Introduction To Operating System

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Introduction To Operating System"

Transcription

1 1 Introduction To Operating System

2 What is Operating System? An operating system is a program that controls the execution of application and acts as an interface between the user of a computer and the computer hardware. 2

3 What is software? What is System Software? What is Application Software? What is memory? Types of Memory? What is processor? 3

4 System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide and maintain a platform for running application software. Application software, also known as software application, application or app, is computer software designed to help the user to perform a singular or multiple related specific tasks. Typical examples are word processors, spreadsheets, media players and database applications. Memory is the electronic holding place for instructions and data that your computer's microprocessors can reach quickly. A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instruction that drive a computer. The term processor has generally replaced the term central processing unit(cpu). The processor in a personal computer or embedded in small devices is often called a microprocessor. 4

5 5 The speed is measured in Megahertz or MHz. A single MHz is a calculation of 1 million cycles per second (or computer instructions), so if you have a processor running at 2000 MHz, then your computer is running at 2000,000,000 cycles per second, which in more basic terms is the amount of instructions your computer can carry out. Another important abbreviation is Gigahertz or GHz. A single GHz or 1 GHz is the same as 1000 MHz. Sounds a bit confusing, so here is a simple conversion : 1000 MHz (Megahertz) = 1GHz (Gigahertz) = 1000,000,000 Cycles per second (or computer instructions).

6 Introduction Amodern computerconsistsone ormoreprocessor,main memory, disks, printers, a keyboard, a display, network interface and various other input/output(i/o) devices. Typically complex system. Managing all these components and using them optimally is a very challenging job. For this reason, computers are equipped with a layer of software called the operating system. Job of OS is to provide user programs with a better, simpler, cleaner, model of the computer and to handle managing all the resources. 6

7 Most users will have had some experience with different OS. Such as Windows, Linux( we will learn in current semester), Mac. Appearance will be different of each OS but functionality will remain almost same. Like accessing , web browser, read/ write docs. The program that users interact with, usually called Shell when it is text based and the GUI(Graphical User Interface) Actually icon on desktop, it is not part of Operating system but with help of icons to get its work done. 7

8 Web Browser Reader Music Player User Mode Software User Interface program Kernel Mode Operating System Hardware 8

9 In fig. we can see hardware at bottom, it consists of chips, boards, disks, a keyboard, a monitor, and many more. On the top of hardware is software. Computers have two modes of operations: Kernel mode and user mode. The OS is most fundamental piece of software and runs in Kernel mode(supervisor mode). In this mode, it has complete access to all the hardware and can execute any instruction the machine is capable of executing. Rest of software will run in User node. 9

10 The user interface program, shell or GUI, is the lowest level of user node software, and allows the user to start other program, such as web browser, reader, or music player. An important difference between the OS and normal software(user node) is that if a user does not like a particular reader, he or she is free to get a different one or write his own. If he choose to write, he is not free to write his own clock interrupt handler, which is part of OS and is protected by hardware against attempts by users to modify. That means user can not modify any code. 10

11 In many system there are programs that run in user mode but after all it is helping to OS or perform privileged functions. For example, you want to change your password of any application. This application is not part of OS and also not run in Kernel mode. But it carries out a sensitive function and has to be protected in a special way. In some system, it is considered to be the OS(file system) and run in user space. Some times it is very hard to draw a boundary because some program run in Kernel mode and some in User mode. 11

12 Operating System differ from user program in ways other than where they reside. They are very large, huge, complex, and longlived. The source code of OS like Linux or Windows is about more than five million lines of Code. They are very hard to write and having written on, the owner is not happy to throw and start to again because it takes long time. 12

13 Operating System as a UI(User Interface) Every General purpose computer consists of the hardware, OS, System program, application programs. The hardware consists of memory, CPU, ALU,I/O devices, peripheral device and storage device. System program consists of compilers, loaders, editors. OS etc. The application program consists of business program, data base program. 13

14 Users Editor Loader Compiler Application and Utilities Operating System Computer Hardware 14

15 15 Every computer must have an OS to run other programs. The Operating system control and co-ordinates the use of the hardware among the various system programs and application program for a various users. It simply provides an environment which other program can do useful work. The Operating system is a set of special program that run on a computer system that allows it to work properly. It perform basic task such as recognizing input from the keyboard, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, sending output to the display screen and controlling devices.

16 Purpose of OS OS is designed to serve two basic purposes: (1). It control the allocation and use of the computing system s resources among the various users and disks. (2). It provides an interface between the computer hardware and the programmer that simplifies and makes feasible for coding, creation, debugging of application programs. 16

17 OS support tasks 1. Provides the facilities to create, modification of program and data files using an editor. 2. Access to the compiler for translating the user program from high level language to machine language. 3. Provide a loader program to move the compiled program code to computer s memory for execution. 4. Provide routings that handle the details of I/O programming. 17

18 Operating System as Resource Manager( GTU, 4 Marks) Acomputerisasetofresourcesforthemovement,storage and processing of data and for the control of these function. The OS is responsible for managing these resource. Main resources that are managed by the operating system. A portion of the operating system is in main memory. This includes the Kernel, which contains the most frequently used functions in operating system and at a given time, other portions of OS currently in use. 18

19 I/O devices, printers, Keyboard etc I/O Controller Operating System Software I/O Controller I/O Controller Processor Processor O/S Programs Data 19

20 Main resource that are managed by the operating system. A portion of the operating system is in main memory. This includes the Kernel, which contains the most frequently used function in the operating system and at a given time, other portion of the OS currently in use. The remainder of main memory contains other user program and data. The allocation of main memory is controlled by the OS and memory management hardware in the processor. The operating system decides when I/O device can be used by a program in execution and controls the access to and use of files. 20

21 Evolution Of Operating System An operating system may process its workload serially or concurrently. That is resource of the computer system may be dedicated to a single program until its completion or they may be dynamically reassigned among a collection of active program in different stages of execution. 21

22 History of Operating System The history of OS is inextricably linked with history and development of various generation of computer system. (1) Zeroth Generation-Mechanical Parts (2) First Generation( )-Vacuum Tubes (3) Second Generation( )- Transistor (4) Third Generation( )-Integrated Circuits (5) Fifth Generation(1980-Present)- Large Scale Integration 22

23 Zeroth Generation The first digital computer was designed by Charles Babbage. It had a mechanical design where wheels, gears, cogs etc. This computer was slow and unreliable, this design could not really become very popular. There was no question of any OS of any kind of this machine. 23

24 First Generation After few years, a solution evolved which was electronic rather than mechanical. These machines were huge and their continued use generated a great deal of heat. The vacuum tubes also used to get burnt very fast. For one computer to run, at least 10,000 to 20,000 tubes could be wasted. The programming was done only in machine language so that is not easy for normal people at this time. And also, this was neither an assembly language nor any higher level language. So it was not friendly to both the users and programmers. 24

25 25 Vacuum Tubes

26 26 Osaka University Vacuum tube computer

27 Second Generation: Transistor and Batch System The introduction of the transistor in the mid-1950s changed picture. Computer become reliable and small in size. For first time, there was a clear separation between designers, programmers, analyst, operators and maintenance personnel. These machines now called mainframes, it locked in air conditioned rooms by staff or professional operator to run them. Large companies, major government or universities can afford the multimillion dollar computer. 27

28 To run a Job(i.e. program or set of programs), a programmer will write a program first( on paper or FORTAN[Formula Translating System] or assembler), then punch it on cards. He/she would then bring the card deck down to input room and hand it to one of the operators and wait until the output was ready. When the computer finished whatever job it was currently running, an operator will go to the printer and tear off the o/p and carry to the output room, so that programmer can collect output later. Programmer take one of the card decks that had been bought from the input room and read it in. If the FORTRAN compiler was needed, the operator have to get it from a file cabinet and read it in. Much computer time was wasted while operators were walking around the machine room. 28

29 Spooling Acronym for simultaneous peripheral operation on line. Spooling refers to putting jobs in a buffer, a special area in memory or on a disk where device can access them when it is ready. Spooling is useful because device access data at different rates. The buffer provides a waiting station where data can rest while the slower device catches up. Computer can perform I/O in parallel with computation, it becomes possible to have the computer read a deck of cards to a tape, drum or disk and to write out to a tape printer while it was computing, this process is called spooling. 29

30 The most common spooling application is print spooling. In print spooling, documents are loaded into a buffer and then printer pulls them off the buffer at its own rate. Spooling is also used for processing data at remote sites. The CPU sends the data via communication path to a remote printer. Spooling overlaps the I/O of one job with the computation of other jobs. one difficulty with simple batch system is that the computer still needs to read the deck of cards before it can begin to execute job. This means that the CPU is idle during these relatively slow operations. 30

31 Advantages of Spooling The spooling operation uses a disk as a very large buffer. Spooling is however capable of overlapping I/O operation of one job with processor operations for another job 31

32 OS Services An operating system provides services to programs and to the users of those programs. It provide an environment for the execution of programs. The services provided by one operating system is different than other operating system. Operating system makes the programming tasks easier. The common services provided by the operating system is listed. 32

33 OS Services Types of services that an operating system provides for reading and writing records.these services fall in the category. Information Management(IM). From systems programmer s point of view, the operating system can be considered to be a collection of many such callable programs or services categorized under three major heads Information Management(IM). Process Management(PM). Memory Management(MM). 33

34 Types of OS (1) Mainframe Operating System Mainframe computers differ from personal computers in terms of their I/O capacity. A mainframe with 1000 disks and millions of gigabytes of data. Mainframe are also making something of a comeback as high-end web servers, servers for large-scale electronic commerce sites and servers for business to business transaction. 40

35 The operating system for mainframes are heavily oriented toward processing many jobs at once, most of which need huge amount of I/O. They typically offer three kind of service Batch processing Transaction processing Timesharing processing 41

36 A batch system is one that processes routing jobs without any interactive user present. Claim processing in an insurance company or sales reporting for chain of store is typically done in batch mode. Transaction processing system handle large numbers of small requests, for example, check processing at a bank or airline reservation. Each unit of work is small, but the system must handle hundred or thousands per second. Timesharing systems allow multiple remote users to run jobs on computer at once, such as querying a big database. 42

37 Server Operating Systems Server operating system runs on servers, which are either very large personal computers, workstation or mainframes. They serve multiple users at once over a network and allow the user to share hardware and software resources. Servers can provide print service, file service or web service. Internet providers run many server machines to support their customers and websites use servers to store the WebPages and handle the incoming requests. Example of server OS are Solaris, Linux,Windows server 200x. 43

38 Multiprocessor OS To connect multiple CPU into a single system depending on how they are connected and what is shared, these systems are called parallel computers, multicomputer, or multiprocessors. They need special operating system with special features for communication, connectivity and consistency. In recent time, multicore chips for personal computers, even conventional desktop and notebook operating system are starting to deal with at least small scale multiprocessors and the number cores is likely to day by day. 44

39 Personal computer OS Personal computer OS job is to provide a good interface to single user. Modern operating system support multiprogramming support dozens of programs started up at boot time. They are widely used for word processing, spreadsheet and internet access. Examples of Personal computer OS are Window 98, Window 2000, Linux etc. Little bit training or introduction require for using personal computer operating system. 45

40 Real time OS Real time OS characterized by having time as a key parameter. For example, in industrial process control system, real time computer have to collect data about the production process and use it to control machine in factory. 46

41 Embedded OS Continuing on down to smaller and smaller systems, we come to palmtop computers and embedded systems. A palmtop or PDA(personal Digital Assistant) is a small computer that fits in pocket and perform little function such as accessing electronic access site and memo pad Embedded systems run on the computers that control devices that are not generally thought of as computers, such as TV sets, microwave ovens, and mobile telephones. These often have some characteristics of real-time systems but also have size, memory, and power restrictions that make them special. Examples of such operating systems are PalmOS and Windows CE (Consumer Electronics). 47

42 Smart Card OS The smallest operating systems run on smart cards, which are credit card-sized devices containing a CPU chip. They have very severe processing power and memory constraints. Some of them can handle only a single function, such as electronic payments, but others can handle multiple functions on the same smart card. Often these are proprietary systems. 48

HIGHER SECONDARY FIRST YEAR 2 MARK & 5 MARK NOTES CHAPTER 1 1. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER

HIGHER SECONDARY FIRST YEAR 2 MARK & 5 MARK NOTES CHAPTER 1 1. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER 1. What is computer? CHAPTER 1 1. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER A computer is an electronic machine, capable of performing basic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc. The computer

More information

OPERATING SYSTEM. Functions of Operating System:

OPERATING SYSTEM. Functions of Operating System: OPERATING SYSTEM Introduction: An operating system (commonly abbreviated to either OS or O/S) is an interface between hardware and user. OS is responsible for the management and coordination of activities

More information

OPERATING SYSTEMS. Prescribed Text Book Operating System Principles, Seventh Edition By Abraham Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin and Greg Gagne

OPERATING SYSTEMS. Prescribed Text Book Operating System Principles, Seventh Edition By Abraham Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin and Greg Gagne OPERATING SYSTEMS Prescribed Text Book Operating System Principles, Seventh Edition By Abraham Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin and Greg Gagne OVERVIEW An operating system is a program that manages the

More information

Module 1: Introduction

Module 1: Introduction Module 1: Introduction What is an operating system? Simple Batch Systems Multiprogramming Batched Systems Time-Sharing Systems Personal-Computer Systems Parallel Systems Distributed Systems Real-Time Systems

More information

Introduction to Operating System. Dr. Aarti Singh Professor MMICT&BM MMU

Introduction to Operating System. Dr. Aarti Singh Professor MMICT&BM MMU Introduction to Operating System Dr. Aarti Singh Professor MMICT&BM MMU Contents Today's Topic: Introduction to Operating Systems We will learn 1. What is Operating System? 2. What OS does? 3. Structure

More information

UNIT I OPERATING SYSTEMS OVERVIEW

UNIT I OPERATING SYSTEMS OVERVIEW UNIT I OPERATING SYSTEMS OVERVIEW Computer System Overview-Basic Elements, Instruction Execution, Interrupts, Memory Hierarchy, Cache Memory, Direct Memory Access, Multiprocessor and Multicore Organization.

More information

Introduction to Operating Systems

Introduction to Operating Systems Introduction to Operating Systems Jinkyu Jeong (jinkyu@skku.edu) Computer Systems Laboratory Sungkyunkwan University http://csl.skku.edu EEE3052: Introduction to Operating Systems, Fall 2017, Jinkyu Jeong

More information

CSC 170 Introduction to Computers and Their Applications. Computers

CSC 170 Introduction to Computers and Their Applications. Computers CSC 170 Introduction to Computers and Their Applications Lecture #4 Digital Devices Computers At its core, a computer is a multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces

More information

Introduction to Operating Systems. Jin-Soo Kim Computer Systems Laboratory Sungkyunkwan University

Introduction to Operating Systems. Jin-Soo Kim Computer Systems Laboratory Sungkyunkwan University Introduction to Operating Systems Jin-Soo Kim (jinsookim@skku.edu) Computer Systems Laboratory Sungkyunkwan University http://csl.skku.edu Why OS? 2 What is an OS? Software that converts hardware into

More information

Module 1: Introduction. What is an Operating System?

Module 1: Introduction. What is an Operating System? Module 1: Introduction What is an operating system? Simple Batch Systems Multiprogramming Batched Systems Time-Sharing Systems Personal-Computer Systems Parallel Systems Distributed Systems Real-Time Systems

More information

Virtual Machines WHEN YOU FINISH READING THIS CHAPTER YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

Virtual Machines WHEN YOU FINISH READING THIS CHAPTER YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: C H A P T E R 1 9 Virtual Machines WHEN YOU FINISH READING THIS CHAPTER YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: Briefly describe the ideal program development environment. Distinguish between virtual and real. Briefly

More information

Chapter 8 Operating Systems and Utility Programs

Chapter 8 Operating Systems and Utility Programs Chapter 8 Operating Systems and Utility Programs Chapter 8 Objectives Identify the types of system software Summarize the startup process on a personal computer Summarize the features of several stand-alone

More information

The First Operating System Was Human

The First Operating System Was Human The First Operating System Was Human CS 333 Professor Karavanic Lecture 1 1. What is an Operating System? Historical View 2. Course Information 3. What is an Operating System? Operating Systems Goals and

More information

Operating Systems: Overview and Introduction

Operating Systems: Overview and Introduction Operating Systems: Overview and Introduction Announcements: Assignment is assigned Easy, steep learning curve, fun!! Need to register for CCnet Midterm & final are CLOSED BOOK What are the Objectives of

More information

Multiprogramming. Evolution of OS. Today. Comp 104: Operating Systems Concepts 28/01/2013. Processes Management Scheduling & Resource Allocation

Multiprogramming. Evolution of OS. Today. Comp 104: Operating Systems Concepts 28/01/2013. Processes Management Scheduling & Resource Allocation Comp 104: Operating Systems Concepts Management Scheduling & Resource Allocation Today OS evolution Introduction to processes OS structure 1 2 Evolution of OS Largely driven by desire to do something useful

More information

Second Generations Computers( )

Second Generations Computers( ) Second Generations Computers(1954-1962) Second Generations Computers(1954-1962) The invention of the transistor greatly changed the computer's development in 1948. The transistor replaced the large, cumbersome

More information

Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. Objectives. Operating System Services

Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. Objectives. Operating System Services Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Operating System Services User Operating System Interface System Calls Types of System Calls System Programs Operating System

More information

OPERATING SYSTEMS & UTILITY PROGRAMS

OPERATING SYSTEMS & UTILITY PROGRAMS OPERATING SYSTEMS & UTILITY PROGRAMS System Software System software consists of the programs that control the operations of the computer and its devices. Functions that system software performs include:

More information

Introduction. Operating Systems. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction

Introduction. Operating Systems. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction Operating Systems User OS Kernel & Device Drivers Interface Programs Instructor Brian Mitchell - Brian bmitchel@mcs.drexel.edu www.mcs.drexel.edu/~bmitchel TA - To Be Announced Course Information MCS720

More information

Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. Operating System Concepts Essentials 8 th Edition

Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. Operating System Concepts Essentials 8 th Edition Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Operating System Concepts Essentials 8 th Edition Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2011 Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Operating System Services User Operating

More information

Chapter 2: Operating-System

Chapter 2: Operating-System Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Operating System Services! User Operating System Interface! System Calls! Types of System Calls! System Programs! Operating

More information

Types of Computers. Computer Technology (S1 Obj 1-1)

Types of Computers. Computer Technology (S1 Obj 1-1) Types of Computers Computer Technology (S1 Obj 1-1) Introduction There are many different types of computers available today. They are categorized into different types depending on their size and processing

More information

Terminology, Types of Computers & Computer Hardware

Terminology, Types of Computers & Computer Hardware Terminology, Types of Computers & Computer Hardware Basic Terminology 1.Computer A device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output, all according to a series of stored instructions.

More information

Great Inventions written by Bob Barton

Great Inventions written by Bob Barton COMPUTER Great Inventions written by Bob Barton Computers Computers help society function in many vital ways, often without our being aware of them. Computers control traffic lights and factory operations.

More information

Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles. Chapter 2 Operating System Overview Seventh Edition By William Stallings

Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles. Chapter 2 Operating System Overview Seventh Edition By William Stallings Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles Chapter 2 Operating System Overview Seventh Edition By William Stallings Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles Operating systems are those

More information

Chapter 8 Operating Systems and Utility Programs أ.أمل زهران

Chapter 8 Operating Systems and Utility Programs أ.أمل زهران Chapter 8 Operating Systems and Utility Programs Chapter 8 Objectives Identify the types of system software Summarize the startup process on a personal computer Summarize the features of several stand-alone

More information

Introduction to Computers. Joslyn A. Smith

Introduction to Computers. Joslyn A. Smith Introduction to Computers Joslyn A. Smith March 9, 2010 5/18/2011 1 What is a Computer? An electronic device that has the capability of performing the following tasks: Responds to input. Processes the

More information

Objectives. Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. 2.1 Operating System Services

Objectives. Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. 2.1 Operating System Services Objectives Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures To describe the services an operating system provides to users, processes, and other systems To discuss the various ways of structuring an operating system

More information

Operating System Services

Operating System Services CSE325 Principles of Operating Systems Operating System Services David Duggan dduggan@sandia.gov January 22, 2013 Reading Assignment 3 Chapter 3, due 01/29 1/23/13 CSE325 - OS Services 2 What Categories

More information

CMSC131. Hardware and Software. Hardware

CMSC131. Hardware and Software. Hardware CMSC131 Hardware and Software Hardware Hardware is what makes up the physical machine. Two of the same type of machines can have different brands of hardware used to build them. eg : Hayes Modem -vs- US

More information

Characteristics of Computers

Characteristics of Computers The word computer comes from word compute, which means to calculate. A computer is a programmable machine (or more precisely, a programmable sequential state machine) that operates on data and is used

More information

Learning Objectives. In this chapter you will learn about:

Learning Objectives. In this chapter you will learn about: Ref Page Slide 1/17 Learning Objectives In this chapter you will learn about: Computer Data processing Characteristic features of computers Computers evolution to their present form Computer generations

More information

Welcome to CSE 4300! Spring 2018

Welcome to CSE 4300! Spring 2018 Welcome to CSE 4300! Spring 2018 Today, we will see. Course information Personnel Policy Schedule Grading Course overview Instructor and TA Instructor: Song Han Instructor email: song.han@uconn.edu Office:

More information

ECE397A Operating Systems. Chapter 1: Introduction

ECE397A Operating Systems. Chapter 1: Introduction ECE397A Operating Systems Welcome! Instructor: Professor Csaba Andras Moritz Class webpage: http://www.ecs.umass.edu/ece/andras/courses/ece397 Instructors webpage: http://www.ecs.umass.edu/ece/andras 3

More information

Topics. Operating System I. What is an Operating System? Let s Get Started! What is an Operating System? OS History.

Topics. Operating System I. What is an Operating System? Let s Get Started! What is an Operating System? OS History. Topics Operating System I What is an OS? OS History OS Concepts OS Structures Introduction Let s Get Started! What is an Operating System? What are some OSes you know? Pick an OS you know: What are some

More information

Part 1: Computer and Information Literacy

Part 1: Computer and Information Literacy What is Computer? Understand Computers Part 1: Computer and Information Literacy Computer is an electronic devices that under a program s direction and control, perform four basic operations: Input, Processing,

More information

Overview of Operating Systems

Overview of Operating Systems Lecture Outline Overview of Operating Systems Instructor: Dr. Tongping Liu Thank Dr. Dakai Zhu and Dr. Palden Lama for providing their slides. 1 2 Lecture Outline Von Neumann Architecture 3 This describes

More information

Memory Layout for a Simple Batch System

Memory Layout for a Simple Batch System G. S. Mandal s MARATHWADA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Affiliated to Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada Universtiy, Aurangabad. Department of Computer Science & Engineering Third Year Engineering Academic Year:

More information

CSCA0201 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTING. Chapter 6 Operating Systems

CSCA0201 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTING. Chapter 6 Operating Systems CSCA0201 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTING Chapter 6 Operating Systems 1 1. Operating Systems 2. Types of Operating System 3. Major Functions 4. User Interface 5. Examples of Operating System 2 Operating Systems

More information

Fundamental of digital computer

Fundamental of digital computer Introduction to computer:- Fundamental of digital computer A computer is an electronic device that has the ability to accept data, store data, perform mathematical and logical operations, and report the

More information

Parallelism and Concurrency. COS 326 David Walker Princeton University

Parallelism and Concurrency. COS 326 David Walker Princeton University Parallelism and Concurrency COS 326 David Walker Princeton University Parallelism What is it? Today's technology trends. How can we take advantage of it? Why is it so much harder to program? Some preliminary

More information

Computer Fundamentals

Computer Fundamentals Computer Fundamentals Computers have made great inroads in our everyday life and thinking. They are put to use for all sorts of application ranging from complex calculations in the field or frontline research,

More information

Introduction to Computer Science. Polly Huang NTU EE

Introduction to Computer Science. Polly Huang NTU EE Introduction to Computer Science Polly Huang NTU EE http://homepage.ntu.edu.tw/~pollyhuang pollyhuang@ntu.edu.tw Polly Huang, NTU EE Operating System 1 Chapter 3 Operating Systems Polly Huang, NTU EE Operating

More information

Topics. Operating System. What is an Operating System? Let s Get Started! What is an Operating System? Where in the Book are we?

Topics. Operating System. What is an Operating System? Let s Get Started! What is an Operating System? Where in the Book are we? Topics Operating System What is an OS? OS History OS Concepts OS Structures Introduction Let s Get Started! What is an Operating System? What are some OSes you know? Guess if you are not sure Pick an OS

More information

Chapter 2 Operating System Overview

Chapter 2 Operating System Overview True / False Questions: Chapter 2 Operating System Overview 1. T / F An operating system controls the execution of applications and acts as an interface between applications and the computer hardware.

More information

Lecture 2 - Fundamental Concepts

Lecture 2 - Fundamental Concepts Lecture 2 - Fundamental Concepts Instructor : Bibhas Ghoshal (bibhas.ghoshal@iiita.ac.in) Autumn Semester, 2015 Bibhas Ghoshal IOSY 332C & IOPS 332C: OS Autumn Semester, 2015 1 / 43 Lecture Outline Operating

More information

1. Restarting a computer which is already running is referred to as

1. Restarting a computer which is already running is referred to as Computer Knowledge 1. Restarting a computer which is already running is referred to as (1) booting (2) starting (3) rebooting (4) second-starting 2. If you open a menu and then decide you don t want to

More information

OPERATING SYSTEMS UNIT - 1

OPERATING SYSTEMS UNIT - 1 OPERATING SYSTEMS UNIT - 1 Syllabus UNIT I FUNDAMENTALS Introduction: Mainframe systems Desktop Systems Multiprocessor Systems Distributed Systems Clustered Systems Real Time Systems Handheld Systems -

More information

COURSE OVERVIEW. Introduction to Computer Engineering 2015 Spring by Euiseong Seo

COURSE OVERVIEW. Introduction to Computer Engineering 2015 Spring by Euiseong Seo COURSE OVERVIEW Introduction to Computer Engineering 2015 Spring by Euiseong Seo Course Objectives Introduction to computer engineering For computer engineer-wannabe For students studying other fields

More information

System Programming Loaders and Linkers

System Programming Loaders and Linkers System Programming Loaders and Linkers Introduction: In this chapter we will understand the concept of linking and loading. As discussed earlier the source program is converted to object program by assembler.

More information

Introduction to Computer World Fall 2016

Introduction to Computer World Fall 2016 Introduction to Computer World Fall 2016 Introduction to Information and Communication Technologies CSD 102 Email: mehwish.fatima@ciitlahore.edu.pk Website: https://sites.google.com/a/ciitlahore.edu.pk/ict/

More information

Computer Systems. Hardware, Software and Layers of Abstraction

Computer Systems. Hardware, Software and Layers of Abstraction Computer Systems Hardware, Software and Layers of Abstraction 1 Automation & Computers Fundamental question of computer science: What can be automated? Computers automate processing of information Computer

More information

Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming. CSE 2312 Lecture 2 Introduction to Computers

Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming. CSE 2312 Lecture 2 Introduction to Computers Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming CSE 2312 Lecture 2 Introduction to Computers 1 Languages, Levels, Virtual Machines A multilevel machine 2 Contemporary Multilevel Machines A six-level

More information

1.2.1 Electronic computers based on digital switching

1.2.1 Electronic computers based on digital switching 1.2.1 Electronic computers based on digital switching The first true digital electronic computer was created by John V Atanasoff during 1937-1942. The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (called ABC figure 2.8) was

More information

Some popular Operating Systems include Linux, Unix, Windows, MS-DOS, Android, etc.

Some popular Operating Systems include Linux, Unix, Windows, MS-DOS, Android, etc. 1.1 Operating System Definition An Operating System (OS) is an interface between a computer user and computer hardware. An operating system is a software which performs all the basic tasks like file management,

More information

Chapter 5 - Input / Output

Chapter 5 - Input / Output Chapter 5 - Input / Output Luis Tarrataca luis.tarrataca@gmail.com CEFET-RJ L. Tarrataca Chapter 5 - Input / Output 1 / 90 1 Motivation 2 Principle of I/O Hardware I/O Devices Device Controllers Memory-Mapped

More information

Four Components of a Computer System

Four Components of a Computer System Four Components of a Computer System Operating System Concepts Essentials 2nd Edition 1.1 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2013 Operating System Definition OS is a resource allocator Manages all resources

More information

Today. Operating System Evolution. CSCI 4061 Introduction to Operating Systems. Gen 1: Mono-programming ( ) OS Evolution Unix Overview

Today. Operating System Evolution. CSCI 4061 Introduction to Operating Systems. Gen 1: Mono-programming ( ) OS Evolution Unix Overview Today CSCI 4061 Introduction to s Instructor: Abhishek Chandra OS Evolution Unix Overview Unix Structure Shells and Utilities Calls and APIs 2 Evolution How did the OS evolve? Generation 1: Mono-programming

More information

Introduction. CS3026 Operating Systems Lecture 01

Introduction. CS3026 Operating Systems Lecture 01 Introduction CS3026 Operating Systems Lecture 01 One or more CPUs Device controllers (I/O modules) Memory Bus Operating system? Computer System What is an Operating System An Operating System is a program

More information

Welcome to COSC Introduction to Computer Science

Welcome to COSC Introduction to Computer Science Welcome to COSC 1302 Introduction to Computer Science (Syllabus) Chapter 1 The Big Picture 1.1 Computing Systems Hardware The physical elements of a computing system (printer, circuit boards, wires, keyboard

More information

Definition. A series of detailed instructions that control the operation of a computer system. are developed by computer programmers

Definition. A series of detailed instructions that control the operation of a computer system. are developed by computer programmers Computer Software Definition A series of detailed instructions that control the operation of a computer system. Software exists as programs that are developed by computer programmers Categories of software

More information

Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 1: Introduction What Operating Systems Do Computer-System Organization Computer-System Architecture Operating-System Structure Operating-System Operations Process Management

More information

Chapter 8 Virtual Memory

Chapter 8 Virtual Memory Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles Chapter 8 Virtual Memory Seventh Edition William Stallings Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles You re gonna need a bigger boat. Steven

More information

Operating System Review

Operating System Review COP 4225 Advanced Unix Programming Operating System Review Chi Zhang czhang@cs.fiu.edu 1 About the Course Prerequisite: COP 4610 Concepts and Principles Programming System Calls Advanced Topics Internals,

More information

(History of Computers) Lecture # 03 By: M.Nadeem Akhtar. Lecturer. URL:

(History of Computers) Lecture # 03 By: M.Nadeem Akhtar. Lecturer. URL: INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES. (History of Computers) Lecture # 03 By: M.. Lecturer. Department of CS & IT. URL: https://sites.google.com/site/nadeemcsuoliict/home/lectures 1

More information

Chapter Two Computer Types

Chapter Two Computer Types Chapter Two Computer Types 2-1 Microcomputers - Personal Computers Microcomputers sit on, beside or under a desk. They process data quickly and are designed for one user. The cost is relatively low, depending

More information

Chapter 3 Computer Software

Chapter 3 Computer Software Chapter 3 Computer Software Learning Objectives LO3.1: Explain system software and operating systems LO3.2: Identify operating systems for desktop PCs LO3.3: Identify operating systems for handheld PCs

More information

6. Under which of the following categories is a laptop computer classified? (1) Microcomputer (2) Minicomputer (3) Mainframe (4) Supercomputer

6. Under which of the following categories is a laptop computer classified? (1) Microcomputer (2) Minicomputer (3) Mainframe (4) Supercomputer General Certificate of Education (Ord.Level) Examination 2007 Information & Communication Technology I One hour Note: Answer all questions. In each of the questions 1 to 40 pick one of the alternatives

More information

History, Hardware, OS Concepts

History, Hardware, OS Concepts History, Hardware, OS Concepts 2016-05-11 7:40 PM Notice about Midterm/Final: Mostly composed of short answers. And few factorial recall questions. Could also ask you about the assignments. No sample Midterm

More information

OS concepts and structure. q OS components & interconnects q Structuring OSs q Next time: Processes

OS concepts and structure. q OS components & interconnects q Structuring OSs q Next time: Processes OS concepts and structure q OS components & interconnects q Structuring OSs q Next time: Processes OS Views Perspectives, OS as the services it provides its components and interactions Services to Users

More information

Chapter 2: System Structures

Chapter 2: System Structures Chapter 2: Operating System Structures Operating System Services System Calls Chapter 2: System Structures System Programs Operating System Design and Implementation Operating System Structure Virtual

More information

Chapter 4 The Components of the System Unit

Chapter 4 The Components of the System Unit Chapter 4 The Components of the System Unit Chapter 4 Objectives Differentiate among various styles of of system units Differentiate among the the various types of of memory Identify chips, adapter cards,

More information

COMPUTING A CONCISE HISTORY

COMPUTING A CONCISE HISTORY COMPUTING A CONCISE HISTORY A STUDY GUIDE BY JAKE MELARA FOR THE BOOK WRITTEN BY PAUL E. CERUZZI COMPUTING A CONCISE HISTORY A STUDY GUIDE BY JAKE MELARA FOR THE BOOK WRITTEN BY PAUL E. CERUZZI HELLO,

More information

Desktop Virtualization: What Windows Managers Should Know

Desktop Virtualization: What Windows Managers Should Know One of the biggest jobs for any Windows shop is managing client workstations. Using desktop virtualization can help make that job a little bit easier. This e-guide, from SearchVirtualDesktop.com, can help

More information

Operating Systems Lecture 1: Introduction to Operating Systems

Operating Systems Lecture 1: Introduction to Operating Systems Operating Systems 2230 Computer Science & Software Engineering Lecture 1: Introduction to Operating Systems An Introduction to Operating Systems What is an operating system? A piece of systems software

More information

Components of a personal computer

Components of a personal computer Components of a personal computer Computer systems ranging from a controller in a microwave oven to a large supercomputer contain components providing five functions. A typical personal computer has hard,

More information

Chapter 14 Operating Systems

Chapter 14 Operating Systems Chapter 14 Operating Systems Ref Page Slide 1/54 Learning Objectives In this chapter you will learn about: Definition and need for operating system Main functions of an operating system Commonly used mechanisms

More information

Objectives and Functions Convenience. William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 7 th Edition. Efficiency

Objectives and Functions Convenience. William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 7 th Edition. Efficiency William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 7 th Edition Chapter 8 Operating System Support Objectives and Functions Convenience Making the computer easier to use Efficiency Allowing better

More information

Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers

Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers Discovering Computers 2008 Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers Chapter 1 Objectives Recognize the importance of computer literacy Define the term, computer Identify the components of a computer Discuss

More information

3.1 (a) The Main Features of Operating Systems

3.1 (a) The Main Features of Operating Systems Chapter 3.1 The Functions of Operating Systems 3.1 (a) The Main Features of Operating Systems The operating system (OS) must provide and manage hardware resources as well as provide an interface between

More information

Computer science First Class Lecture 1

Computer science First Class Lecture 1 Historical Brief 1- The First Computer Man's need to handle data & information increases with the evaluation of society& with industrial development it was Blaise Pascal in 1647 who designed an adding

More information

Download from Powered By JbigDeaL

Download from  Powered By JbigDeaL 1. If a word is typed that is not in Word s dictionary, a wavy underline appears below the word. (A) red (B) green (C) blue (D) black 2. The button on the quick access Toolbar allows you to cancel your

More information

Contents. 1. Hardware Software Networks St Ignatius Girls JL - Form 3

Contents. 1. Hardware Software Networks St Ignatius Girls JL - Form 3 Contents 1. Hardware... 2 2. Software... 4 3. Networks... 5 St Ignatius Girls JL - Form 3 1. Hardware RAM - The RAM (Random Access Memory) within your computer is where the operating system is loaded to

More information

European University of Lefke. Instructor: Dr. Arif SARI

European University of Lefke. Instructor: Dr. Arif SARI European University of Lefke CIS 105 Operating Systems Instructor: Dr. Arif SARI Email: asari@eul.edu.tr Introduction 1.1 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2009 Chapter 1: Introduction, Silberschatz, Galvin

More information

CPS221 Lecture: Operating System Functions

CPS221 Lecture: Operating System Functions CPS221 Lecture: Operating System Functions Objectives last revised 6/23/10 1. To overview key hardware concepts 2. To iintroduce the process concept 3. To discuss the various kinds of functionality of

More information

Multiprocessor scheduling

Multiprocessor scheduling Chapter 10 Multiprocessor scheduling When a computer system contains multiple processors, a few new issues arise. Multiprocessor systems can be categorized into the following: Loosely coupled or distributed.

More information

Chapter 1 Basic Computer Organization

Chapter 1 Basic Computer Organization Chapter 1 Basic Computer Organization Course Outcome (CO) CO1 Explain the basic principles of modern computer systems organization Program Outcome (PO) PO1 Apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering

More information

2011 Francisco Delgadillo

2011 Francisco Delgadillo 1800 s: Analytical Engine Charles Babbage Dawn of Human Concept of Numbers Abacus 1642: Pascal s Machine 1880: Mechanical Tabulator Herman Hollerith 1674: Leibniz Calculating Machine 1911: Hollerith s

More information

UNIT 1. INTRODUCTION: COMPUTER & OPERATING SYSTEMS

UNIT 1. INTRODUCTION: COMPUTER & OPERATING SYSTEMS This document can be downloaded from www.chetanahegde.in with most recent updates. 1 UNIT 1. INTRODUCTION: COMPUTER & OPERATING SYSTEMS 1.1 BASIC ELEMENTS A computer consists of processor, memory and I/O

More information

1-1 Computer Structure

1-1 Computer Structure 1-1 Computer Structure Computer: A computer is a programmable, multiuse machine that accepts data-raw, fact and figures; processes, or manipulates it into information we can use, such as summaries, totals,

More information

Chapter 4 The Components of the System Unit

Chapter 4 The Components of the System Unit Chapter 4 The Components of the System Unit The System Unit What is the system unit? Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data Sometimes called the chassis p. 184 Fig.

More information

Computer Evolution. Computer Generation. The Zero Generation (3) Charles Babbage. First Generation- Time Line

Computer Evolution. Computer Generation. The Zero Generation (3) Charles Babbage. First Generation- Time Line Computer Generation Computer Evolution Budditha Hettige Department of Computer Science 1. Zeroth generation- Mechanical Computers (1642-1940) 2. First generation - Vacuum Tubes (1940-1955) 3. Second Generation

More information

Introduction to Operating Systems

Introduction to Operating Systems Introduction to Operating Systems Chapter 1 1.3 Chapter 1.5 1.9 Learning Outcomes High-level understand what is an operating system and the role it plays A high-level understanding of the structure of

More information

I. Ch 5 System Software

I. Ch 5 System Software I. Ch 5 System Software A. Competencies 1. Describe the differences between system software and application software 2. Discuss the four types of system software 3. Discuss the basic functions, features

More information

Fundamentals of Python: First Programs. Chapter 1: Introduction Modifications by Mr. Dave Clausen

Fundamentals of Python: First Programs. Chapter 1: Introduction Modifications by Mr. Dave Clausen Fundamentals of Python: First Programs Chapter 1: Introduction Modifications by Mr. Dave Clausen Objectives After completing this chapter, you will be able to: Describe the basic features of an algorithm

More information

This is a list of vocabulary related to information and communication technology. Coloque el significado en español sobre las líneas.

This is a list of vocabulary related to information and communication technology. Coloque el significado en español sobre las líneas. Tú Teacher de Inglés 1 0B This is a list of vocabulary related to information and communication technology. Coloque el significado en español sobre las líneas. Anti-virus software = - A program that finds

More information

Chapter 1 Computer System Overview

Chapter 1 Computer System Overview Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles Chapter 1 Computer System Overview Seventh Edition By William Stallings Course Outline & Marks Distribution Hardware Before mid Memory After mid Linux

More information

Chapter 8 & Chapter 9 Main Memory & Virtual Memory

Chapter 8 & Chapter 9 Main Memory & Virtual Memory Chapter 8 & Chapter 9 Main Memory & Virtual Memory 1. Various ways of organizing memory hardware. 2. Memory-management techniques: 1. Paging 2. Segmentation. Introduction Memory consists of a large array

More information

CS420: Operating Systems. OS Services & System Calls

CS420: Operating Systems. OS Services & System Calls OS Services & System Calls James Moscola Department of Engineering & Computer Science York College of Pennsylvania Based on Operating System Concepts, 9th Edition by Silberschatz, Galvin, Gagne Operating

More information

Introduction. JES Basics

Introduction. JES Basics Introduction The Job Entry Subsystem (JES) is a #11 IN A SERIES subsystem of the z/os operating system that is responsible for managing jobs. The two options for a job entry subsystem that can be used

More information