1 Wireless Security and Monitoring Training materials for wireless trainers
2 Goals to understand which security issues are important to consider when designing WiFi networks to be introduced to encryption, how does it works, and why can solve some security problems to understand the problem of key distribution to be able to determine which is the best security configuration for your wireless system 2
3 Why is wireless security a problem? Wireless is a shared medium Attackers are relatively anonymous End users are poorly educated Denial-of-service is very simple Automated malicious attacks are increasingly complex Sophisticated tools are freely available
8 Unintentional users can accidentally choose the wrong network without even realizing it. They may unintentionally reveal information about themselves (passwords, , web page visits, etc.) without realizing that anything is wrong.
9 War Games (1983) starred Matthew Broderick, John Wood, and Ally Sheedy
10 War driving map from WiGLE.net
11 Rogue Access points Access points may simply be installed incorrectly by legitimate users. Someone may want better wireless coverage in their office, or they might find security restrictions on the corporate wireless network too difficult to comply with. By installing an inexpensive consumer access point without permission, users can open the entire network up to potential attacks from the inside. In addition, eavesdroppers who intend to collect data or do harm to the network may intentionally install an access point on your network, providing an effective backdoor.
12 Eavesdroppers By using a passive monitoring tool (such as Kismet), an eavesdropper can log all network data from a great distance away, without ever making their presence known.
13 Malicious Users
14 Basic security considerations Physical security: Is the equipment well protected? Authentication: Who are you really talking to? Privacy: Can communications be intercepted by a third party? How much data do you record about your users? Anonymity: Is it desirable for users to remain anonymous? Accounting: Are some users using too many resources? Do you know when your network is under attack and not simply overburdened?
15 Physical security problems
16 Protecting your wireless network Here are a few security measures that can be used to protect your users and your wireless networks. Closed networks MAC filtering Captive Portals WEP encryption WPA encryption Strong end-to-end encryption
17 Closed Networks By hiding SSID (i.e. not advertising it in beacons), you can prevent your network from being shown in network scan utilities. Advantages: Standard security feature supported by virtually all access points. Unwanted users cannot accidentally choose a closed network from a network list. Disadvantages: Users must know the network name in advance. Closed networks are not easily found in a site survey, and yet they are easily found using passive monitoring tools.
18 MAC filtering A MAC filter may be applied to an access point to control which devices may be permitted to connect. Advantages: Standard security feature supported by virtually all access points. Only devices with a matching MAC address may connect to your network. Disadvantages: MAC tables are inconvenient to maintain. MAC addresses are transmitted in the clear (even when using WEP encryption), and are easily copied and reused.
19 Captive Portals A captive portal is an authentication mechanism useful in cafés, hotels, and other settings where casual user access is required. By using a web browser for authentication, captive portals work with virtually all laptops and operating systems. Captive portals are typically used on open networks with no other authentication methods (such as WEP or MAC filters). Since they do not provide strong encryption, captive portals are not a very good choice for networks that need to be locked down to only allow access from trusted users.
20 Captive portal: capture To begin, a wireless user opens their laptop and selects the network. The computer requests a DHCP lease, which is granted. They then use their web browser to go to any site on the Internet. Internet Captive portal Login:
21 Captive portal: authenticate Instead of receiving the requested page, the user is presented with a login screen. This page can require the user to enter a user name and password, simply click a login button, type in numbers from a pre-paid ticket, or enter any other credentials that the network administrators require. HTTP request waiting Internet User: joe Password: secret Captive portal Authentication service
22 Captive portal: release Once authenticated, the user is permitted to access network resources, and is typically redirected to the site they originally requested. Redirect to Internet Credentials verified. Captive portal Authentication service
23 Popular captive portals These open source captive portals support basic splash pages, authentication to RADIUS, accounting, pre-paid ticketing, and many other features. Chillispot ( WiFi Dog ( m0n0wall ( NoCatSplash (
24 Encryption 101
25 Eavesdropping By passively listening to network data, malicious users can gather valuable private information. Internet Access point Eavesdroppers can watch unencrypted wireless traffic and inject packets, completely controlling the victim s connection.
26 Man-in-the-middle (MITM) The man-in-the-middle effectively controls everything the user sees, and can record and manipulate all traffic. Server Man-in-the-middle User
27 Encryption can help Encryption can help to protect traffic from eavesdroppers. Some access points can attempt to isolate client devices. But without a public key infrastructure, strong encryption alone cannot completely protect against this kind of attack. The tunnel can terminate anywhere on the Internet. Eavesdroppers can watch unencrypted wireless traffic. Internet Access point Wireless traffic is protected by an encrypted tunnel.
28 Encryption basics Encrypting information is easy Key distribution is difficult Unique identification is a challenge with wireless Public key cryptography solves many (but not all) problems Man-in-the-middle is still possible if encryption is used without a public key infrastructure (PKI) No PKI is completely secure
29 Unbreakable encryption: OTP The One-Time Pad (OTP) provides simple and completely unbreakable* encryption. Advantages: No known cryptanalysis technique can attack properly implemented OTP. The math is very simple, so CPU requirements are extremely minimal. Disadvantages: The key is the same length as the data to be encrypted. The key CANNOT be reused without introducing exploitable weaknesses. The key must be securely transmitted to both parties, and completely destroyed after use.
30 Public key cryptography Public Key cryptography is one (partial) solution to the key distribution problem. Step one: Alice and Bob exchange open padlocks through the mail. They keep their keys in their pockets. Bob s Padlock Bob Alice Alice s Padlock
31 Public key cryptography Step two: When Alice wants to send Bob a message, she puts it in a box and locks it with Bob s padlock, then mails it back to him. Bob does the same to send a message to Alice. Since they kept their keys in their pockets, only they can open the locked boxes. Alice s Padlock Bob Alice Bob s Padlock
32 (Wo)Man in the Middle Eve is an evil person who works in the post office. Eve wants to spy on Alice and Bob. She intercepts the unlocked padlocks in step one and replaces them with her own unlocked padlocks, keeping Alice and Bob s original unlocked padlocks. Eve s Padlock Eve Bob s Padlock Bob Alice Alice s Padlock Eve s Padlock
33 (Wo)Man in the Middle Alice and Bob lock their secrets in boxes using Eve s padlocks without realizing it. Eve then intercepts the locked boxes, unlocks them with her key, reads the messages, and locks them up again using Alice and Bob s unlocked padlocks. Alice and Bob have no idea that this has happened. Alice s Padlock Eve Eve s Padlock Bob Alice Eve s Padlock Bob s Padlock
34 PKI (almost) foils Eve Pat is a friend of Alice and Bob who can identify their locks by looking at them. When Alice receives an open padlock apparently from Bob, she calls Pat. Alice will only use the lock if Pat can verify that it really belongs to Bob. Pat Eve Bob s Padlock Bob Alice XEve s Padlock
35 Who can you really trust? Of course, this only works if Pat can be trusted not to be secretly working for Eve. This is the essence of the problem with improperly implemented public key infrastructure. If the PKI is compromised, the whole system can fail catastrophically. Pat Eve Bob s Padlock Bob Alice Eve s Padlock
36 PKI failure: In late January 2001, VeriSign erroneously issued two Class 3 code-signing certificates to someone falsely claiming to represent Microsoft. The certificates were issued in Microsoft's name, specifically "Microsoft Corporation". After issuing the certificates, a routine VeriSign audit uncovered the error in mid-march, about 6 weeks later.
37 PKI failure:
38 WEP Encryption Part of the standard, Wired Equivalent Privacy provides basic shared encryption at layer two. WEP works with nearly all modern WiFi devices. Advantages: Standard security feature supported by virtually all access points. Disadvantages: Shared key, numerous security flaws, incompatible key specification methods, long-term maintenance is impossible on large networks.
39 WEP problems in detail Problems are not with RC4, but with the WEP implementation Incompatible key lengths: 40-bit vs. 64-bit vs. 104-bit vs. 128-bit... Weak IVs (Initialization Vectors) IV reuse (2 24, or 16 million possible IVs) Shared key management is difficult Offline attacks are simple
40 WPA encryption WPA2 (802.11i) is now the standard for protected Wi-Fi access. It uses 802.1x port authentication with the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to provide very strong authentication and encryption. Advantages: Significantly stronger protection than WEP Open standard Verification of clients and access points. Good for campus or office networks Disadvantages: Some vendor interoperability problems, complex configuration, protection only at layer two.
41 WPA-PSK (pre-shared key) PSK stands for Pre-Shared Key. The intent behind WPA-PSK was to provide a simple WPA solution comparable to WEP, but more secure. Pass phrase of 8 to 64 characters While WPA-PSK is stronger than WEP, problems still exist Church of WiFi's WPA2-PSK Rainbow Tables: 1 million common passwords x 1,000 common SSIDs. 40 GB of lookup tables available on DVDs.
42 WPA-TKIP exploits New attacks are constantly released as new methods are discovered. This technique can inject small packets (such as ARP or DNS packets) into a WPA-TKIP network.
43 Strong encryption software Good end-to-end security software should provide strong Authentication, Encryption, and Key Management. Examples include: SSH (Secure Shell) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) OpenVPN PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
44 Encrypted tunnels End-to-end encryption provides protection all the way to the remote end of the connection. The tunnel can terminate anywhere on the Internet. Eavesdroppers can watch unencrypted wireless traffic. Internet Access point Wireless traffic is protected by an encrypted tunnel.
45 SSL encryption SSL is built into many popular Internet programs, including web browsers and clients.
46 SSH tunnels SSH is known for providing command line shell access, but it is also general-purpose TCP tunneling tool and encrypting SOCKS proxy. Internet All traffic sent from SSH server is unencrypted SSH Server SSH listens for a TCP connection on localhost port 3128 All web traffic is encrypted by SSH Web browser uses localhost port 3128 for its proxy
47 OpenVPN OpenVPN is a powerful cross-platform VPN solution. Supports Windows Vista/XP/2000, Linux, BSD, Mac OS X SSL/TLS or shared-key encryption VPN for layer 2 or layer 3 traffic Robust and very flexible: can operate over TCP, UDP, or even SSH!
48 Summary Security is a complex subject with many facets. No security system is successful if it prevents people from effectively using the network. By using strong end-to-end encryption, you can prevent others from using these same tools to attack your networks, and make it safe to use completely untrusted networks (from a public wireless AP all the way to the Internet). By learning how to choose proper WiFi security settings, you can limit the type of attacks that may be done to your network, react to a problem or plan for network growth.
49 Thank you for your attention For more details about the topics presented in this lecture, please see the book Wireless Networking in the Developing World, available as free download in many languages at:
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