Requirements and Design Overview

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1 Requirements and Design Overview Robert B. France Colorado State University Robert B. France O-1

2 Why do we model? Enhance understanding and communication Provide structure for problem solving Furnish abstractions to manage complexity Reduce the risk of mistakes Facilitate analysis Provide documentation Support software evolution Robert B. France O-2

3 The Unified Modeling Language The UML is an OMG standard analysis and design modeling language. UML provides tools for modeling software Learning how to create high-quality models is not equivalent to learning the UML UML is simply a language for expressing models The UML is not a process or methodology an object-oriented analysis and design technique a modeling technique Robert B. France O-3

4 Process Models Code & Fix model Waterfall model V-shaped model ties testing activities to waterfall phases Prototyping model Iterative. Incremental model Robert B. France O-4

5 Radical vs. Conservative Models Software process models can be classified along a spectrum ranging from: radical: all activities carried out in parallel conservative: all activities carried out in a strict sequence with no overlap. None of the extremes are viable. More radical models suitable when: quick results are needed requirements are fuzzy or unstable More conservative models suitable when: consequences of errors are very serious requirements are well-understood and stable Robert B. France P-5

6 Iterative, Incremental Model Small steps, feedback and evolution Iterative, incremental, time-boxed Risk driven Iteration 1 Iteration 2... Analyze Design Code, Test, Integrate Analyze Design Code, Test, Integrate 2 weeks 2 weeks Robert B. France O-6

7 The Unified Process (UP) Phases Warning: The phases are not iterations. Robert B. France O-7

8 Inception Phases Early exploration of problem to determine project feasibility What s the perceived business value? What are the risks? Elaboration Requirements detailing (major requirements identified) Iterative implementation of core architecture Construction Iterative development of remaining low-risk elements Prepare for deployment Transition Beta tests Deployment Robert B. France O-8

9 UP Disciplines (Workflows) Business modeling: modeling of business processes and concepts Requirements: requirements analysis and specification Design: solution analysis and synthesis Implementation: Code realization of design Test: Verification of implementation Deployment: Installation and operation of system in environment Configuration & Change Management: Version control Environment: Tools and resources used to develop software Robert B. France O-9

10 Requirements vs Design Software requirements modeling Modeling problems NOT solutions Classes represent problem concepts, NOT programming elements A requirements model consists of at least a Requirements class model (static view) Use cases (behavioral view) Design Modeling Focus on solution For very large systems start with an architectural model An architectural model consists of Subsystem architecture (static model) Subsystem interaction model (behavioral model) For smaller systems you can move directly to detailed design. Robert B. France O-10

11 Requirements vs. Design Requirements what (and under what constraints) investigation and specification of the problem Design how specificationof a software solution Behavior Behavior - use cases - sequence models Structure of problem concepts Structure of solution concepts - requirements class models - design class models Design constraints Robert B. France O-11

12 Moving from requirements to detailed design Start by treating requirements class model as an initial design model 1. Separate UI from main functionality by introducing one or more façade classes (a.k.a. controllers, system managers) to the design The UI objects interact with the façade objects You can group use cases and have a façade for each group of use cases 2. For each use case, do the following: 1. Decide which class will be responsible for accomplishing the use case goals You may need to add a new class to the initial design model 2. Develop a sequence model that shows how objects collaborate to accomplish the use case goals 3. Add methods and navigability symbols based on the messages shown in the sequence model 3. Critique your design (check that it satisfies the requirements and design goals, and that you adhere to design principles) and modify if needed Modification may involve using design patterns to improve flexibility, reduce coupling, etc. Robert B. France O-12

13 Design Principles Design principles capture experience related to tackling complexity Major design principles Separation of concerns Design for change Reusability Generality Incrementality Another principle: Formality and Rigor Your models may not be complete but they should be precise Robert B. France 13

14 Patterns of Responsibility Assignment Principles Cohesion Expert Creator Low Coupling Controller

15 Design Patterns ( Gang of Four patterns) Provide solution outlines that a developer can use to create designs that are based on proven design principles Creational patterns Factory method Abstract Factory Builder Singleton Structural patterns Adapter Bridge Façade Composite Behavioral patterns Command Iterator Robert B. France O-15

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