMTP, POP3, IMAP 2.5 DNS 2.6 P2P applications 2.7 socket programming with UDP and TCP 21

12 our goals: Chapter 2: Application Layer conceptual, implementation aspects of network application protocols transport-layer service models client-server paradigm peer-to-peer paradigm learn about protocols by examining popular application-level protocols HTTP, FTP, SMTP/POP3/IMAP, DNS creating network applications socket API 22

13 Some network apps 1970s and 1980s text messaging remote login mid 1990s World Wide Web search ecommerce P2P file sharing multi-user network games 2000s voice over IP (e.g., Skype) streaming stored video (YouTube, Hulu, Netflix) real-time video conferencing social networking 23

14 Creating a network app write programs that: run on (different) end systems communicate over network e.g., web server software communicates with browser software no need to write software for network-core devices network-core devices do not run user applications applications on end systems allows for rapid app development application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical 24

15 25 Application architectures possible structure of applications: client-server peer-to-peer (P2P)

16 Client-Server Architecture server: always-on host permanent IP address data centers for scaling client/server clients: communicate with server may be intermittently connected may have dynamic IP addresses do not communicate directly with each other Classic Example: Web server and Web browsers 26

17 P2P Architecture no always-on server arbitrary end systems directly communicate peers request service from other peers, provide service in return to other peers self scalability new peers bring new service capacity, as well as new service demands peers are intermittently connected and change IP addresses complex management Examples: BitTorrent, Internet Telephony, IPTV peer-peer Q: Challenges of P2P apps? 27

18 Processes communicating process: program running within a host within same host, two processes communicate using inter-process communication (defined by OS) processes in different hosts communicate by exchanging messages clients, servers client process: process that initiates communication server process: process that waits to be contacted Note: applications with P2P architectures have client processes & server processes: Client downloading file Server uploading file 28

19 Sockets process sends/receives messages to/from its socket socket analogous to a dropbox at a door sending process shoves message into dropbox sending process relies on transport infrastructure on other side of door to deliver message to socket at receiving process application process socket application process controlled by app developer transport transport network link Internet network link controlled by OS physical physical 29

20 Addressing processes to receive messages, process must have identifier host device has unique 32- bit IP address Q: does IP address of host on which process runs suffice for identifying the process? A: no, many processes can be running on same host identifier includes both IP address and port numbers associated with process on host. example port numbers: HTTP server: 80 mail server: 25 to send HTTP message to gaia.cs.umass.edu web server: IP address: port number:

21 Application Layer protocol defines types of messages exchanged, e.g., request, response message syntax: what fields in messages & how fields are delineated message semantics meaning of information in fields rules for when and how processes send & respond to messages open protocols: defined in RFCs allows for interoperability e.g., HTTP, SMTP proprietary protocols: e.g., Skype 31

22 What transport service is needed? data integrity some apps (e.g., file transfer, web transactions) require 100% reliable data transfer other apps (e.g., audio) can tolerate some loss timing some apps (e.g., Internet telephony, interactive games) require low delay to be effective throughput some apps (e.g., multimedia) require minimum amount of throughput to be effective other apps ( elastic apps ) make use of whatever throughput they get security encryption, data integrity 32

23 Transport service requirements: common apps application data loss throughput time sensitive file transfer Web documents real-time audio/video stored audio/video interactive games text messaging no loss no loss no loss loss-tolerant loss-tolerant loss-tolerant no loss elastic elastic elastic audio: 5kbps-1Mbps video:10kbps-5mbps same as above few kbps up elastic no no no yes, 100 s msec yes, few secs yes, 100 s msec yes and no 33

24 Internet transport protocols services TCP service: reliable transport between sending and receiving process flow control: sender won t overwhelm receiver congestion control: throttle sender when network overloaded does NOT provide: timing, minimum throughput guarantee, security connection-oriented: setup required between client and server processes UDP service: unreliable data transfer between sending and receiving process does NOT provide: reliability, flow control, congestion control, timing, throughput guarantee, security, or connection setup, Q: why bother? Why is there a UDP? 34

25 Internet apps: application, transport protocols application remote terminal access Web file transfer streaming multimedia Internet telephony application layer protocol SMTP [RFC 2821] Telnet [RFC 854] HTTP [RFC 2616] FTP [RFC 959] HTTP (e.g., YouTube), RTP [RFC 1889] SIP, RTP, proprietary (e.g., Skype) underlying transport protocol TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP or UDP TCP or UDP Q: Why some apps use TCP and UDP? 35

26 Securing TCP TCP & UDP no encryption cleartext passwords sent into socket traverse Internet in cleartext Secure Sockets Layer (SSL ) provides encrypted TCP connection data integrity end-point authentication SSL is at app layer Apps use SSL libraries, which talk to TCP SSL socket API cleartext passwds sent into socket traverse Internet encrypted see Chapter 7 36

27 References Some of the slides are identical or derived from 1. Slides for the 7 th edition of the book Kurose & Ross, Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, 2. Slides by Jim Kurose for his CSC453 course at Umass 3. Slides from Nick McKeown, CS144 at Stanford University NCSU CSC401 Lina Battestilli

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