JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1 Still image compression standard Features

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1 JPEG-2000 Joint Photographic Experts Group ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1 Still image compression standard Features Improved compression efficiency (vs. JPEG) Highly scalable embedded data streams Progressive lossy to lossless compression within a single data stream Arbitrarily crop images in the compressed domain Selectively enhance quality of spatial regions of interest Support for very large images JPEG-2000 Part I (minimum compliant decoder) international standard since December Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 1

2 JPEG 2000 compression Image component Optional tiling DWT Embedded deadzone quantization Bitplane coding R-D optimal code-block truncation bits Subdivision of images into rectangles for independent coding Reversible 5/3 or floating-point 9/7 Daubechies wavelet. Uniform scalar quantization, adjustable deadzone Embedded block coding with optimal truncation (EBCOT) Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 2

3 Partitioning of image subbands into code-blocks Embedded code-block bitstreams Embedded code-block bitstreams Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 3

4 Optimal bit-stream truncation Find optimal truncation points z i through Lagrangian formulation z, z, z,... z z z i i i J J D R min. blocks i i i i z0, z1, z2,... blocks i Equal slope condition for distortion-rate functions D i (R i ) Feasible truncation points lie on convex hull D i (R i ) R i Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 4

5 Embedded deadzone uniform quantizers x=0 8 4 Q0 Q1 4 2 x Q2 2 Supported in JPEG-2000 with general for quantization of wavelet coefficients. Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 5

6 Bit-plane coding for embedded quantization Sign bits Magnitude bit planes MSB LSB Zero magnitude or positive sign bit Non-zero magnitude or negative sign bit Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 6

7 Conditional coding of bit-planes Encoding takes already encoded, more significant bit-planes into account Significant wavelet coefficient: magnitude was outside of deadzone in a previous encoded bit-plane Three primitive coding operations Significance coding: coefficient not yet significant. Arithmetic coding with 9 coding contexts, based on significance of neighbors in same band. Run mode. Sign coding: coefficient just changed from insignificant to significant. Arithmetic coding with 5 coding contexts. Magnitude refinement coding: coefficient is already significant. Arithmetic coding with 3 coding contexts. Adaptive coding: must maintain 18 probability models Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 7

8 Significance/sign/magnitude refinement coding Sign bits Magnitude bit planes MSB LSB Significance coding Magnitude refinement coding Sign coding Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 8

9 Stripe-oriented scanning pattern Stripe Context window Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 9

10 Fractional bit-planes Three passes for each bit-plane Significance Propagation Pass Magnitude Refinement Pass Cleanup Pass Generate additional feasible truncation points for each block D i (R i ) R i Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 10

11 Fractional bit-planes (cont.) 1. Significance Propagation Pass Only encode coefficients that are insignificant possess significant neighbors (within 8-neighborhood, including those just became significant in this pass) 2. Magnitude Refinement Pass Encode all coefficient that were already significant in the previous bit-plane 3. Cleanup Pass Encode all remaining (insignificant) coefficients Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 11

12 JPEG2000 compression results Original Carol Image (512 x 512 Pixels, 24-Bit RGB, Size 786K) Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 12

13 JPEG2000 compression results 75:1, 10.6 Kbyte Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 13

14 JPEG2000 compression results 150:1, 5.3 Kbyte Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 14

15 JPEG2000 compression results 300:1, 2.6 Kbyte Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 15

16 Comparison JPEG vs. JPEG2000 Lenna, 256x256 RGB Baseline JPEG: 4572 bytes Lenna, 256x256 RGB JPEG-2000: 4572 bytes Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 16

17 Comparison JPEG vs. JPEG2000 JPEG with optimized Huffman tables 8268 bytes JPEG bytes Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 17

18 Reading Taubman, Marcellin, Chapter 8, up to section M. W. Marcellin, M. J. Gormish, A. Bilgin, M. P. Boliek, An Overview of JPEG-2000, Proc. Data Compression Conference, pp , March C. Christopoulos, A. Skodas, T. Ebrahimi, The JPEG-2000 Still Image Coding System: An Overview, IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, vol. 46, no. 4, pp , Nov Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression JPEG-2000 no. 18

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