# Algorithms and Conditionals

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1 Algorithms and Conditionals CSC 1051 Data Structures and Algorithms I Dr. Mary-Angela Papalaskari Department of Computing Sciences Villanova University Course website:

2 Algorithm Example Statement of GPA problem: Write a program that reads the credits and quality points earned and outputs the gpa. Algorithm: variables: qp, credits, gpa 1. Input qp 2. Input credits 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa

3 Java Program è // GPA.java Author: Joyce/Papalaskari // // Demonstrates the use of Scanner input and s //********************************************* import java.util.scanner; Algorithm: variables: qp, credits, gpa 1. Input qp 2. Input credits 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa public class GPA { public static void main (String[] args) // // Inputs the quality points and credits an // { double qp, credits, gpa; Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); // get input System.out.print ("Enter Quality Points > qp = scan.nextint(); System.out.print ("Enter Credits > "); credits = scan.nextint(); // output information entered System.out.println ("\nquality Points: " System.out.println ("Credits: " + } // calculate and output GPA gpa = qp / credits; System.out.println ("\n\tgpa: " + gpa);

4 Pseudocode: a way to describe what an algorithm does without writing a program. Algorithm: variables: qp, credits, gpa 1. Input qp 2. Input credits 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa

5 Writing an algorithm in pseudocode List the variables used. List the steps for solving the problem, in order. Try to be brief and unambiguous; use Java expressions only when it is simpler to specify a step in java than in English. Algorithm: variables: qp, credits, gpa 1. Input qp 2. Input credits 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa

6 Writing an algorithm in pseudocode List the variables used. List the steps for solving the problem, in order. Try to be brief and unambiguous; use Java expressions only when it is simpler to specify a step in java than in English. Algorithm: variables: qp, credits, gpa (use floating point) 1. Input qp 2. Input credits 3. gpa = qp / credits (Note: use floating point division) 4. Print gpa When the type is not obvious you can add a note.

7 Another example (from Lab 2): PP 2.8 Write an application that reads values representing a time duration in hours, minutes, and seconds and then prints the equivalent total number of seconds. (For example, 1 hour, 28 minutes, and 42 seconds is equivalent to 5322 seconds.)

8 Can we reverse this calculation? PP 2.9 Create a version of the previous project that reverses the computation. That is, read a value representing a number of seconds, then print the equivalent amount of time as a combination of hours, minutes, and seconds. (For example, 9999 seconds is equivalent to 2 hours, 46 minutes, and 39 seconds.) The next 3 slides will help us visualize this problem.

9 Algorithm for PP 2.9

10 How many of each can you pack in the black box?

11 How many of each can you pack in the black box?

12 How many of each can you pack in the black box?

13 Topic Thread 2.1 Character Strings 2.2 Variables, Assignment 2.3 Data Types, in particular int, double 2.4 Expressions (simple) 2.5 Data Conversion 2.6 Interactive Programs 5.1 Boolean Expressions 5.2 The if Statement 5.5 The while Statement

14 Order of statement execution Unless specified otherwise, the flow of control through a method is linear ie, statements are executed in the order they appear We can modify this using conditional and repetition statements

15 Previous Example Java Program è //*********************************************************** // GPA.java Author: Joyce/Papalaskari // // Demonstrates the use of Scanner input and simple computat //*********************************************************** import java.util.scanner; Algorithm: variables: qp, credits, gpa 1. Input qp 2. Input credits 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa public class GPA { public static void main (String[] args) // // Inputs the quality points and credits and calculates G // { double qp, credits, gpa; Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); // get input System.out.print ("Enter Quality Points > "); qp = scan.nextint(); System.out.print ("Enter Credits > "); credits = scan.nextint(); // output information entered System.out.println ("\nquality Points: " + qp); System.out.println ("Credits: " + credits); What if credits = 0???? } } // calculate and output GPA gpa = qp / credits; System.out.println ("\n\tgpa: " + gpa);

16 Algorithm: variables: qp, credits, gpa 1. Input qp 2. Input credits 3. if credits = 0 Print No gpa yet else gpa = qp / credits Print gpa 4. Print goodbye message Updated Algorithm

17 Algorithm: variables: qp, credits, gpa 1. Input qp 2. Input credits 3. if credits = 0 Print No gpa yet else gpa = qp / credits Print gpa 4. Print goodbye message if (credits == 0) else { } Solution 6 System.out.println ( \n\tgpa: gpa = qp / credits; None"); System.out.println ( \n\tgpa: " + gpa);

18 Updated program è Algorithm: variables: qp, credits, gpa 1. Input qp 2. Input credits 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa // GPA_updated.java Author: Joyce/Papalaskari // // Demonstrates the use of conditional statements. //*************************************************** import java.util.scanner; public class GPA_updated { public static void main (String[] args) // // Reads the quality points and credits and calcu // { double qp, credits, gpa; Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); // get input System.out.print ("Enter Quality Points > "); qp = scan.nextint(); System.out.print ("Enter Credits > "); credits = scan.nextint(); // output information entered System.out.println ("\nquality Points: " + qp); System.out.println ("Credits: " + credit } } // calculate and output GPA, if possible if (credits == 0) System.out.println ("\n\tgpa: None"); else { gpa = qp / credits; System.out.println ("\n\tgpa: " + gpa); }

19 Conditional statements Conditional statements depart from linear flow of control: Example: if (credits == 0) A boolean expression System.out.println ("GPA: None");

20 Topic Thread 2.1 Character Strings 2.2 Variables, Assignment 2.3 Data Types, in particular int, double 2.4 Expressions (simple) 2.5 Data Conversion 2.6 Interactive Programs 5.1 Boolean Expressions 5.2 The if Statement 5.5 The while Statement

21 5.1 Boolean Expressions A condition often uses one of Java's equality operators or relational operators, which all return boolean results: == equal to!= not equal to < less than > greater than <= less than or equal to >= greater than or equal to Note the difference between the equality operator (==) and the assignment operator (=)

22 Boolean Expressions The reserved words true and false are the only valid values for a boolean type Example boolean declaration: Another example: boolean aboveagelimit = false; boolean useplural = quarters > 1; A boolean expression using a relational operator

23 Example An if statement with its boolean condition: if (miles > 1) System.out.print("s"); Another way, using a boolean variable: boolean useplural = miles > 1; if (useplural) See also Age.java System.out.print("s");

24 //******************************************************************** // Age.java Author: Lewis/Loftus // // Demonstrates the use of an if statement. //******************************************************************** import java.util.scanner; public class Age { // // Reads the user's age and prints comments accordingly. // public static void main (String[] args) { final int MINOR = 21; continue Scanner scan = new Scanner (System.in); System.out.print ("Enter your age: "); int age = scan.nextint();

25 continue System.out.println ("You entered: " + age); if (age < MINOR) System.out.println ("Youth is a wonderful thing. Enjoy."); } } System.out.println ("Age is a state of mind.");

26 Sample Run continue Enter your age: 47 You entered: 47 Age is a state of mind. } } System.out.println ("You entered: " + age); if (age < MINOR) System.out.println ("Youth is a wonderful thing. Enjoy."); System.out.println ("Age is a state of mind."); Another Sample Run Enter your age: 12 You entered: 12 Youth is a wonderful thing. Enjoy. Age is a state of mind.

27 The if Statement Let's now look at the if statement in more detail The if statement has the following syntax: if is a Java reserved word The condition must be a boolean expression. It must evaluate to either true or false. if ( condition ) statement; If the condition is true, the statement is executed. If it is false, the statement is skipped.

28 Logic of an if statement condition evaluated true statement false

29 Indentation The statement controlled by the if statement is indented to indicate that relationship The use of a consistent indentation style makes a program easier to read and understand The compiler ignores indentation

30 The if-else Statement An else clause can be added to an if statement to make an if-else statement if ( condition ) statement1; else statement2; If the condition is true, statement1 is executed; if the condition is false, statement2 is executed One or the other will be executed, but not both See Wages.java

31 Example: Calculating wages with overtime Variables: hours, pay Algorithm:

32 //******************************************************************** // Wages.java Author: Lewis/Loftus // // Demonstrates the use of an if-else statement. //******************************************************************** import java.text.numberformat; import java.util.scanner; public class Wages { // // Reads the number of hours worked and calculates wages. // public static void main (String[] args) { final double RATE = 8.25; // regular pay rate final int STANDARD = 40; // standard hours in a work week continue Scanner scan = new Scanner (System.in); double pay = 0.0;

33 continue System.out.print ("Enter the number of hours worked: "); int hours = scan.nextint(); System.out.println (); // Pay overtime at "time and a half" if (hours > STANDARD) pay = STANDARD * RATE + (hours-standard) * (RATE * 1.5); else pay = hours * RATE; } } NumberFormat fmt = NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance(); System.out.println ("Gross earnings: " + fmt.format(pay));

34 continue Sample Run System.out.print Enter the ("Enter number the of number hours of worked: hours worked: 46 "); int hours = scan.nextint(); Gross earnings: \$ System.out.println (); // Pay overtime at "time and a half" if (hours > STANDARD) pay = STANDARD * RATE + (hours-standard) * (RATE * 1.5); else pay = hours * RATE; } } NumberFormat fmt = NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance(); System.out.println ("Gross earnings: " + fmt.format(pay));

35 Logic of an if-else statement condition evaluated true false statement1 statement2

36 Block Statements Several statements can be grouped together into a block statement delimited by braces A block statement can be used wherever a statement is called for in the Java syntax rules if (total > MAX) { System.out.println ("Error!!"); errorcount++; }

37 Block Statements The if clause, or the else clause, or both, could govern block statements if (total > MAX) { System.out.println ("Error!!"); errorcount++; } else { System.out.println ("Total: " + total); current = total*2; }

38 Indentation Revisited Remember that indentation is for the human reader, and is ignored by the computer if (total > MAX) System.out.println ("Error!!"); errorcount = errorcount + 1;; Despite what is implied by the indentation, the increment will occur whether the condition is true or not

39 Logical Operators Boolean expressions can also use the following logical operators:! Logical NOT && Logical AND Logical OR They all take boolean operands and produce boolean results Logical NOT is a unary operator (it operates on one operand) Logical AND and logical OR are binary operators (each operates on two operands)

40 Logical NOT The logical NOT operation is also called logical negation or logical complement If some boolean condition a is true, then!a is false; if a is false, then!a is true Logical expressions can be shown using a truth table: a!a true false false true

41 Logical AND and Logical OR The logical AND expression a && b is true if both a and b are true, and false otherwise The logical OR expression a b is true if a or b or both are true, and false otherwise

42 Logical AND and Logical OR A truth table shows all possible true-false combinations of the terms Since && and each have two operands, there are four possible combinations of conditions a and b a b a && b a b true true true true true false false true false true false true false false false false

43 Logical Operators Expressions that use logical operators can form complex conditions if (total < MAX+5 &&!found) System.out.println ("Processing "); All logical operators have lower precedence than the relational operators The! operator has higher precedence than && and

44 Boolean Expressions Specific expressions can be evaluated using truth tables let s try this one: total < MAX found!found total < MAX &&!found false false false true true false true true

45 Quick Check What do the following statements do? if (total!= stock + warehouse) inventoryerror = true; if (found!done) System.out.println("Ok");

46 Boolean Expressions using truth tables let s try this one: found done!done found!done false false false true true false true true

47 How much of a boolean expression do we need to evaluate before determining its value? *** Short-Circuited Operators The processing of && and is short-circuited in cases where the left operand is sufficient to determine the result (the right operand is not evaluated at all) This can be both useful and dangerous! if (count!= 0 && total/count > MAX) System.out.println ("Testing.");

48 Nested if Statements The statement executed as a result of an if or else clause could be another if statement These are called nested if statements An else clause is matched to the last unmatched if (no matter what the indentation implies) Braces can be used to specify the if statement to which an else clause belongs See MinOfThree.java

49 //******************************************************************** // MinOfThree.java Author: Lewis/Loftus // // Demonstrates the use of nested if statements. //******************************************************************** import java.util.scanner; public class MinOfThree { // // Reads three integers from the user and determines the smallest // value. // public static void main (String[] args) { int num1, num2, num3, min = 0; continue Scanner scan = new Scanner (System.in); System.out.println ("Enter three integers: "); num1 = scan.nextint(); num2 = scan.nextint(); num3 = scan.nextint();

50 continue if (num1 < num2) if (num1 < num3) min = num1; else min = num3; else if (num2 < num3) min = num2; else min = num3; } } System.out.println ("Minimum value: " + min);

51 continue if (num1 < num2) if (num1 < num3) min = num1; else min = num3; else if (num2 < num3) min = num2; else min = num3; Sample Run Enter three integers: Minimum value: 69 } } System.out.println ("Minimum value: " + min);

52 Homework Read Sections 5.1, 5.2 pages and (skip coin example in listings 5.3, 5.4) Always do all self-review exercises when you review material Do Exercises EX

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