# CHAPTER 10: SOUND AND VIDEO EDITING

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3 Sample Rate Now that you re taking a picture of a moment in time and storing it in bits and bytes, the next question you have to consider is how often do we take that snapshot in time? Should we sample the sound around us 100 times per second? 200 times per second? Thousands of times? The number of times your computer listens and records what it hears per second is referred to as the sample rate khz has been the standard CD quality audio sampling rate for years, and with good reason. This sample rate is tied to the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem. The theorem states (basically) that in order to replicate a sound, the sample frequency (how often the recording device listens ) must be twice the highest frequency of the content being sampled or recorded. So why 44.1? Because humans generally can hear between 20 Hz to 20 khz. Why waste time, space, and resources recording information above 44.1 when most people can t hear tones above a 20 khz frequency? Although humans can t generally hear above 20 khz, that doesn t mean we want to constantly toss out any sound that happens up above there. As you re probably aware, sounds can interact with one another causing distortion, harmonics, intermodulation, and other psychoacoustic effects. Just because you can t hear a sound at 30 khz doesn t mean that a 30 khz sound can t affect stuff down in the 15 khz range where you can hear it! That s why we have the ability to record at higher resolutions and sample rates such as 48, 88.2, and even up to 192 khz. There are many situations (particularly in film where you re dealing with sound more than music) where the content you are recording will benefit from a higher sample rate. Real world translation? A higher sample rate will require a bit more space and a bunch more computing horsepower to manipulate, record, and play back. Recording a small rock band may not 3

4 reap all the benefits of a 192 khz sample rate, but recording a symphonic orchestra at Carnegie Hall certainly might! 4

5 2.2 Analog to digital Analog signals are sampled to create digital data. The sampling rate (how many times a second the analog signal is measured), determines the fidelity of the sound and the size of the digital file. Higher sample rates will mean bigger file sizes but it is not just the number of samples that matter. Each single sample has a bit depth, which is the number of bits of information in each sample. This directly corresponds to the resolution of each sample. Examples of bit depth include Compact Disc Digital Audio, which uses 16 bits per sample and DVD-Audio and Blu-ray Disc, which supports up to 24 bits per sample. This digitisation is carried out by analog-to-digital Conversion (ADC). After you have edited a digital file, the computer will use a digital-to-analog Conversion (DAC) to convert it to a (relatively) smooth analog waveform that drives your speakers. 2.3 Frequency Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. The number of complete waves or oscillations or cycles occurring in unit time (usually one second). The perception of frequency is called pitch. The frequency is the number of peaks and tr5oughs per second and is given as cycles per second Hz; pronounced Hertz. The average human ear can hear sounds as low as 20 Hz and as high as 20 khz ( Hz). This is known as the audible range. - 5

6 2.4 Pitch The frequency of a sound as perceived by the ear. A high pitch sound corresponds to a high frequency sound wave and a low pitch sound corresponds to a low frequency sound wave. We use the word pitch to compare sounds. We perceive higher frequency sounds as higher in pitch. When we work with audio editing software we usually refer to changing the pitch rather than altering the frequency. 6

7 2.5 Amplitude The height of the sound wave reflects the strength or power of the sound. We call this the amplitude. Higher amplitudes result in higher volumes. This is why we call a device that increases volume an amplifier. When an amplifier tries to increase the amplitude beyond its limits, the waveform is clipped. Clipping produces a distortion, which is one of the effects that rock guitarists often use. We will use several effects in our audio editing practice. 2.6 Audio editing What we ve seen in the diagrams so far are very simple waveforms. A waveform is a representation of an audio signal or recording. It lets you see the changes in amplitude against time. Audio editing applications, like Audacity, use waveforms to show how sound was recorded. If the waveform is low, the volume was probably low. If the waveform fills the track, the volume was probably high. Changes in the waveform can be used to spot when certain parts of the sound occur. In this screenshot of one of the practice files, we can see the clock ticks and when the alarm rings. 7

8 When we need to save the file we ve been editing we need to decide which format to use. In theory this should be a simple trade-off between the quality of the recording and the size of the file. It is sometimes more important, however, to consider the eventual use and distribution of the recording Audio formats There are three major groups of audio formats: uncompressed lossless compression Lossy compression. Uncompressed formats like.wav give pure digital sound as recorded. However, the files can be very large. Five minutes of WAV audio can need 40 to 50 mb of storage. Files saved with Lossless compression like.flac files are still the sound as recorded but the compression algorithm allows some parts of the file to be stored as coded data, saving some file space. Files saved with lossy compression like.mp3 have some audio information removed and the data is simplified. This does result in some loss of quality but clever algorithms only remove the parts of the sound that have the least effect on the sound we can hear. The compression of a recording and the decompression for playing back a recording is done by CODECs (coder decoder). CODECs for the common audio formats are usually automatically installed in media applications and extra CODECs for other file types can be downloaded and installed as required. Research Questions: 1. For a digital audio recording, explain what is meant by: a. the sample rate b. the bit depth c. the bit rate. 2. Give an example of when a low sampling rate is acceptable for audio transmission or recording. 3. Explain the difference between stereo and mono audio. 4. For each of the following describe the effect on the size of the digital audio file: a. recording with an increased sample rate b. converting a stereo recording to mono c. saving the file in.mp3 format. 5. Explain the function of a CODEC. 6. Give an example recording format for each of the following: a. an uncompressed audio file b. an audio file recorded with lossless compression c. an audio file recorded with lossy compression. 7. Describe an advantage and a disadvantage for both lossless and lossy compression. 8

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