2013 Summer Camp: Wireless LAN Security Exercises JMU Cyber Defense Boot Camp

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1 2013 Summer Camp: Wireless LAN Security Exercises 2013 JMU Cyber Defense Boot Camp

2 Questions Have you used a wireless local area network before? At home? At work? Have you configured a wireless AP before? Have you heard these terminologies before? WiFi (Wireless Fidelity) Wireless access point (AP), service set identification (SSID) Hot spots, evil twins WEP, WPA, WPA Summer Camp 2

3 Organization Introduction to wireless LAN Overview of wireless LAN security WEP WPA-PSK WPA2 Exercises Cracking captured WEP traffic 1 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic 2 Cracking captured WEP traffic 3 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic Summer Camp 3

4 Impatient with Background? You can jump to the exercise part (slide 45) now IF you believe that you have all the background 2013 Summer Camp 4

5 Road Map Introduction to wireless LAN Overview of wireless LAN security WEP WPA-PSK WPA2 Exercises Cracking captured WEP traffic 1 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic 2 Cracking captured WEP traffic 3 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic Summer Camp 5

6 Wired Computer Networks It is mature but ` Home Computer Home Computer 1 ` Server 2 (Win2k3) /24 GW (Ubuntu) /24 Computer x ` (in CS 143) Computer y ` (in CS 143) Server 3 (BT5R3) 2013 Summer Camp 6

7 It is mature Wired Computer Network: Inconvenience ` Home Computer Home Computer 1 ` Server 2 (Win2k3) /24 GW (Ubuntu) /24 Computer x ` (in CS 143) Computer y ` (in CS 143) Server 3 (BT5R3) 2013 Summer Camp 7

8 Wireless Would be Nice Summer Camp

9 Hardware? Wireless Access Point (AP) Wireless card (WiFi adapter card) Summer Camp

10 Wireless LAN Topology Access Point 1Independent Basic Service Set (BSS, IBSS): ad hoc mode (independent, peer-to-peer): no access point 2Extended Service Set (ESS): use AP; Infrastructure mode: one access point manages; greater range Summer Camp

11 Typical Wireless LAN Configuration Summer Camp

12 Road Map Introduction to wireless LAN Overview of wireless LAN security WEP WPA-PSK WPA2 Exercises Cracking captured WEP traffic 1 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic 2 Cracking captured WEP traffic 3 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic Summer Camp 12

13 Wireless LAN Insecurity 2013 Summer Camp

14 Attacks Against Wireless LAN Hook to your wireless network and steal your data from your servers Eavesdrop on your wireless channel and steal passwords/secrets in transit 2013 Summer Camp 14

15 Symmetric Key Encryption Dear Bob Tell Albert to get out of there $β ƒϒ%ωλ?}{ gt x Dear Bob Tell Albert to get out of there Eve Alice A symmetric key is a long binary string: Summer Camp 15 Bob

16 WEP Wired-equivalent privacy (WEP) Security based on a shared secret (WEP key) Goals Do not know the WEP key? No association or data transmission Do not know the WEP key? No eavesdropping Do not know the WEP key? No data injection Symmetric-key encryption algorithm: RC4 Implemented on AP Laptop: implemented by hardware 2013 Summer Camp 16

17 WEP: all users share the same key Summer Camp A WEP key is either 40 bits or 104 bits

18 1WEP Configuration on AP Wire your PC to your AP Your PC uses DHCP Check the IP address of your PC ipconfig Open web browser, type in Summer Camp 18

19 WEP Configuration on AP Use the default username and password For Linksys, it is admin/admin 2013 Summer Camp 19

20 2013 Summer Camp 20

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24 2013 Summer Camp 24

25 Your WEP key 2013 Summer Camp 25

26 2WEP Configuration on Laptop Configure your laptop to connect to LionsDen With WEP key 92D3B168BB 2013 Summer Camp 26

27 WEP was Broken 2001 Borisov, Goldberg, Wagner [BGW01] discovered some practical flaws; Arbaugh, Shanker, Wan [ASW01] also observed some flaws Fluhrer, Mantin and Shamir [FMS01] found fundamental flaws Stubblefield, Ioannidis and Rubin implemented the FMS01 attack Rager released WEPCrack on August 12 Airsnort was released Timeline 1999: ISO standard b 1997: IEEE was developed; WEP 2013 Summer Camp 27

28 WEP could not be simply discarded This is an old laptop Its integrated wireless adapter could not simply be upgraded/replaced It has to use RC4 (implemented in the hardware of the integrated wireless card) 2013 Summer Camp 28

29 Short-term Fix: WPA Wifi-Protected Access (WPA) Goal: fix WEP Use the same encryption algorithm RC4 How? Modify the way that packet encryption keys are generated 2013 Summer Camp 29

30 WPA Mode 1: WPA-PSK Pre-shared key (PSK) All users share the same passphrase 2013 Summer Camp 30

31 WPA Mode 2: WPA-Enterprise WPA-enterprise Each user has her/his own passphrase 2013 Summer Camp 31

32 1WPA-PSK Configuration on AP Wire your PC to your AP Your PC uses DHCP Check the IP address of your PC ipconfig Open web browser, type in Summer Camp 32

33 Your WPA- PSK secret 2013 Summer Camp 33

34 2WPA-PSK Configuration on Laptop Configure your laptop to connect to LionsDen With WPA-PSK secret chr1sisc00l 2013 Summer Camp 34

35 WPA-PSK is Weak Too! WPA s data integrity mechanism, Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), is a temporary fix It is vulnerable to more complex attacks WPA-PSK is based on shared secret It may be susceptible to dictionary attacks and brute-force attacks 2013 Summer Camp 35

36 WPA2 It uses a different encryption algorithm: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) More secure, standard It uses a more secure data integrity algorithm CBC-MAC Counter Cipher Mode with Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) Like WPA, WPA2 supports two modes WPA2-PSK WPA2-Enterprise 2013 Summer Camp 36

37 1WPA2-PSK Configuration on AP Wire your PC to your AP Your PC uses DHCP Check the IP address of your PC ipconfig Open web browser, type in Summer Camp 37

38 Your WPA2- PSK secret 2013 Summer Camp 38

39 2WPA2-PSK Configuration on Laptop Configure your laptop to connect to LionsDen With WPA2-PSK secret chr1sisc00l 2013 Summer Camp 39

40 Wireless LAN Security: Summary 2001 Borisov, Goldberg, Wagner [BGW01] discovered some practical flaws; Arbaugh, Shanker, Wan [ASW01] also observed some flaws Fluhrer, Mantin and Shamir [FMS01] found fundamental flaws Stubblefield, Ioannidis and Rubin implemented the FMS01 attack Rager released WEPCrack on August 12 Airsnort was released Timeline TKIP: temporary fix 1999: ISO standard b CCMP: long-term solution 1997: IEEE was developed; WEP Summer Camp

41 Buzzwords: Business vs. Technical WIFI Channel Wireless access point, wireless station (wireless cards) SSID ESSID WEP WPA WPA2 Association/reassociate/dis associate 2013 Summer Camp RC4, TKIP, CCMP AES, CTR, CBC-MAC i x MAC spoofing, MAC filtering Chipsets Managed mode Monitor mode 41

42 BUSINESS PEOPLE WEP ENCRYPTION RC4 Summary INTEGRITY Encrypted CRC WPA-PSK RC4 MIC WPA- Enterprise RC4 MIC WPA2-PSK AES-CTR (CBC-MAC) WPA2- Enterprise 2013 Summer Camp AES-CTR TKIP (CBC-MAC) USER AUTHENTICATION All users share the same key All users share the same key Each user is separately authenticated All users share the same key Each user is separately authenticated home 42

43 BUSINESS PEOPLE WEP ENCRYPTION RC4 Summary INTEGRITY Encrypted CRC WPA-PSK RC4 MIC WPA- Enterprise RC4 MIC WPA2-PSK AES-CTR (CBC-MAC) WPA2- Enterprise 2013 Summer Camp AES-CTR TKIP (CBC-MAC) USER AUTHENTICATION All users share the same key All users share the same key Each user is separately authenticated All users share the same key Each user is separately authenticated home 43

44 How to Find Target AP s MAC Need a computer with wireless support On Windows Netstumbler: freeware; On Linux ifconfig wlan0 down iwconfig wlan0 mode managed sudo iwlist wlan0 scan 2013 Summer Camp 44

45 Road Map Introduction to wireless LAN Overview of wireless LAN security WEP WPA-PSK WPA2 Exercises Cracking captured WEP traffic 1 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic 2 Cracking captured WEP traffic 3 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic Summer Camp 45

46 Step 0 Run Firefox to log into your vcenter server and find your Windows 2003 VM Use the WLAN and Crypto Security VM snapshot 2013 Summer Camp 46

47 Aircrack-ng for Windows (1/2) Download aircrack-ng for Windows Install it NOTE: This software has already been installed on your Windows 2003 VM under the WLAN and Crypto Security VM snapshot 2013 Summer Camp 47

48 Aircrack-ng for Windows (2/2) Run c:\wireless\wireless\aircrack-ng-1.1- win\aircrack-ng-1.1-win\bin\aircrack-ng GUI.exe (You can also run it directly from a shortcut on your Desktop) 2013 Summer Camp 48

49 Exercises In this unit, we will crack some real-world wireless local area networks with traffic captured in files Not live traffic These traffic packets were captured with Wireshark 2013 Summer Camp 49

50 Road Map Introduction to wireless LAN Overview of wireless LAN security WEP WPA-PSK WPA2 Exercises Cracking captured WEP traffic 1 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic 2 Cracking captured WEP traffic 3 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic Summer Camp 50

51 Task : WEP Cracking The target wireless network is using WEP 2013 Summer Camp 51

52 WEP Cracking Steps a Purchase a wireless card that support injection Start airodump-ng to capture the IVs b Select platform to run Aircrack-ng; Backtrack 5 R3 is the best; Ubuntu Use aireplay-ng to do a fake authentication with the access point Start the wireless interface in monitor mode on AP channel Start aireplay-ng in ARP request replay mode Test Wireless Device Packet Injection Run aircrack-ng to obtain the WEP key 2013 Summer Camp 52

53 WEP Cracking Steps with captured a Purchase a wireless card that support injection traffic Start airodump-ng to capture the IVs b Select platform to run Aircrack-ng; Backtrack 5 R3 is the best; Ubuntu Use aireplay-ng to do a fake authentication with the access point Start the wireless interface in monitor mode on AP channel Start aireplay-ng in ARP request replay mode Test Wireless Device Packet Injection Run aircrack-ng to obtain the WEP key 2013 Summer Camp 53

54 Task : WEP Cracking Filename(s) c:\wireless\wireless\wepfile01\wep3-01.cap 2013 Summer Camp 54

55 What did you get? Mine Now, close Aircrack-ng GUI.exe 2013 Summer Camp 55

56 Now What? You can use the cracked WEP key To connect to the target AP To find other vulnerable computers on the network To steal data from the target network 2013 Summer Camp 56

57 Road Map Introduction to wireless LAN Overview of wireless LAN security WEP WPA-PSK WPA2 Exercises Cracking captured WEP traffic 1 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic 2 Cracking captured WEP traffic 3 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic Summer Camp 57

58 Task : WPA-PSK Cracking The target wireless network is using WPA-PSK 2013 Summer Camp 58

59 WPA-PSK Cracking Steps a Purchase a wireless card that support injection use aireplay-ng to deauthenticate the wireless client b Select platform to run Aircrack-ng; Backtrack 5 R3 is the best; Ubuntu Run aircrack-ng to crack the pre-shared key start the wireless interface in monitor mode on AP channel start airdump-ng to capture the Ivs 2013 Summer Camp 59

60 Task : WPA-PSK Cracking with a Purchase a wireless card that support injection captured traffic Steps use aireplay-ng to deauthenticate the wireless client b Select platform to run Aircrack-ng; Backtrack 5 R3 is the best; Ubuntu Run aircrack-ng to crack the pre-shared key start the wireless interface in monitor mode on AP channel start airdump-ng to capture the Ivs 2013 Summer Camp 60

61 Task : WPA-PSK Cracking Filename(s): c:\wireless\wireless\wpa-psk- File02\team1.output.capture.wpa-01.cap Wordlist: c:\wireless\ wireless\ WPA-PSK-File02 \all-edit.lst Do not use all.lst 2013 Summer Camp 61

62 Task : WPA-PSK Cracking Choose index 2 if you get prompted 2013 Summer Camp 62

63 Task : What did you get? Mine This is almost 10 minutes Now, close Aircrack-ng GUI.exe 2013 Summer Camp 63

64 Now What? You can use the cracked WPA-PSK key To connect to the target AP To find other vulnerable computers on the network To steal data from the target network 2013 Summer Camp 64

65 Road Map Introduction to wireless LAN Overview of wireless LAN security WEP WPA-PSK WPA2 Exercises Cracking captured WEP traffic 1 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic 2 Cracking captured WEP traffic 3 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic Summer Camp 65

66 Task : WEP Cracking The target wireless network is using WEP 2013 Summer Camp 66

67 Task : WEP Cracking File 3 Filename(s) c:\wireless\wireless\wepfile03\team4.output.capture-03.cap 2013 Summer Camp 67

68 Task : WEP Cracking File 3 Choose index 2 if you get prompted 2013 Summer Camp 68

69 What did you get? Mine Now, close Aircrack-ng GUI.exe 2013 Summer Camp 69

70 Now What? You can use the cracked WEP key To connect to the target AP To find other vulnerable computers on the network To steal data from the target network 2013 Summer Camp 70

71 Road Map Introduction to wireless LAN Overview of wireless LAN security WEP WPA-PSK WPA2 Exercises Cracking captured WEP traffic 1 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic 2 Cracking captured WEP traffic 3 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic Summer Camp 71

72 Task : WPA-PSK Cracking The target wireless network is using WPA-PSK 2013 Summer Camp 72

73 Task : WPA-PSK Cracking Filename(s) c:\wireless\wireless\wpa-psk- File04\wpa_handshake.pcap Wordlist: c:\wireless\ wireless\ WPA-PSK-File04 \all.lst 2013 Summer Camp 73

74 Task : What did you get? What? 2013 Summer Camp 74

75 Task : WPA-PSK Cracking Advanced 2013 Summer Camp 75

76 Task : What did you get? Mine This is almost 1.5 hours Now, close Aircrack-ng GUI.exe 2013 Summer Camp 76

77 Now What? You can use the cracked WPA-PSK key To connect to the target AP To find other vulnerable computers on the network To steal data from the target network 2013 Summer Camp 77

78 Lesson to protect your wireless LAN? Use WPA2 if you can Definitely no WEP Avoid WPA-PSK if you can Use a long passphrase for WPA2-PSK 8 ~ 63 characters 2013 Summer Camp 78

79 Summary Introduction to wireless LAN Overview of wireless LAN security WEP WPA-PSK WPA2 Exercises Cracking captured WEP traffic 1 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic 2 Cracking captured WEP traffic 3 Crack captured WPA-PSK traffic Summer Camp 79

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