Packet Switching, Layer Models and Protocol Suites

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1 Packet Switching, Layer Models and Protocol Suites Course Code CCE 211 Course Title Data Communication Asst. Prof. Md Samsuzzaman, Ph.D. Computer and Communication Engineering Department 1PSTU

2 Outline Circuit vs. packet switching Layered tasks Internet protocol suites ISO's OSI model 2

3 End-to-End Communication Direct communication Most basic form of communication TX RX TX RX GND GND Serial Port Internet communication Communication is performed over the Internet Internet 3

4 Internet Comm. - App's Viewpoint Two network applications should interact as if they were directly connected App write read App A Internet B But what's going on underneath? What is inside the "cloud"? 4

5 Circuit vs. Packet Switching Dedicated circuits Circuit switching Telephone switches establish circuits for communication Packet switching Data are put into packets Each stamped with source and destination addresses Routers know where to forward packets telephone switch Packet Router 6

6 Layered Tasks Computer networks are complex systems Tasks involve varieties of hardware and software components, and protocols Networking task is divided into several subtasks, or layers 7

7 Figure 2.1: A single-layer protocol 2.8

8 Figure 2.2: A three-layer protocol Postal carrier facility 2.9

9 2.1.2 Principles of Protocol Layering Let us discuss two principles of protocol layering. The first principle dictates that if we want bidirectional communication, we need to make each layer so that it is able to perform two opposite tasks, one in each direction. The second principle that we need to follow in protocol layering is that the two objects under each layer at both sites should be identical. 2.10

10 2.1.3 Logical Connections After following the above two principles, we can think about logical connection between each layer as shown in Figure 2.3. This means that we have layer-to-layer communication. Maria and Ann can think that there is a logical (imaginary) connection at each layer through which they can send the object created from that layer. We will see that the concept of logical connection will help us better understand the task of layering we encounter in data communication and networking. 2.11

11 Figure 2.3: Logical connection between peer layers 2.12

12 Real World Example Communication between managers of two companies Communicate 13

13 What Actually Happens Communication takes place thru many layers Logical communication Secretary: types a letter Secretary: reads and reports the message Delivery boy: drops the letter Delivery boy: takes the letter Postal truck Post office: Processes and routes the letter 14

14 Figure 2.5: Communication through an internet 2.17

15 Internet Layer Model The Internet Protocol Stack User Application Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer Software Hardware Transmission Medium 18

16 Application Layer Responsible for providing services to the user The only layer to interact with user Data Logical communication Data Application Layer SMTP HTTP FTP SMTP HTTP FTP Data H5 Data H5 to Transport from Transport 19

17 Transport Layer Responsible for delivery of a message from one process to another Duties/services Port addressing Segmentation and reassembly Connection control Flow control (end-to-end) Error control (end-to-end) 20

18 Transport Layer Process Process Process Process PORT # PORT # Data Data Transport Layer Data 1 H4 Data 2 H4 Data 3 H4 (segments) Data 1 H4 Data 2 H4 Data 3 H4 to Network from Network 21

19 Network Layer Responsible for the delivery of packets from the original source to the destination Duties/services Logical addressing Routing 22

20 Network Layer from Transport to Transport Data Data Network Layer Data H3 Data H3 (packet) to Data Link from Data Link 23

21 Network Layer Data Network 1 1.1, 1.2, 6.1, 5.7,... are logical addresses R1 6.1 Network R2 Router Network 3 R Network 5 24

22 Duties/services Framing Data Link Layer Responsible for transmitting frames from one node to the next Physical addressing Flow control (hop-to-hop) Error control (hop-to-hop) Access control 25

23 Data Link Layer from Network to Network Data Data Data Link Layer T2 Data H2 T2 Data H2 (frame) to Physical from Physical 26

24 Data Link Layer A3, 3B, 82, 9F,... are physical addresses Data 9F 3B 82 A3 T2 Data 9F A3 H2 27

25 Data Link Layer Data Network 1 Data R Data Network 6 R Network R Data Network 5 28

26 Physical Layer Responsible for transmitting individual bits from one node to the next Duties/services Physical characteristics of interfaces and media Representation of bits Data rate (transmission rate) Synchronization of bits 29

27 Physical Layer from Data Link to Data Link Data Data Physical Layer (bits) Transmission medium 30

28 The Big Picture L5 data H5 5 5 L5 data H5 L4 data H4 4 4 L4 data H4 L3 data H3 3 3 L3 data H3 T2 L2 data H2 2 2 T2 L2 data H Transmission medium 31

29 Internet Model sender router router receiver Application Application Transport Transport Network Network Network Network Data Link D.L. D.L. D.L. D.L. Data Link Physical P.L. P.L. P.L. P.L. Physical Transmission medium 32

30 Internet Model 33

31 Protocol Suites A set of protocols must be constructed to ensure that the resulting communication system is complete and efficient Each protocol should handle a part of communication not handled by other protocols How can we guarantee that protocols work well together? Instead of creating each protocol in isolation, protocols are designed in complete, cooperative sets called suites or families 34 34

32 Internet Protocol Suite Layer Protocols Application HTTP, FTP, Telnet, SMTP,... Transport TCP, UDP, SCTP,... Network IP (IPv4), IPv6, ICMP, IGMP,... Data Link Ethernet, Wi-Fi, PPP,... Physical RS-232, DSL, 10Base-T,... 35

33 OSI Model User 7.Application Layer 6.Presentation Layer 5.Session Layer OSI Open Systems Interconnection Developed by the International Standards Organizations (ISO) 4.Transport Layer 3.Network Layer 2.Data Link Layer 1.Physical Layer Two additional layers Presentation layer Session layer Transmission Medium 36

34 Session Layer Responsible for establishing, managing and terminating connections between applications Duties/services Interaction management Simplex, half-duplex, full-duplex Session recovery 37

35 Presentation Layer Responsible for handling differences in data representation to applications Duties/services Data translation Encryption Decryption Compression 38

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