Overview of Ethernet Networking

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1 Overview of Ethernet Networking Renesas Electronics America Inc. 1/31/2011 Rev A

2 Agenda This course contains an overview of Ethernet technology and its advantages and limits. Contained in this Module Elements of an Ethernet Network Networking Reference Models Details of Ethernet Technology Layers above Ethernet 2

3 Elements of an Ethernet Network Components Devices Physical interface Medium Protocol Stacks Applications TCP and UDP Internet Protocol Ethernet controller Hardware interface Clients and Servers Internet Communication IP address Domain names 3

4 Advantages and Limits of Ethernet Versatile Easy to Use Wide Selection of Products Hardware Control of Network Access Fast Spans Long Distances Isolated Interfaces Reasonable Cost Cost Real Time Limits Efficiency Power 4

5 Brief History of Ethernet Developed by Xerox Corporation in 1970s Coaxial cable, 3 Mbps, CSMA/CD Ethernet Version 1.0 by DEC, Intel, and Xerox in 1980s Also known as DIX80 Formation of IEEE Working Group ANSI/IEEE specification Introduction of Fast Ethernet in 1990s 100 Mbps in 1995 and full duplex in 1997 Gigabit Ethernet in

6 Ethernet Topologies Point-to-Point Connection 6

7 Ethernet Topologies Point-to-Point Connection Bus Topology Device Ethernet Bus Segment Repeater Ethernet Bus Segment Device ` 7

8 Ethernet Topologies Point-to-Point Connection Bus Topology Star Topology Switch ` Device 8

9 Networking Reference Models OSI 7-Layer Networking Model 9

10 Networking Reference Models OSI 7-Layer Networking Model IEEE Model 10

11 Networking Reference Models OSI 7-Layer Networking Model IEEE Model Common Implementation Model 11

12 Ethernet Frame Format Preamble Synchronization, 8 bytes Destination and Source Address Unicast, multicast, broadcast, 6 bytes each Length/Type Defines data, 2 bytes Data Frame data, bytes Frame Check Sequence Error detection, 4 bytes 12

13 Ethernet MAC Address Hexadecimal digits of aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff Transmit order First byte is first (byte aa) Least significant bit first (bit 0) First Bit of Destination Address Unicast or multicast/broadcast Second Bit of Destination Address Globally or locally administered Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) (bytes aa:bb:cc) Vendor Assigned (bytes dd:ee:ff) 13

14 Ethernet Frame Transmission Half duplex CSMA/CD Method Common media (bus topology) Carrier sense Multiple access Collision detect Ethernet Bus Segment ` Device Ethernet Bus Segment Device Repeater Full duplex Higher efficiency Point-to-point links (star topology) No carrier No multiple access No collision ` Switch Device 14

15 Ethernet MAC Layer Control Flow Control Congestion relief Half duplex control (Backpressure) Full duplex control (PAUSE frames) PAUSE Frame IEEE 802.3x Destination address = 01:80:C2:00:00:01 Source address = Unicast address of the sender Type = 0x8808 MAC-to-MAC control Single parameter 15

16 Ethernet Performance Analysis Decision Making Perspective Minimum length frames Measured by number of frames for a given period Data Rate (Mbps) Maximum Rate (sec/frame) Maximum Rate (frames/sec) us 14, us 148,810 Data Flow Perspective Maximum length frames Measured by data capacity for a given period Must be equal to raw data capacity What all this mean? CPU speed, integrated and specialized hardware Software driver design, more RAM 16

17 Internet Protocol (IP) Network Layer Protocol (Layer 3) Widely Used Main Responsibilities Connectionless, best effort data delivery Fragmentation and reassembly of data Global addressing 32 bits Version Header Length Type of Service Total Length Identification Flags Fragment Offset Time to Live Protocol Header Checksum Source IP Address Destination IP Address Options 17

18 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Transport Layer Protocol (Layer 4) Widely Used Main Responsibilities Connection-oriented, sequenced, reliable data delivery Efficient flow control Multiplexing 18

19 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Application Layer Protocol (Layer 7) Protocol for the World Wide Web Text Based Protocol Information is in HTML Format Runs over TCP (Port Number 80) Client and Server Scheme HTTP server waits for a connection request Client initiates a request Establishes a connection over TCP Server sends back the page or image 19

20 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Application Layer Protocol (Layer 7) Multi Operating System Runs over TCP (Port Number 21) Resume Interrupted File Downloads Secure Forms SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) FTP over SSL (FTPS) Embedded Applications Implications Can be complex Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) Simpler version of FTP 20

21 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Application Layer Protocol (Layer 7) Automated Assignment of IP addresses Subnet masks Default gateway Client and Server Scheme Client initiates a query requesting IP parameters DHCP server assigns the IP address Runs over UDP (Port Number 67/68) 21

22 Domain Name System (DNS) Application Layer Protocol (Layer 7) Phonebook of the Internet Translates Domain Names to IP Addresses Virtual Hosting Many domain names map to one IP address Single device serves many web sites Fault Tolerance and Load Distribution One domain name maps to many IP address Runs over UDP (Port Number 53) 22

23 Summary Elements of Ethernet Networking Advantages and Limits of Ethernet History of Ethernet Ethernet Topologies Networking Reference Models Details of Ethernet Technology Frame format and MAC address Ethernet frame transmission MAC layer control Performance analysis Higher Layers IP TCP and UDP Application layer protocols Thanks for Viewing! 23

24 Thank You Renesas Electronics America Inc.

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