General Computing Concepts. Coding and Representation. General Computing Concepts. Computing Concepts: Review

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1 Computing Concepts: Review Coding and Representation Computers represent all information in terms of numbers ASCII code: Decimal number 65 represents A RGB: (255,0,0) represents the intense red Computers use binary numbers, not decimal # bits = number of binary digits 8-bit codes are common Use any number between and Byte = 8-bits 1

2 Representation and Quality The more numbers available for a representation, the better it is Example: 2-bit representation Only numbers available are 00, 01, 10, 11 Is this sufficient to adequately representing real-world data? In general, total # available numbers = 2 (#bits) 8-bit code (2 8 = 256 available) 16-bit code (2 16 = 65,536 available) 24-bit code (2 24 = 16,777,216 available) Coding and Representation Digital cameras and scanners often use 24-bit code (R, G, B) = (8-bit, 8-bit, 8-bit) 256 numbers for each primary color 16,777,216 total colors Audio CDs use 16-bit code for each stereo channel 65,536 levels of sound for each channel Memory Needs Information that allows computer to operate For example, monitor & keyboard Information that applications need to operate For example, Microsoft Word Information you need to do your work For example, Word documents Information you need to carry around 2

3 Memory On Motherboard RAM Holds instructions and data while program is running Can be changed by user Need volatile memory ROM Holds special instructions for operation Need it when computer is turned on Cannot be changed by user Need involatile memory Memory On Motherboard CMOS Powered by battery Stores information computer needs when turned on Can be changed by user (not easily) Cache memory Fast, expensive memory placed between CPU and RAM Stores frequently used information for faster availability Memory Secondary Storage Long-term storage for programs, files, and data Can be larger than storage on motherboard Both fixed and removable Magnetic, optical, and solid-state Memory Secondary Storage Need some way to represent binary digits (bits), 0 and 1, in the storage medium Three ways Orientation of magnetic particles Reflectivity of a surface when a laser beam is shined on it Flow of electrical current in transistors 3

4 Memory Magnetic Storage Internal hard drive (usually C:) Fixed Removable magnetic External hard drives Tapes Mainly used for backup of large systems Memory Magnetic Storage Surface of disk coating contains magnetic particles Bits stored by orienting magnetic particles Example: North = 1 South = 0 Bit pattern in picture Memory Optical Storage CD, CD-R, CD-RW, DVD, Blu-ray DVD Read and write with lasers Surface of CD or DVD has flat parts (lands) and bumps (pits) Scanning electron microscope of a CD surface. Memory Optical Storage Pits and lands have different reflectivity Light bouncing from pit interferes with light bouncing from its surroundings Pits have lower reflectivity than land Bits are represented by different reflectivities High reflectivity= 1 Low reflectivity= 0 4

5 Memory Optical Storage Size of laser beam determines how closely pits can be packed. Blu-ray DVDs use a blue laser Blue light has shorter wavelength Pits are smaller and more closely packed. Scientific American, Aug Memory Solid State USB flash drives Compact Flash (CF) cards for digital cameras Contain a large number of transistors Memory Solid State A transistor is a solid The charge of the gate in a transistor determines if current flows or not Current flowing = 1 Current not flowing = 0 5

6 Digitization Requires analog to digital conversion Conversion of a continuous analog signal into a set of numbers Digitization Optical Break continuous image into dots. Intensity of each dot represented by a digital number Digital Camera and Scanner Light strikes CCD sensor Intensity of signal at each pixel is converted to digital values for three channels (R,G,B) Quality: Image Resolution Images are formed as a combination of pixels (dots) Resolution is the number of pixels in the image High resolution = high quality Quality: Image Resolution Scanners Number of pixels per inch (dpi) Digital Cameras Dimensions of sensor in pixels (#pixels wide) x (# pixels high) 6 Mpixel camera sensor = 3000 x 2000 Monitors Dimensions of screen in pixels (#pixels wide) x (# pixels high) Common monitor resolution = 1280 x

7 Quality: Color Depth How many numbers are available to represent intensity of color in each pixel 24-bit (8 bit per channel): (R,G,B) = (256; 256; 256) 2 24 = 16,777, bit (16-bit per channel: (R,G,B) = (65,536; 65,536; 65,536) 2 48 = 281,474,976 Digitization -- Audio Sampling break continuous sound into small samples. Intensity of each sample represented by a binary number. Digitization -- Audio Quality of digitized sound determined by Sampling rate How many samples taken each second Audio CDs: 44,100 Hz Sampling accuracy How many numbers available to represent intensity of each sample 16-bit is good enough for our ears Amount of compression 7

8 Compression Files of digitized sounds or images can be very large Often need to compress them for practical use Images: JPG or GIF files Sounds: MP3 files Compression Patterns and redundancies CBBBBBAAACCCCCCABBBBAAAAACCCCCC Compressed: CB 5 A 3 C 6 AB 4 A 5 C 6 Lossless compression no loss of information. Lossy compression Simple example: Throw away single letters assume they won t matter much Compressed: B 5 A 3 C 6 B 4 A 5 C 6 Information is lost MP3 Compression Both lossless and lossy compression involved Uses patterns and redundancies Drops frequencies we can t hear Uses mathematical algorithms to shrink file even more 8

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