Java Language Basics: Introduction To Java, Basic Features, Java Virtual Machine Concepts, Primitive Data Type And Variables, Java Operators,

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1 Java Language Basics: Introduction To Java, Basic Features, Java Virtual Machine Concepts, Primitive Data Type And Variables, Java Operators, Expressions, Statements and Arrays.

2 Java technology is: A programming language A development environment An application environment A deployment environment It is similar in syntax to C++. It is used for developing both applets and applications Introduction to Java Technology

3 Primary Goals of the Java Technology Provides an easy-to-use language by: Avoiding many pitfalls of other languages Being object-oriented Enabling users to create streamlined and clear code Provides an interpreted environment for: Improved speed of development Code portability

4 Primary Goals of the Java Technology Loads classes dynamically; that is, at the time they are actually needed Supports changing programs dynamically during runtime by loading classes from disparate sources Furnishes better security

5 Primary Goals of the Java Technology The following features fulfill these goals: The Java Virtual Machine Garbage collection The Java Runtime Environment (JRE)

6 Simple Object-Oriented Platform independent Secured Robust Architecture neutral Portable Dynamic Interpreted High Performance Multithreaded Distributed Feature of Java

7 Provides hardware platform specifications Reads compiled byte codes that are platform-independent Is implemented in a Java technology development tool or a Web browser The Java Virtual Machine

8 Allocated memory that is no longer needed should be deallocated. In other languages, deallocation is the programmer s responsibility. The Java programming language provides a system-level thread to track memory allocation. Garbage collection

9 Garbage collection has the following characteristics: Checks for and frees memory no longer needed Is done automatically Can vary dramatically across JVM implementations Garbage collection

10 The Java application environment performs as follows: The Java Runtime Environment

11 The JVM performs three main tasks: Loads code Verifies code Executes code JVM Tasks

12 Loads all classes necessary for the execution of a program Maintains classes of the local file system in separate namespaces The Class Loader

13 Ensures that: The code adheres to the JVM specification. The code does not violate system integrity. The code causes no operand stack overflows. The parameter types for all operational code are correct. No illegal data conversions (the conversion of integers to pointers) have occurred. The Bytecode Verifier

14 They are in-built part of the language. These data type have the same size and characteristics no matter what operating system and platform you are on. Primitive Data Type

15 Primitive Data Types Primitive Data Types Logical boolean Textual char Integral byte, short, int, and long Floating double and float

16 Logical The boolean primitive has the following characteristics: The boolean data type has two literals, true and false. For example, the statement: boolean truth = true; declares the variable truth as boolean type and assigns it a value of true.

17 The textual char primitive has the following characteristics: Represents a 16-bit Unicode character Must have its literal enclosed in single quotes ( ) Uses the following notations: 'a' The letter a '\t' The tab character '\u????' A specific Unicode character,????, is replaced with exactly four hexadecimal digits. For example, \u03a6 is the Greek letter phi [Φ]. Textual char

18 The textual String type has the following characteristics: Is not a primitive data type; it is a class Has its literal enclosed in double quotes (" ") "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog." Can be used as follows: String greeting = "Good Morning!! \n"; String errormessage = "Record Not Found!"; Textual - String

19 The integral primitives have the following characteristics: Integral primates use three forms: Decimal, octal, or hexadecimal 2 : in Decimal 02: in Octal 0XB: in Hexadecimal Literals have a default type of int. Literals with the suffix L or l are of type long. Integral byte, short, int, and long

20 Byte: 8 bits Short: 16 bits int: 32 bits long: 64 bits Integral:

21 The floating point primitives have the following characteristics: Floating-point literal includes either a decimal point or one of the following: E or e (add exponential value) F or f (float) D or d (double) 3.14: A simple floating-point value (a double) 6.02E23: A large floating-point value 2.718F: A simple float size value Floating double and float

22 Literals have a default type of double. Floating-point data types have the following sizes: Float Length Name or Type 32 bits: float 64 bits: double Floating double and float

23 In Java technology, beyond primitive types all others are reference types. A reference variable contains a handle to an object. Java Reference Types

24 In addtion to the 8 basic data types, a variable can have a class as its type, String myname= abhilasha ; Color Hair; Class Type

25 Identifiers have the following characteristics: Are names given to a variable, class, or method Can start with a Unicode letter, underscore (_), or dollar sign ($) Are case-sensitive and have no maximum length Examples: identifier username user_name _sys_var1 $change Identifiers

26 A variable is a place where information can be stored while a program is running. The value can be changed at any point in the program. There are three types of variables in Java Instance Variable Class Variable Local Variable Variable

27 Instance variable: These are used to define an object s attribute. Class Variable: These are used to define the property of class Local Variables: these are used inside method definition or even smaller blocks of statements with in a method. Variable

28 Unlike other programming languages Java doesn t support global variable, a variable can be used in all parts of progarm. Global Variable

29 The three permissible styles of comment in a Java technology program are: First Type: // comment on one line Second Type: /* comment on one * or more lines */ Third Type: /** documentation comment * can also span one or more lines */ Comments

30 These are special symbols used for mathematical functions, some types of assignment statements, and logical comparisons. Operators

31 Addition: + Subtraction: - Multiplication: * Division: / Modulus: % Arithmetic

32 += -= *= /= = Assignment

33 These are called prefix operators if listed before a variable name, and postfix operators if listed after a name. Incrementing and Decrementing

34 Equal: == Not Equal:!= Less than: < Greater than: > Less than or equal to: <= Greater than or equal to: >= Comparison Operators

35 and: && or: Logical Operators

36 Expressions perform operations on data and move data around. Some expressions will be evaluated for their results, some for their side effects, some for both. An expression can have three kinds of result: a value, such as the result of: (4 * i) a variable, such as the result of: i = 4 nothing (in the case of an invocation of a method declared as void) Expressions

37 An expression that results in a variable is called an lvalue in C++ and many other languages. A variable expression in Java is the same thing, the Java Language Specification just uses the name variable instead of lvalue. Such an expression can be used on the left hand side of an assignment operator. Side effects come about when an expression includes an assignment, increment, decrement, or method invocation. Expressions

38 A Java method body is a series of zero or more statements. In the Java programming language, statements are the fundamental unit of execution. All statements except blocks are terminated by a semicolon. Statements

39 Statements are executed for their effects; they do not have values. There are many different kinds of statements in Java: local variable declaration statements the if and if-else statements the while statement the do-while statement the for statement the switch statement the break statement the continue statement Statements

40 int i; String A= BCA 6 SEM ; double d=3.0; boolean b= true ; Variable declaration Statement

41 The if statement syntax: if ( <boolean_expression> ) <statement_or_block> Example: if ( x < 10 ) System.out.println( x less than 10?"); or (recommended): if ( x < 10 ) { System.out.println( x less than 10?"); } Simple if, else Statements

42 The if-else statement syntax: if ( <boolean_expression> ) <statement_or_block> else <statement_or_block> Example: if ( x < 10 ) { System.out.println("Are you finished yet?"); } else { System.out.println("Keep working..."); } Complex if, else Statements

43 The if-else-if statement syntax: if ( <boolean_expression> ) <statement_or_block> else if ( <boolean_expression> ) <statement_or_block> Example: int count = getcount(); // a method defined in the class if (count < 0) { System.out.println("Error: count value is negative."); } else if (count > getmaxcount()) { System.out.println("Error: count value is too big."); } else { System.out.println("There will be " + count + " people for lunch today."); } Complex if, else Statements

44 The switch statement syntax: switch ( <expression> ) { case <constant1>: <statement_or_block>* [break;] case <constant2>: <statement_or_block>* [break;] default: <statement_or_block>* [break;] } Switch Statements

45 The for loop: for (<init_expr>;<test_expr>; <alter_expr> ) <statement_or_block> Example: for ( int i = 0; i < 10; i++ ) System.out.println(i + " squared is " + (i*i)); or (recommended): for ( int i = 0; i < 10; i++ ) { System.out.println(i + " squared is " + (i*i)); } Looping Statements

46 The while loop: while ( <test_expr> ) <statement_or_block> Example: int i = 0; while ( i < 10 ) { System.out.println(i + " squared is " + (i*i)); i++; } Looping Statements

47 The do/while loop: do <statement_or_block> while ( <test_expr> ); Example: int i = 0; do { System.out.println(i + " squared is " + (i*i)); i++; } while ( i < 10 ); Looping Statements

48 The break [<label>]; command The continue [<label>]; command Special Loop Flow Control

49 break quits the loop without executing the rest of the statements in the loop. continue stops the execution of the current iteration and goes back to the beginning of the loop to begin the next iteration. Special Loop Flow Control

50 do { statement; if ( condition ) { break; } statement; } while ( test_expr ); The break Statement

51 Example

52 Output

53 Example

54 Output

55 do { statement; if ( condition ) { continue; } statement; } while ( test_expr ); Continue

56 Example

57 Output

58 Arrays are used typically to group objects of the same type. Arrays enable you to refer to the group of objects by a common name. The declaration of an array creates a reference that you can use to refer to an array. The actual memory used by the array elements is allocated dynamically either by a new statement or by an array initializer. Array

59 Declare arrays of primitive or reference types: char s[]; Point p[]; char[] s; Point[] p; Declare Array

60 Use the new keyword to create an array object. For example, a primitive (char) array: public char[] createarray() { char[] p; char s[]=new char[26]; p = new char[26]; for ( int i=0; i<26; i++ ) { s[i] =i; } return s; } Initializing Array

61 String names={ name1, name2, name3 }; This code is equivalent to: names=new String[3]; names[0]= name1 ; names[1]= name2 ; names[2]= name3 ; Examples:

62 Java language does not provide multidimensional array in the same way that other language do. In this you can create arrays of arrays. Example: int[][] twodim = new int[4][]; twodim[0] = new int[5]; twodim[1] = new int[50]; int[][] twodim = new int[][4]; //illegal Multidimensional Array

63 The object that is created by the first call to new is an array that contains four elements. Each element is a null reference to an element of type array of int and you must initialize each element separately so that each element points to its array. Multidimensional Array

64 Because of this separation, you can create non-rectangular arrays of arrays. Example: twodim[0] = new int[2]; twodim[1] = new int[4]; twodim[2] = new int[6]; twodim[3] = new int[8]; Array of four arrays of five integers each: int[][] twodim = new int[4][5]; Multidimensional Array

65 All array subscripts begin at 0: public void printelements(int[] list) { for (int i = 0; i < list.length; i++) { System.out.println(list[i]); } } Array bound

66 Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition (J2SE) version 5.0 introduced an enhanced for loop for iterating over arrays: public void printelements(int[] list) { for ( int element : list ) { System.out.println(element); } } The for loop can be read as for each element in list do. Using the Enhanced for Loop

67 You cannot resize an array. You can use the same reference variable to refer to an entirely new array, such as: int[] myarray = new int[6]; myarray = new int[10]; Array Resizing

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