Computer Fundamentals

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1 Computer Fundamentals Learnxpress Study Guide Anand Narayanaswamy

2 Computer Fundamentals Learnxpress Study Guide Printed: September 2014 Author & Publisher Anand Narayanaswamy Production Credits Help & Manual Contact Facebook Learnxpress Anand Narayanaswamy (Author) Twitter Learnxpress Anand Narayanaswamy (Author) Pinterest Learnxpress

3 Computer Fundamentals study guide is a free ebook specially designed to help kids, students, government officials, senior citizens and all beginners who would like to learn computer basics quickly. It teaches the relevant concepts associated with Windows 7 in addition to various built-in system tools. You will also learn the use of advanced concepts such as Windows Flip and Windows Flip 3D. Computer Fundamentals study guide can be used by volunteers, non profit organizations, resident associations, kids, students, libraries and all others who would like to spread computer education among their circles and groups. Please share computer fundamentals study guide among your friends and family circles to help us in spreading computer literacy all over the world. Please us a photo(s) of people(s) reading Computer Fundamentals study guide so that we can promote it across our social media platforms. You can also post your feedback via twitter using following style #computerfundamentals #studyguide #computerfundamentalsstudyguide You can post your comments at I will incorporate your feedback, tweets, photos in the upcoming updates of the study guide.

4 4 Table of Contents Foreword 0 Part I Introduction 5 1 Monitor... 5 Cathode Ray... Tube (CRT) 6 Liquid Crystal... Display (LCD) 6 Light Em itting... Diode (LED) 6 2 Central... Processing Unit (CPU) 7 Hard Drive... 7 External Drives... 8 Processor Motherboard Pow er Supply... Unit (PSU) 11 CPU Cooler Keyboard... and Mouse 11 Printer Scanner Part II Getting Started 1 Booting Operating... System 15 3 Understanding... DOS 15 4 Understanding... Windows 16 5 Folder/Directory... Creation in Windows 17 6 Working... with Files 18 7 Control... Panel 19 8 System... Tools 20 Disk Cleanup Disk Defragm... enter 21 System Restore Advanced... Topics 22 Part III Questions 23 Part IV Summary 23

5 Introduction 1 5 Introduction A computer is a device using which you will be able to create and store documents, information, perform calculations, draw diagrams and much more. A typical computer consist of following components Monitor Central Processing Unit (CPU) Keyboard (for typing) Mouse (for movement and navigation) Power Supply Unit CPU Cooler Printer Scanner External/Portable Hard Drives The above mentioned components are called as hardware. 1.1 Monitor A monitor is a device which displays the content of the work being done with the computer. In case of assembled desktop computer, you have to purchase a monitor separately. An assembled computer involves placing all components inside a big box also called as Cabinet. All the components will be connected to the power supply unit through cables. There is no need to invest for a monitor if you purchase a laptop computer since it comes with a built-in display unit. However, you can purchase a secondary monitor and connect to the laptop if you prefer big viewing area.

6 Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) CRT monitors look big like an old Television set. It consumes huge electricity, emits rays and will be painful to your eyes. If you had purchased a computer during , you should have also purchased a CRT monitor. Old computers will have a big CRT type monitor and processing unit beneath it. If you had worked with CRT monitor, you should have used a screen protector to eliminate Ultra Violet (UV) rays Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) LCD monitors are thin and produce less electricity. It works from the light source produced by thin tubes placed on the backside of the monitor. Initially, LCD monitors were expensive and was available only in square shape. With the evolution of technology, wide screen LCD monitors were invented to prevent neck pain and head discomfort but was costly Light Emitting Diode (LED) LED monitors are light weight, consume very less electricity and look great in home and office environments. They are available only in widescreen shapes which make reading comfortable. It generates very less heat compared to CRT and LCD monitors. Moreover, images and videos rendered by LED monitors looks natural, sharp and crystal clear.

7 Introduction Central Processing Unit (CPU) A CPU is a big black tower shaped container (also called as Cabinet) and the required hardware for operating it are placed inside the unit. It is also called as Desktop Computer. If you open a CPU, you will find the components listed below Hard Drive Floppy Drive (Now obsolete) DVD Drive Processor Motherboard Power Supply Unit (PSU) CPU Cooler The above mentioned items are available separately and assembled together into one single unit. It is also called as 'Assembled Computer' or 'Assembled System' Hard Drive A hard drive is an important component located inside the CPU, where the data such as content, images, videos are stored. Normally, a hard drive spins at around 5400 Revolutions Per Second (RPM). However, advanced drives oriented for desktop computing work at 7200 RPM, which enables faster data processing. Hard drives are available in various GigaBytes (GB) capacities. Nowadays, 1 GB (1000 MB) hard drives are common in both laptops and desktops. However, in desktop computers you will have an option to place more than one hard drives which can be used for various purposes.

8 External Drives Floppy Drive A floppy drive enables you to store valuable data from your hard drive. Imagine, you created a document and want to share it with your friend. You can insert a floppy into the drive and save the file easily. During 1990's, floppies are available in big size. The storage capacity will be less but the floppy itself will be big. The drive using which you read the floppy were also big. They were costly as well during that time. However, floppies were reduced to smaller sizes during period. As of today, floppies and floppy drives are completely out of fashion or obsolete. Laptops doesn't ship with any floppy drives. However, you can make use of an external floppy drive to read data from old floppies. CD Drive A CD is a round sized disc and is used to store large amount of data. A separate drive called CD Drive is required to view the contents inside a CD. While a floppy can store only 1.44 MB of data, a CD will be able to store approximately 700 MB of data. DVD Drive A DVD is also a round sized disc similar to that of CD and is used to store very large amount of data. While a CD can store 700 MB of data, a DVD will be able to store around 3.5 GB (3500 MB) of data. A DVD can even accommodate a whole Windows operating system. That's why, companies such as Microsoft distribute their products in DVDs. Both CD and DVD discs will not deteriorate over the period of time if stored properly. However, there are prone to scratches.

9 Introduction 9 Pen Drive A pen drive is a mini device which has a capacity to store upto 64 GB of data. Generally, pen drives of 8, 16, 32 and 64 GB's are available on the market. The higher the capacity, the more will be its cost. You can save data and put it inside your pocket. Pen Drives will work via your computer USB port. USB stands for Universal Serial Bus and is the port used to read no only pen drives but also external hard drives, smartphones, ipod, iphone, MP3 players and any other USB compatible device. External Hard Drives An external or portable hard drive is a device used to store huge amount of data. Normally, people use external hard drives as a backup for the main hard drive located inside the computer. You just need to insert the portable hard drive into your computer/laptop USB port and it will be automatically connected. A pop-up dialog will be displayed which prompts you to perform the next steps. Just like any other electronic device, a computer hard drive will become unusable, corrupt or fail to function over the period of time. Hence, you should save your valuable data using either a pen drive or an external/portable hard drive on a daily basis so that you will be able to recover lost data in case of any damage.

10 Processor A processor is the core part of a computer. Without a processor, a computer will not function. For instance, if you perform a calculation, processor will compile data and displays output on the monitor. Processors are manufactured by Intel and AMD. Higher the speed of a processor, quicker the performance of computer. If you work with old pentium based computers, you will find it very slow because the processors were weak. Nowadays, we can purchase computers which can work faster due to latest generation of processors such as Corei5 and Corei7. These processors comes with 2 or 4 cores with support for multithreading, which enable you to work with several programs at a time Motherboard Motherboard is a component located inside a computer and it houses processor, cooler and capacitors. It also includes slots for USB ports and sound card. Previously, you need to purchase sound card separately. However, with the advent of latest innovations, sound cards are built into the motherboard itself. However, media enthusiasts invest for high end sound cards separately to get good effect. In case of laptops, motherboard is built into the base. You need not have to purchase any component separately. Nowadays, laptops ships with upto 4 USB ports and desktop computers will have upto 12 USB port depending upon the selected motherboard. Motherboards are manufactured by companies such as Intel, Asus, Gigabyte

11 Introduction Power Supply Unit (PSU) Power Supply Unit also called as PSU is a unit which supplies power to all the components located inside a CPU. It is available in various capacities such as 450W, 650W, 850W and 1000W. This unit will be equipped with an exhaust fan which helps in cooling. If you have a high power processor such as Corei7 then you need a high rated PSU such as 1000W. Laptops are equipped with batteries. Initially, you need to charge the battery for over 3 hours until the charging level reaches 100%. You will then be able to work with the laptop without AC power. Laptops batteries are placed either as an external unit or inside the laptop. If you purchase a laptop with internal battery then you should hand over the laptop to the service center when the battery reaches its end of life. Nowadays, laptop batteries work for a long time of upto 8 hours due to smart processors. The currently available 4'th generation processors consumes less power and provides long lasting battery life CPU Cooler CPU Coolers are mainly used to cool the processor and the components inside the cabinet. Naturally, processors will become hot when it works for a continuous period of time. You need to cool it with coolers so that it can function for a long period of time. These coolers will be equipped with fans which rotate at a fixed period of time. You can either use the cooler provided with the processor package or use third party coolers, which will have bigger fan Keyboard and Mouse If you purchase an assembled system you should also purchase a keyboard and mouse. These items are termed as input devices, with which you provide data to the CPU for processing.

12 12 A Keyboard is used to type text and it looks similar to that of a standard typewriting keyboard. It will have A-Z, 1-9, symbols, navigational arrows, special function keys for performing actions and a separate number pad. If you purchase advanced keyboard, it will have media keys as well. For example, you can activate Windows Media Player directly from the keyboard. The function keys is a significant. For instance, if you need to ask the computer for assistance, you need to click F1 key. Keyboards will also have Up, Down, Delete and End keys. You can also take a picture of your screen using PrtScn key. Keyboards are manufactured by companies such as Microsoft, Logitech and iball. A simple standard keyboard is available for under Rs 500/from stores. A mouse is used for navigational and scrolling purpose. For instance, if you view a 50 page document you need to scroll from page 1. This means you should point the mouse to the scrollbar on the right hand side and go down till you reach the destination. Laptops also include a square shaped navigation system which is also called as TouchPad. It consists of a navigational area and 2 buttons for left and right clicks. However, laptop touchpads are little bit difficult to work with for long time. If you use your laptop for over 2 hours per day, it is advisable to invest for a good quality mouse for comfort. Trackball mouse provide great comfort since you only need to move the big ball using your thumb finger. However, trackball mouse are very costly and not available in India. A laptop is a computer which looks like a notebook. It consists of a display panel and the bottom portion consists of keyboard, DVD drive and required ports for Internet, USB, HDMI, VGA and Power. Generally, laptops (also called as notebook computer) are manufactured and sold by companies such as Dell, HP, Lenovo, Acer

13 Introduction 13 and Asus Printer A printer is a device used to take copies of the content displayed on the monitor. Imagine, you prepare a 10 page school assignment. If you need to share it with your school teacher you should take a printout by placing paper. You should purchase printer separately and establish connectivity with your computer. Ask your computer dealer or the place from where you purchased printer if you don t know how to do this. However, printers ship with detailed instruction manual which will help you to work with it easily. In order to work with the Printer, you need access to two ports (Parallel or USB) on the back of your computer. Nowadays, parallel ports (famous during ) doesn't exist. It is a long port with several pins. However, you can still connect an old printer to your new laptop using Parallel to USB converter cable. You should take prints only using paper available specifically for computer printing. If you use normal paper, your printer will be damaged. Printers work with the help of Cartridges. Normally, there will be two separate cartridges (Black and Color) for each printer. They contain ink which will help you to print content. Over the period of time, the cartridges will become empty and you will need to purchase new units. It all depends upon how much you will print on a daily basis.

14 Scanner A scanner is a device used to scan printed images and documents to your computer. Imagine, you need to share an old print school photo with your friends. You need to open the scanner and place the photo on the specially provided glass surface. You can then perform the scan activity. The scanned photo will be saved as a picture in.jpeg,.png and.gif formats. Nowadays, scanners have the ability to save the document in PDF format that enables you to read the scanned document using any portable device. Nowadays, you will get a single device which can perform printing, scanning and copying. This is called as All-in-One Printer. There is no need to buy printer and scanner separately. You can also take Photostats (Xerox) using the latest printer machines. 2 Getting Started You have now understood the basic terms associated with computers. Let us now study the real working of a computer. 2.1 Booting You now have the required items such as Monitor, CPU and input devices. If you switch on your computer, you will view a black screen. This process is termed as Booting. Booting is the term used for switching on the computer. If you call a service engineer for repair, he will first verify whether the computer boots properly or not. While the computer is switched on, you have the option to access its BIOS interface which will have settings to control the functioning of the system. BIOS stands for Basic Input Output System. Warning - You should not make any modifications to the BIOS without knowledge.

15 Getting Started Operating System In order to work with your computer such as performing calculations, writing and drawing, you require some kind of intermediate channel which is called an Operating System. This is what people call 'Software'. Windows is the most popular operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation. If you purchase an assembled computer, you should purchase Windows separately. You will get a package with DVD, installation key and the required license information. You should not install Windows purchased by others. This is called as Piracy and is a punishable offense. If you are a beginner, your computer dealer will help you to install Windows. They will send a engineer/technician who will install Windows for you. Linux is a free operating system available under the names - Ubuntu and Redhat. Ubuntu is popular and can be downloaded free of cost. Downloading is a term used to get the files from Internet. I will examine Internet in my upcoming Learnxpress study book. If you purchase a laptop you need not have to worry about Operating System, since Windows will be included with it. The company will directly install Windows at the time of its assembling at its factory. You will be able to work with your laptop immediately after the purchase. Few laptop models will not ship with Windows. You should carefully verify the laptop package box to check if Windows has been installed on it. 2.3 Understanding DOS Disk Operating System (DOS) is the first operating system launched by Microsoft before Windows. You have to work within the black screen using commands. You need to learn all the required commands to work with the operating system. For example, in order to create a directory, you need to give a command like as shown below

16 16 The above command will create a new directory/folder named computerbasics. In order to access the newly created directory, you need to provide a command as shown below DOS commands are case sensitive. This means that you need to provide the commands as such without any mistake. If you provide an unknown command, an error will be displayed. 2.4 Understanding Windows Windows Operating System consist of several elements. It is developed by Microsoft Corporation based in Seattle, USA. Bill Gates is the chairman of the company who built the first version of Windows also called as Windows 3.1. The main screen which you will view after switching on the computer is called as Desktop. Windows 8 is the latest version. However, the previously released version, Windows 7 is also very popular. This study guide discusses the concepts based on Windows 7. According to official sources, a developer preview build of Windows 9 will be available on September 30, However, this news is only a rumor and not yet confirmed by Microsoft. A traditional Windows desktop consist of several icons. If you double click the icons, the corresponding program will be opened. Icons will be automatically placed on the desktop upon installation of third party software applications. The Windows Taskbar will have a start menu, a clock which can be modified depending upon your needs. You will also find several small icons which will be pinned (attached) to it. For example, the folder icon with a small square will enable you to

17 Getting Started 17 open and view folders and files available on the computer. In addition to the above elements, Windows operating system consist of recycle bin which can recover lost files. For instance, if you delete a file from the system it will not be completely deleted. The file will be placed inside the recycle bin. You can easily recover the deleted file later on if required. 2.5 Folder/Directory Creation in Windows With the evolution of Windows Operating System, you just open the drive in My Computer, right click and create a new folder. If you need to delete a folder, select it and press Delete button on the keyboard. Double click Computer icon located on the desktop. You can also select Start Menu icon Computer. (Windows 7) Go to Computer section on the left hand side Select an alphabet namely C or E or F. These are called as drives. You will view only one drive if you recently purchased a new laptop. Right Click on an empty area, Select New and then Folder

18 18 You will view a rectangle with the caption - New folder. Provide your own name and select any where on the screen. The new folder will be created. 2.6 Working with Files Each folder consist of files that are created for various purpose. For example, if you create a document the content will be stored/saved as a file. You can either save the file inside a folder/directory or directly inside the drive. However, you will find it difficult to locate a specific file at a later point of time. In this scenario, if you save the file inside a folder/ directory it will be easy for you to locate the file(s) in future. You should not delete files and folders located inside Windows directory. A file can be created via a program included with Windows Operating System. By default, Windows ships with several programs as given below. NotePad (To create documents) WordPad (To create formatted documents)

19 Getting Started 19 Calculator (To perform calculations) Microsoft Paint (To Draw shapes and images) The above mentioned programs can be located inside Start All Programs Accessories. When you save a file (File Save), it will be stored with an extension so that your computer will be able to recognize it. For example, if you create a document using NotePad it will saved as.txt. If your file name is "August_Report" then it will be saved "August_Report.txt". In case of Paint, the relevant file will be saved as.jpg,.png and.gif, which are extensions for images. You should not delete any files with.dll extension. These files are built into Windows and contain codes which are recognizable only by computers. 2.7 Control Panel Windows Operating System consist of a separate program using which you will be able to control the working of your computer. It is collectively called as Control Panel and consist of several modules or applets as described below which takes care of each and every aspect of your computer.

20 20 Sound Programs and Features Date and Time Display User Accounts Windows Firewall Enable you to modify sounds Install/Uninstall Programs Set, Modify Date and Time Modify Resolution and Brightness Add new user Controls Security of your Computer You can also complete the tasks using shortcuts. For example, in order to modify date, you can select the clock located on the right hand side of the Taskbar. Similarly, to modify resolution and wallpaper, you can right click on the desktop and select Personalize option. With the help of Programs and Features Applet, you can easily install/ uninstall third party software applications. Nowadays, majority of programs are installed automatically upon inserting the relevant CD/ DVD. This feature is called as AutoPlay. You need to follow the instructions displayed on the screen. 2.8 System Tools Just like your water tap which requires regular maintenance, your computer/laptop hard drive also requires regular clean-up. Windows 7 ships with several tools suchas Disk Cleanup and Disk Defragmenter for proper maintenance of your computer hard drive Disk Cleanup Disk Cleanup tool will clean the selected drive so that it works without any problems. Locate -> Start All Programs Accessories System Tools Disk Cleanup Press OK to begin.

21 Getting Started Disk Defragmenter Imagine, you purchased a computer/laptop one year back. Over the period of time, you might have installed/uninstalled several programs on it. This will result in wear and tear as fragments inside your hard drive will be scattered all over the drive. Your computer will become slow when the fragment accumulates. This is because Windows will find it difficult to locate them. In order to resolve the above problem, you need to defragment your hard drive once in six months using Disk Defragmenter so that it works at an optimum level. Locate -> Start All Programs Accessories System Tools Disk Defragmenter The higher the capacity of your hard drive, the longer will be the time required to defragment. For exaple, a 320 GB hard drive will deframent quickly than a 1 TB drive. You can either analyze the drive or perform disk defragmentation. However, if you have not worked on a hard drive partition for long time then you may not require defragmentation. That's why, you first need to analyze the disk System Restore Imagine, you installed a software program and your computer fails to boot/start. You need access to your hard drive to copy important data and files. System Restore is the tool included with Windows 7 operating system, which automatically brings back the condition of your computer to a previous stable/working state. You should perform system restore on a monthly or weekly basis. This will create restore points and will help you to restore your computer to a most recent state. If you had purchased a computer/laptop two years back and not yet done the system restore then you don't have recent point available. Hence, you will not be able to bring back the computer to a recent working state.

22 Advanced Topics Windows 7 ships with several advanced features such as Windows Aero, Windows Flip and Windows Flip 3D. Windows Aero, originally introduced in Windows Vista is a major improvement to the Graphical User Interface (GUI) in Windows 7. It provides glass style interfaces, subtle window animations, window colors, Taskbar thumbnails, Aero Peek and Aero Shake. In this section, I will examine the use of Windows Flip and Windows Flip 3D. In order to activate Windows Flip, you should select ALT+TAB keyboard combination. As soon as you click on the keys, a live thumbnails of all the active windows will be displayed in the middle of the screen. On the other hand, Windows Flip 3D creates a three dimensional view of all the open windows. In order to activate Windows Flip 3D, you need to press CTRL+START (With Windows Logo) +TAB key combination. You will view a three dimensional stack of all open windows as shown below Windows Flip 3D in Action You can press TAB key to cycle through all the Windows. As you can observe from the above explanation, Windows Flip and Windows Flip 3D are completely different and you will know its difference only if you practically work with it once. Windows Flip ALT+TAB Windows Flip 3D CTRL+START (With Windows Logo) +TAB Windows 7 is designed to work faster and the above feature will be useful for all users if they understood the logic behind them.

23 Questions 3 23 Questions State whether the following are True or False (1) You can create formatted documents using WordPad (2) 1 GB = 100 MB (3) A CD will be able to store approximately 7000 MB of data. (4) Corei6 is a type of processor from Intel (5) A power supply unit is not required for a desktop computer to function (6) A normal mouse provide great comfort since you only need to move the big ball using your thumb finger (7) It is possible to use a printer without Cartridges (8) BIOS is required for a computer to function properly (9) Ubuntu is a paid operating system (10) DOS is called Disk Operation System (11) Microsoft Paint is available separately (12) If your computer becomes slow you will use Disk Cleanup tool (13) Bill Gates is the founder of Apple (14) You can perform Windows Clip using Windows 7 (15) You can create folders by clicking on the desktop You can easily find out the answers if you read this guide. Please post your questions as comments on the post page and I will answer them. You can also tweet your questions with the 4 Summary You have now learned the basics of computer, associated hardware terms, concept of booting, usage of DOS and Windows. Moreover, you also understood the steps required to create a file in both DOS and Windows.

24 24 Towards the end of the study guide, you also learned the use of various system tools in addition to control panel. The guide also discussed advanced topics such as Windows Flip and Windows Flip 3D.

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