Computer Networks. Andrew S. Tanenbaum

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1 Computer Networks Third Edition Andrew S. Tanenbaum 1 ; l Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands For book and bookstore information Prentice Hall PTR Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

2 CONTENTS PREFACE xv 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 USES OF COMPUTER NETWORKS Networks for Companies Networks for People Social Issues NETWORK HARDWARE Local Area Networks Metropolitan Area Networks Wide Area Networks Wireless Networks Internetworks NETWORK SOFTWARE Protocol Hierarchies Design Issues for the Layers Interfaces and Services Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Services Service Primitives The Relationship of Services to Protocols REFERENCE MODELS The OSI Reference Model The TCP/IP Reference Model A Comparison of the OSI and TCP Reference Models A Critique of the OSI Model and Protocols A Critique of the TCP/IP Reference Model EXAMPLE NETWORKS Novell NetWare The ARPANET NSFNET The Internet Gigabit Testbeds 54 vi

3 CONTENTS Vll 1.6 EXAMPLE DATA COMMUNICATION SERVICES SMDS Switched Multimegabit Data Service X.25 Networks Frame Relay Broadband ISDN and ATM Comparison of Services NETWORK STANDARDIZATION Who's Who in the Telecommunications World Who's Who in the International Standards World Who's Who in the Internet Standards World OUTLINE OF THE REST OF THE BOOK SUMMARY 73 2 THE PHYSICAL LAYER THE THEORETICAL BASIS FOR DATA COMMUNICATION Fourier Analysis Bandwidth-Limited Signals The Maximum Data Rate of a Channel TRANSMISSION MEDIA Magnetic Media Twistedpair Baseband Coaxial Cable Broadband Coaxial Cable Fiber Optics WIRELESS TRANSMISSION The Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio Transmission Microwave Transmission Infrared and Millimeter Waves Lightwave Transmission THE TELEPHONE SYSTEM Structure of the Telephone System The Politics of Telephones The Local Loop Trunks and Multiplexing Switching 130

4 Vlll CONTENTS 2.5 NARROWBAND ISDN ISDN Services ISDN System Architecture The ISDN Interface Perspective on N-ISDN BROADBAND ISDN AND ATM Virtual Circuits versus Circuit Switching Transmission in ATM Networks ATM Switches CELLULAR RADIO Paging Systems Cordless Telephones Analog Cellular Telephones Digital Cellular Telephones Personal Communications Services COMMUNICATION SATELLITES Geosynchronous Satellites Low-Orbit Satellites Satellites versus Fiber SUMMARY THE DATA LINK LAYER DATA LINK LAYER DESIGN ISSUES Services Provided to the Network Layer Framing Error Control Flow Control ERROR DETECTION AND CORRECTION Error-Correcting Codes Error-Detecting Codes ELEMENTARY DATA LINK PROTOCOLS An Unrestricted Simplex Protocol A Simplex Stop-and-Wait Protocol A Simplex Protocol for a Noisy Channel 197

5 CONTENTS IX 3.4 SLIDING WINDOW PROTOCOLS A One Bit Sliding Window Protocol A Protocol Using Go Back n A Protocol Using Selective Repeat PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION AND VERIFICATION Finite State Machine Models Petri Net Models EXAMPLE DATA LINK PROTOCOLS HDLC High-level Data Link Control The Data Link Layer in the Internet The Data Link Layer in ATM SUMMARY THE MEDIUM ACCESS SUBLAYER THE CHANNEL ALLOCATION PROBLEM Static Channel Allocation in LANs and MANs Dynamic Channel Allocation in LANs and MANs MULTIPLE ACCESS PROTOCOLS ALOHA Carrier Sense Multiple Access Protocols Collision-Free Protocols Limited-Contention Protocols Wavelength Division Multiple Access Protocols Wireless LAN Protocols Digital Cellular Radio IEEE STANDARD 802 FOR LANS AND MANS IEEE Standard and Ethernet IEEE Standard 802.4: Token Bus IEEE Standard 802.5: Token Ring Comparison of 802.3, 802.4, and IEEE Standard 802.6: Distributed Queue Dual Bus IEEE Standard 802.2: Logical Link Control 302

6 CONTENTS 4.4 BRIDGES Bridges from 802.x to 802.y Transparent Bridges Source Routing Bridges Comparison of 802 Bridges Remote Bridges HIGH-SPEED LANS FDDI Fast Ethernet HIPPI High-Performance Parallel Interface Fibre Channel 326 ' 4.6 SATELLITE NETWORKS Polling ALOHA FDM TDM : 6.5 CDMA SUMMARY THE NETWORK LAYER NETWORK LAYER DESIGN ISSUES Services Provided to the Transport Layer Internal Organization of the Network Layer Comparison of Virtual Circuit and Datagram Subnets ROUTING ALGORITHMS The Optimality Principle Shortest Path Routing Flooding Flow-Based Routing Distance Vector Routing Link State Routing Hierarchical Routing Routing for Mobile Hosts Broadcast Routing Multicast Routing 372

7 CONTENTS xi 5.3 CONGESTION CONTROL ALGORITHMS General Principles of Congestion Control Congestion Prevention Policies Traffic Shaping Flow Specifications Congestion Control in Virtual Circuit Subnets Choke Packets Loadshedding Jitter Control Congestion Control for Multicasting INTERNETWORKING How Networks Differ Concatenated Virtual Circuits Connectionless Internetworking Tunneling Internetwork Routing Fragmentation Firewalls THE NETWORK LAYER IN THE INTERNET The IP Protocol IP Addresses Subnets Internet Control Protocols The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol: OSPF The Exterior Gateway Routing Protocol: BGP Internet Multicasting Mobile IP CIDR Classless InterDomain Routing IPv THE NETWORK LAYER IN ATM NETWORKS Cell Formats Connection Setup Routing and Switching Service Categories Quality of Service Traffic Shaping and Policing Congestion Control ATM LANs SUMMARY 473

8 xii CONTENTS 6 THE TRANSPORT LAYER THE TRANSPORT SERVICE Services Provided to the Upper Layers Quality of Service Transport Service Primitives ELEMENTS OF TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS Addressing Establishing a Connection Releasing a Connection Flow Control and Buffering Multiplexing Crash Recovery A SIMPLE TRANSPORT PROTOCOL The Example Service Primitives The Example Transport Entity The Example as a Finite State Machine THE INTERNET TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS (TCP AND UDP) The TCP Service Model The TCP Protocol The TCP Segment Header TCP Connection Management TCP Transmission Policy TCP Congestion Control TCP Timer Management UDP Wireless TCP and UDP THE ATM AAL LAYER PROTOCOLS Structure of the ATM Adaptation Layer AAL AAL AAL 3/ AAL Comparison of AAL Protocols SSCOP Service Specific Connection-Oriented Protocol PERFORMANCE ISSUES Performance Problems in Computer Networks Measuring Network Performance 559

9 CONTENTS.- Xiii System Design for Better Performance Fast TPDU Processing Protocols for Gigabit Networks SUMMARY THE APPLICATION LAYER NETWORK SECURITY Traditional Cryptography Two Fundamental Cryptographic Principles Secret-Key Algorithms Public-Key Algorithms Authentication Protocols Digital Signatures Social Issues DNS DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM The DNS Name Space Resource Records Name Servers SNMP SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL The SNMP Model ASN.l Abstract Syntax Notation SMI Structure of Management Information The MIB Management Information Base The SNMP Protocol ELECTRONIC MAIL Architecture and Services The User Agent Message Formats Message Transfer Privacy USENET NEWS The User View of USENET How USENET is Implemented 675

10 XIV CONTENTS 7.6 THE WORLD WIDE WEB The Client Side The Server Side Writing a Web Page in HTML Java Locating Information on the Web MULTIMEDIA Audio Video Data Compression Video on Demand MBone Multicast Backbone SUMMARY READING LIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING Introduction and General Works The Physical Layer The Data Link Layer The Medium Access Control Sublayer The Network Layer The Transport Layer The Application Layer ALPHABETICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 775 INDEX 795

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