Chapter 5: The Data Link Layer. Chapter 5 Link Layer and LANs. Ethernet. Link Layer. Star topology. Ethernet Frame Structure.

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1 hapter 5 Link Layer and LNs omputer Networking: Top Down pproach 5 th edition. Jim Kurose, Keith Ross ddison-wesley, pril hapter 5: The Data Link Layer Our goals: understand principles behind data link layer services: error detection, correction sharing a broadcast channel: multiple access link layer addressing reliable data transfer, flow control: done! instantiation and implementation of various link layer technologies 5: DataLink Layer 5-1 5: DataLink Layer 5-2 Link Layer Ethernet 5.1 Introduction and services 5.2 Error detection and correction 5.3Multiple access protocols 5.4 Link-Layer ddressing 5.5 Ethernet 5. Link-layer switches 5.7 PPP 5.8 Link Virtualization: TM and MPLS wired LN technology: cheap $20 for NI first widely used LN technology simpler, cheaper than token LNs and TM kept up with speed race: 10 Mbps 10 Gbps Metcalfe s Ethernet sketch 5: DataLink Layer 5-3 5: DataLink Layer 5-4 Star topology Ethernet Frame Structure bus topology popular through mid 90s all nodes in same collision domain (can collide with each other) today: topology prevails active switch in center each spoke runs a (separate) Ethernet protocol (nodes do not collide with each other) Sending adapter encapsulates IP datagram (or other network layer protocol packet) in Ethernet frame Preamble: 7 bytes with pattern followed by one byte with pattern used to synchronize receiver, sender rates switch bus: coaxial cable star 5: DataLink Layer 5-5 5: DataLink Layer 5-1

2 Ethernet Frame Structure (more) ddresses: bytes if adapter receives frame with matching destination address, or with broadcast address (eg RP packet), it passes data in frame to network layer protocol otherwise, adapter discards frame Type: indicates higher layer protocol (mostly IP but others possible, e.g., Novell IPX, ppletalk) R: checked at receiver, if error is detected, frame is Ethernet: Unreliable, connectionless connectionless: No handshaking between sending and receiving NIs : receiving NI doesn t send acks or nacks to sending NI stream of datagrams passed to network layer can have gaps (missing datagrams) gaps will be filled if app is using TP otherwise, app will see gaps Ethernet s M protocol: unslotted SM/D 5: DataLink Layer 5-7 5: DataLink Layer 5-8 Ethernet SM/D algorithm 1. NI receives datagram 4. If NI detects another from network layer, transmission while creates frame transmitting, aborts and 2. If NI senses channel idle, sends jam signal starts frame transmission 5. fter aborting, NI If NI senses channel enters busy, waits until channel : after mth idle, then transmits collision, NI chooses K at 3. If NI transmits entire random from frame without detecting {0,1,2,,2 m -1}. NI waits another transmission, NI K 512 bit times, returns to is done with frame! Step 2 Ethernet s SM/D (more) Jam Signal: make sure all other transmitters are aware of collision; it time:.1 microsec for 10 Mbps Ethernet ; for K=1023, wait time is about 50 msec See/interact with Java applet on WL Web site: highly recommended! Exponential ackoff: Goal: adapt retransmission attempts to estimated current load heavy load: random wait will be longer first collision: choose K from {0,1}; delay is K 512 bit transmission times after second collision: choose K from {0,1,2,3} after ten collisions, choose K from {0,1,2,3,4,,1023} 5: DataLink Layer 5-9 5: DataLink Layer 5-10 SM/D efficiency T prop = max prop delay between 2 nodes in LN t trans = time to transmit max-size frame 1 efficiency = 1+ 5t prop /t trans Ethernet Standards: Link & Physical Layers many different Ethernet standards common M protocol and frame format different speeds: 2 Mbps, 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, 1Gbps, 10G bps different physical layer : fiber, cable efficiency goes to 1 as t prop goes to 0 as t trans goes to infinity better performance than : and simple, cheap, decentralized! 5: DataLink Layer 5-11 application transport network link physical 100SE-TX 100SE-T4 copper (twister pair) physical layer M protocol and frame format 100SE-T2 100SE-SX 100SE-FX 100SE-X fiber physical layer 5: DataLink Layer

3 Manchester encoding Link Layer used in each bit has a transition allows clocks in sending and receiving nodes to synchronize to each other no need for a centralized, global clock among nodes! Hey, this is physical-layer stuff! 5: DataLink Layer Introduction and services 5.2 Error detection and correction 5.3 Multiple access protocols 5.4 Link-layer ddressing 5.5 Ethernet 5. Link-layer switches 5.7 PPP 5.8 Link Virtualization: TM, MPLS 5: DataLink Layer 5-14 Hubs physical-layer ( dumb ) repeaters: bits coming in one link go out other links at same rate all nodes connected to hub can collide with one another no frame buffering no SM/D at hub: host NIs detect collisions hub twisted pair Switch link-layer device: smarter than hubs, take role store, forward Ethernet frames examine incoming frame s M address, selectively forward frame to one-or-more outgoing links when frame is to be forwarded on segment, uses SM/D to access segment transparent hosts are unaware of presence of switches plug-and-play, self-learning switches do not need to be configured 5: DataLink Layer : DataLink Layer 5-1 Switch: allows multiple simultaneous transmissions hosts have dedicated, direct connection to switch switches packets Ethernet protocol used on each incoming link, but no collisions; full duplex each link is its own collision domain switching: -to- and - to- simultaneously, without collisions not possible with dumb hub switch with six interfaces (1,2,3,4,5,) Switch Table Q: how does switch know that reachable via interface 4, reachable via interface 5? : each switch has a, each entry: (M address of host, interface to reach host, time stamp) looks like a routing table! Q: how are entries created, maintained in switch table? something like a routing protocol? switch with six interfaces (1,2,3,4,5,) 5: DataLink Layer : DataLink Layer

4 Switch: self-learning switch which hosts can be reached through which interfaces when frame received, switch learns location of sender: incoming LN segment records sender/location pair in switch table M addr interface TTL Source: Dest: Switch table (initially empty) 5: DataLink Layer 5-19 Switch: frame filtering/forwarding When frame received: 1. record link associated with sending host 2. index switch table using M dest address 3. if entry found for destination then { if dest on segment from which frame arrived then drop the frame else forward the frame on interface indicated } else forward on all but the interface on which the frame arrived 5: DataLink Layer 5-20 Self-learning, forwarding: example frame destination unknown: flood destination location known: send M addr interface TTL Source: Dest: Switch table (initially empty) Interconnecting switches switches can be connected together S 1 S 2 D E Q: sending from to G - how does S 1 know to forward frame destined to F via S 4 and S 3? : self learning! (works the same as in single-switch case!) S 4 F G S 3 H I 5: DataLink Layer : DataLink Layer 5-22 Self-learning multi-switch example Suppose sends frame to I, I responds to Institutional network S 1 1 S 2 D 2 E F S 4 G S 3 H I to external network router mail server web server IP subnet Q: show switch tables and packet forwarding in S 1, S 2, S 3, S 4 5: DataLink Layer : DataLink Layer

5 Switches vs. Routers both store-and-forward devices routers: network layer devices (examine network layer headers) switches are link layer devices routers maintain routing tables, implement routing algorithms switches maintain switch tables, implement, learning algorithms Link Layer 5.1 Introduction and services 5.2 Error detection and correction 5.3Multiple access protocols 5.4 Link-Layer ddressing 5.5 Ethernet 5. Hubs and switches 5.7 PPP 5.8 Link Virtualization: TM 5: DataLink Layer : DataLink Layer 5-2 Point to Point Data Link ontrol one sender, one receiver, one link: easier than broadcast link: no Media ccess ontrol no need for explicit M addressing e.g., dialup link, ISDN line popular point-to-point DL protocols: PPP (point-to-point protocol) : High level data link control (Data link used to be considered high layer in protocol stack! 5: DataLink Layer 5-27 PPP Design Requirements [RF 1557] packet framing: encapsulation of network-layer datagram in data link frame carry network layer data of any network layer protocol (not just IP) at same time ability to upwards bit transparency: must carry any bit pattern in the data field error detection (no correction) connection liveness: detect, signal link failure to network layer network layer address negotiation: endpoint can learn/configure each other s network address 5: DataLink Layer 5-28 PPP non-requirements PPP Data Frame no error correction/recovery no flow control out of order delivery OK no need to support multipoint links (e.g., polling) Flag: (framing) ddress: does nothing (only one option) ontrol: does nothing; in the future possible multiple control fields Protocol: upper layer protocol to which frame delivered (eg, PPP-LP, IP, IPP, etc) Error recovery, flow control, data re-ordering all relegated to layers! 5: DataLink Layer : DataLink Layer

6 PPP Data Frame info: upper layer being carried check: cyclic redundancy check for error detection yte Stuffing data transparency requirement: data field must be allowed to include flag pattern < > Q: is received < > data or flag? Sender: adds ( stuffs ) extra < > byte after each < > byte Receiver: two bytes in a row: discard first byte, continue data reception single : flag byte 5: DataLink Layer : DataLink Layer 5-32 yte Stuffing PPP Data ontrol Protocol flag byte pattern in data to send flag byte pattern plus stuffed byte in transmitted data 5: DataLink Layer 5-33 efore exchanging networklayer data, data link peers must PPP link (max. frame length, authentication) learn/configure network layer information for IP: carry IP ontrol Protocol (IPP) msgs (protocol field: 8021) to configure/learn IP address 5: DataLink Layer 5-34

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